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Side ASide B
The alimentary canal of a living person is longer or shorter than a cadaver? Why?
Shorter, due to muscle tone
What are the accessory digestive organs? (3) What are the accessory digestive glands? (3)
Organs: Teeth, tongue, gall bladder Glands: Pancreas, Liver, Salivary Glands
Which of the accessory glands/organs lie outside the GI tract?
Gall bladder and all the glands (pancreas, liver, salivary)
the processing of food involves what 6 essential activities?
Ingestion, Propulsion, Mechanical Digestion, Chemical Digestion, Absorption, and Defecation
Propulsion process of alternating waves of contraction and relaxation
What are the 4 parts of Mechanical Digestion?
Chewing (Teeth), Mixing (Tongue), Churning (Stomach), Segmentation (Sm. Intestines)
Rhythmic local constrictions of the small intestines that mixes food with digestive juices, increasing the efficiency by different food parts over the intestinal walls
Series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are broken down by enzymes beginning in the mouth and essentially ending in the small intestines
What is the major absorptive site?
passage of digested end products from the lumen through mucosal cells and into the blood via active or passive transport
Elimination of indigestible substances
only the ______ ingests and only the _____ defecates
Mouth / Large Intestines
Name one organ in the alimentary canal found in the thorax
What is the usual site of ingestion?
Mouth (in a healthy person)
What essential digestive activity actually moves nutrients from the outside to the inside of the body?
burning, radiating substernal pain that occurs when acidic gastric juice regurgitates into the esophagus
Heartburn is the first symptom of __________
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Obesity, pregnancy, running, and eating/drinking to excess can all lead to ___________
Heartburn for runners
A structural abnormality most often due to an abnormal relaxation or weakening of the gastroesophageal sphincter which causes the superior part of the stomach to protrude slightly above...
Hiatal hernias are a common cause of ________
when a hiatal hernia allows gastric juices to enter the esophagus, this can occur (in sequential order of direness) (3)
Esophagitis / Esophageal Ulcers / Esophageal Cancer
How can one avoid or prevent Hiatal Hernias?
Avoid late-night snacks and use antacids
Inflammation of the stomach wall
Persistent damage to the underlying tissues within the stomach can promote _______ (2 names)
Peptic Ulcers or Gastric Ulcers (when in stomach)
The danger posed by ulcers is ________ followed by _________, and perhaps ________
Perforation of Stomach wall / Peritonitis / Massive Hemorrhage
Symptoms include gnawing epigastric pain that seems to bore through your back
NSAID stands for ________
NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (such as Ibuprofen)
For years the cause of ulcers was thought to be from __________, which cause high acid or low mucos secretion
Alcohol, Aspirin, Coffee, NSAIDs, Smoking, Spicy Food, Stress
90% of ulcers are the work of this corkscrew-shaped bacteria
of the people infected with Helicobacter Pylori, what % are infected with ulcers. What protects the rest?
10-20%..... with 80-90% protected by antimicrobial activity of gastric mucin.
Glycoprotein constituent of Gastric Mucus that protects against Helicobacter Pylori in 80-90% of individuals
What evidences seems to disprove the bacterial causal theory of Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Ulcers?
It is found in 50% of healthy people too.
How do chemicals help Helicobacter Pylori do their 'dirty work' ? (4)
1. lower HCL production/release Ammonia (neutralizer) 2. Cytotoxin that damages epithelium 3. Proteins that damage adhesion of epithelium cells to each other 4. ...
Detection of H. Pylori is done how?
How is Helicobacter Pylori treated?
Two-week course of antibiotics, and anti-Histamines to block Histamine's inflammatory effects.
Non-infectious ulcers are caused by what? and treated how?
Long-term use of NSAIDs and treated with H2 blockers (Tagamet or Zantac)
What structural modification of the stomach wall underlies the stomach's ability to mechanically digest food?
3 layers of smooth muscles (in different directions) that pummel food
2 substances secreted by cells of the gastric glands are needed to produce the active enzyme Pepsin.
Pepsinogen and HCl (to activate it)
What 3 characteristics make the mucousal barrier so effective?
Thick Alkalai Mucus & Tight junctions & Quick replacement of Dead/Dying Epithelial cells of mucosa
what is the major vehicle for cholesterol excretion from the body?
What keeps cholesterol dissolved for elimination?
Too few bile salts or not enough bile leads to what?
Cholesterol crystalization or Gallstones
Cholesterol Crystalization is known as
the medical term for Gallstones
Treatments for Gallstones (4)
Drugs (dissolving) / Ultrasound (Pulverizing) / Lasers (Vaporizing) / Surgery (removal)
Medical term for Ultrasound treatment of Gallstones
What happens with a gallstone? How/ Where does it cause pain
blocks bile duct preventing bile salts and bile pigments from entering intestine. When bladder/duct contract, sharp crystals cause pain that radiates to right thoracic region.
result of gallstones which causes yellow bile pigment to accumulate in the skin
yellow pigment deposited in the skin is considered to be ____, and can be a sign of what two conditions?
Jaundiced / Gallstones or Liver Disease
Enzyme needed for digestion of Lactose
What causes dificiency of intestinal lactase in some people when it is present at birth?
Lactose intollerance causes what to occur in the digestive tract? (2)
1. Osmotic gradients that prevent water absorption and pulls water from interstitial space INTO intestines resulting in diarrhea. 2. Bacterial metabolism of undigested lactose...
How do you treat Lactose Intollerance?
Introduce Lactase (drops or tablets)
bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain can be a sign of what two malabsorption syndromes?
Lactose Intollerance or Gluten-sensitive Enteropathy (Celiac Disease)
An Immune system reaction to gluten where complexes activate T Cells which attack the intestinal lining. (2 names)
Gluten-sensitive Enteropathy or Celiac Disease