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AP Human Unit 1 Test

Unit 1 Human Geography Test
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Side ASide B
place
specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character
region
area of earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features
scale
relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole
space
refers to the physical gap or interval between two objects
connections
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
cartography
science of mapmaking
scale
relationship of a feature's size on a map to its actual size on earth
projection
scientific method of transferring locations on earths surface to a flat map
land ordinance of 1785
divided much of the country into a system of townshipd and ranges to facilitate the sale of land to settlers in the West
township
square 6 miles on each side
principal meridians
north south lines separating twnships
base lines
east west lines separating twnships
sections
township is divided into 36 sections 1 square mile
GIS
(geographic information system) computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data in layers
remote sensing
the finding of data about Earth's surface from a satellite or from other long-distance methods
GPS
(global positioning system) system determines accurately the precise position of something on Earth
location
position something occupies on Earth's surface
toponym
name given to a place on Earth
site
physical character of a place(i.e. climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, elevation)
situation
location of a place relative to other places 1) finding an unfamiliar place 2) understanding it's importance
meridian
arc between north and south poles. longitude.
parallel
circle drawn around globe parallel to equator. latitude.
prime meridian
meridian that passes through GMT at 0 degrees longitude
latitude
numbering system to indicate the location of a parallel
longitude
numbering system to indicate the location of a meridian
GMT
(Greenwich Mean Time) or 0 degrees longitude is master reference for all time zones. east= ahead west= behind
International Dateline
 follows 180 degree longitude you move clock back 24 hours going toward america
cultural landscape
combination of cultural features (language, region), economic features (agriculture, industry), physical features (climate, vegetation)
regional studies
each region has its own distinctive landscape that results from a unique combination of social relationships and physical processes
formal region
uniform/homogeneous region, is an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
functional region
nodal region, is an area organized around a node or focal point
vernacular region
place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
mental map
internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface
culture
body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social formas that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people
cultural ecology
geographic study of huuman-environment relationships
environmental determinism
The physical environment caused social development or where you lived affected who you were
possibilism
the human environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust their environment
resources
substances that are useful to people, economically and technologically feasable to access, and is socially acceptable to use
polder
piece of land that is created by draining the water from an area
globalization
force or process that involves the entire world and resuts in making something worldwide in scope
transnational corporation
conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters and principal shareholders are located
distribution
arrangement of a feature in space
density
frequency with which something occurs in space
arithmetic density
total # of objects in an area, is commonly used to compare the distribution of population in different countries
physiological density
# of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture
agricultural density
number of farmers per unit of farmland
concentration
event of a feature's spread over space
pattern
geometric arrangement of objects in space
space-time compression
reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place
distance decay
contact diminishes with increasing distance and eventually disappears
diffusion
process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another overtime
hearth
place from which an innovation originates
relocation diffusion
spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
expansion diffusion
spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process
hierarchical diffusion
spread of an idea persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
contagious diffusion
rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
stimulus diffusion
spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse
uneven development
increasing gap in economic conditions between regions in the core and periphery that results from the globalization of the economy


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