AP Biology Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

60 cards

These flashcards cover Chapter 10 from the Campell Biology AP Text. Cellular Representation is tested in this stack.


 
  
Created Nov 3, 2008
by
rachellaqua

 

 
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1
When do redox reactions release energy?
 
When electrons move closer to electronegative atoms.
2
What does respiration generally involve?
 
Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport
3
What does the Krebs cycle complete?
 
The energy-yielding oxidation of organic molecules.
4
What does the inner mitochondrial membrane do?
 
Couples electron transport to ATP synthesis.
5
What generates many ATP molecules for each sugar molecule it oxidizes?
 
Cellular respiration
6
What helps a cell systematically degrade complex organic molecules that are rich in potential...
 
Enzymes
7
Metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules are called..?
 
Catabolic Pathways
8
Which catabolic process is a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the help of...
 
Fermentation
9
Which catabolic pathway is most prevalent and efficient, and in which oxygen is consumed as...
 
Cellular Respiration
10
In eukaryotic cells, what houses most of the equipment for cellular repiration?
 
Mitochondria
11
What is the word equation for the overall process of Cellular Respiration?
 
Organic Compounds + Oxygen --> Carbon dioxide +Water+Energy
12
Into what does the C6H12O6 degrade ?
 
6CO2 6H20 and Energy (ATP+Heat)
13
What chemical drive shaft (the pivotal molecule in cellular energetics) links catabolism to...
 
ATP
14
What does ATP stand for?
 
Adnosine Triphosphate
15
When a cell taps triphosphate tail of ATP by using enzymes to transfer phosphate groups from...
 
Phosphorylation- primes a molecule to undergo some kind of change that performs work, and the...
16
What is the "price" of most cellular work?
 
The conversion of ATP to ADP and inorganic molecules.
17
What must a cell do to continue working?
 
Recycle ATP/ Regenerate ATP from ADP and inorganic molecules
18
Reactions that result in the transfer of one or more (e-) from one reactant to another are...
 
Oxidation-reduction reactions
19
Abrev. for Oxidation-reduction reactions
 
Redox Reactions
20
The loss of electrons is called...?
 
Oxidation
21
In a redox reaction what agent is the electron donor and electron acceptor?
 
Electron donor is the REDUCING AGENT Electron acceptor is the OXIDIZNG AGENT
22
The addition of electrons is called...?
 
Reduction
23
Glucose is oxidized, oxygen is reduced, and what happends to the potential energy of the electrons?
 
Electrons loose potential energy.
24
Why does the rich reservoir of electrons in a cell not spontaneously combine with O2?
 
They lack the activation energy.
25
What lowers the barrier of activation energy, allowing fuels to be oxidized slowly?
 
Enzymes
26
Does cellular respiration oxidize glucose in a single step? Explain.
 
No. Glucose and other fuels are broken down gradually in a series of steps, each catalyzed...
27
Dehydrogenase enzymes do what?
 
Strip two hydrogen atoms from the fuel (e.g., glucose), pass two electrons and one proton to...
28
When is energy is tapped to synthesize ATP?
 
As electrons “fall” from NADH to oxygen.
29
Cellular respiration uses an electron transport chain to..?
 
Break the fall of electrons to O2 into several steps.
30
Respiration occurs in three metabolic stages:
 
1) Glycolysis 2) Krebs cycle 3) e-transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
31
What occurs in the cytosol, begins the degradation by breaking glucose into two molecules of...
 
Glycolysis
32
Which takes place within the mitochondrial matrix, completes the job by composing a deribative...
 
Krebs Cycle
33
Are some of the steps of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle redox reactions from NAD+ to NADH?
 
Yes
34
The energy released at each step of the chain is sotred in a form the mitochondrion can use...
 
Oxidative phosphorylation
35
Oxidtaive phosphorylation accounts for what percent of ATP generated by repiration?
 
90%
36
What is substrate-level phosphorylation?
 
Mode of ATP synthess that occurs when an enzye transfers a phosphate group from a substrate...
37
How does glycolysis harvest chemical energy?
 
It begins catabolism by breaking glucose into two molecules of pyruvate.
38
Glycolysis occurs in the...?
 
Cytoplasm
39
The Krebs cycle occurs in the..?
 
Mitochondrial matrix.
40
The Krebs cycle degrades pyruvate to...?
 
Carbon Dioxide.
41
What does ATP synthase do?
 
This enzyme actually makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
42
During glycolysis, glucose, a six carbon-sugar, is split into..?
 
Two, three-carbon sugars
43
Each of the ten steps in glycolysis is catalyzed by a specific..?
 
Enzyme
44
Glycolysis can be divided into two phases..?
 
an energy investment phase and an energy payoff phase.
45
The net yield from glycolysis is... ?
 
2 ATP and 2 NADH per glucose.
46
CO2 is not produced in glycolysis?
 
True
47
Glycolysis occurs whether O2 is present or not?
 
True
48
The Krebs cycle is named after __________ who was largely responsible for elucidating its...
 
Hans Krebs 1930's
49
The conversion of pyruvate and the Krebs cycle produces large quantities of ...?
 
Electron Carriers
50
What is the cristae?
 
The inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
51
Does The electron transport chain generates ATP directly?
 
NO!
52
What is the function of the Electron Transport chain in Respiration?
 
Break the large free energy drop from food to oxygen into a series of smaller steps that release...
53
How much ATP is generated in each of the Metabolic stages of Respiration
 
Glycolysis 2 ATP Krebs Cycle 2 ATP Electron Transport chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation...
54
Fermenation enables some cells to produce ATP without the help of...?
 
Oxygen
55
Anaerobic catabolism of organic nutrients can occur by what?
 
Fermentation
56
In _____ fermentation, pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps?
 
Alcohol
57
During __________ fermentation, pyruvate is directly reduced by NADH to form lactate as a waste...
 
Lactic Acid
58
Human muscle cells make ATP by lactic acid fermentation when...?
 
Oxygen is scarce.
59
Is Cellular respiration remarkably efficient in energy conversion?
 
Yes
60
Electrons "fall" from organic molecules to oxygen during...?
 
Cellular respiration

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