A&P 2 Quiz 3 \"Digestive System\" Review

56 cards

Review


 
  
Created Nov 2, 2012
by
rartsch

 

 
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  Side A   Side B
1
The alimentary canal of a living person is longer or shorter than a cadaver?  Why?
 
Shorter,  due to muscle tone
2
What are the accessory digestive organs? (3) What are the accessory digestive glands? ...
 
Organs:  Teeth, tongue, gall bladder
Glands:  Pancreas, Liver, Salivary Glands
3
Which of the accessory glands/organs lie outside the GI tract?
 
Gall bladder and all the glands (pancreas, liver, salivary)
4
the processing of food involves what 6 essential activities?
 
Ingestion, Propulsion, Mechanical Digestion, Chemical Digestion, Absorption, and Defecation
5
Propulsion process of alternating waves of contraction and relaxation
 
Peristalsis
6
What are the 4 parts of Mechanical Digestion?
 
Chewing (Teeth), Mixing (Tongue), Churning (Stomach), Segmentation (Sm. Intestines)
7
Rhythmic local constrictions of the small intestines that mixes food with digestive juices,...
 
Segmentation
8
Series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are broken down by enzymes beginning...
 
Chemical Digestion
9
What is the major absorptive site?
 
Small Intestines
10
passage of digested end products from the lumen through mucosal cells and into the blood via...
 
Absorption
11
Elimination of indigestible substances
 
Defecation
12
only the ______ ingests and only the _____ defecates
 
Mouth / Large Intestines
13
Name one organ in the alimentary canal found in the thorax
 
Esophagus
14
What is the usual site of ingestion?
 
Mouth (in a healthy person)
15
What essential digestive activity actually moves nutrients from the outside to the inside of...
 
Absorption
16
burning, radiating substernal pain that occurs when acidic gastric juice regurgitates into...
 
Heartburn
17
Heartburn is the first symptom of __________
 
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
18
Obesity, pregnancy, running, and eating/drinking to excess can all lead to ___________
 
Heartburn
19
Heartburn for runners
 
Runner's Reflux
20
A structural abnormality most often due to an abnormal relaxation or weakening of the gastroesophageal...
 
Hiatal Hernia
21
Hiatal hernias are a common cause of ________
 
Heartburn
22
when a hiatal hernia allows gastric juices to enter the esophagus, this can occur (in sequential...
 
Esophagitis  / Esophageal Ulcers /  Esophageal Cancer
23
How can one avoid or prevent Hiatal Hernias?
 
Avoid late-night snacks and use antacids
24
Inflammation of the stomach wall
 
Gastritis
25
Persistent damage to the underlying tissues within the stomach can promote _______ (2 names)
 
Peptic Ulcers or Gastric Ulcers (when in stomach)
26
The danger posed by ulcers is ________ followed by _________, and perhaps ________
 
Perforation of Stomach wall / Peritonitis / Massive Hemorrhage
27
Symptoms include gnawing epigastric pain that seems to bore through your back
 
Gastric Ulcers
28
NSAID stands for ________
 
NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (such as Ibuprofen)
29
For years the cause of ulcers was thought to be from __________, which cause high acid or low...
 
Alcohol, Aspirin, Coffee, NSAIDs, Smoking, Spicy Food, Stress
30
90% of ulcers are the work of this corkscrew-shaped bacteria
 
Helicobacter Pylori
31
of the people infected with Helicobacter Pylori, what % are infected with ulcers.  What...
 
10-20%..... with 80-90% protected by antimicrobial activity of gastric mucin.
32
Mucin
 
Glycoprotein constituent of Gastric Mucus that protects against Helicobacter Pylori in 80-90%...
33
What evidences seems to disprove the bacterial causal theory of Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric...
 
It is found in 50% of healthy people too.
34
How do chemicals help Helicobacter Pylori do their 'dirty work' ?  (4)
 
1.  lower HCL production/release Ammonia (neutralizer)
2.  Cytotoxin that damages...
35
Detection of H. Pylori is done how?
 
Breath Test
36
How is Helicobacter Pylori treated?
 
Two-week course of antibiotics,  and anti-Histamines to block Histamine's inflammatory...
37
Non-infectious ulcers are caused by what?  and treated how?
 
Long-term use of NSAIDs and treated with H2 blockers (Tagamet or Zantac)
38
What structural modification of the stomach wall underlies the stomach's ability to mechanically...
 
3 layers of smooth muscles (in different directions) that pummel food
39
2 substances secreted by cells of the gastric glands are needed to produce the active enzyme...
 
Pepsinogen and HCl (to activate it)
40
What 3 characteristics make the mucousal barrier so effective?
 
Thick Alkalai Mucus & Tight junctions & Quick replacement of Dead/Dying Epithelial...
41
what is the major vehicle for cholesterol excretion from the body?
 
Bile
42
What keeps cholesterol dissolved for elimination?
 
Bile Salts
43
Too few bile salts or not enough bile leads to what?
 
Cholesterol crystalization or Gallstones
44
Cholesterol Crystalization is known as
 
Gallstones
45
the medical term for Gallstones
 
Biliary Calculi
46
Treatments for Gallstones (4)
 
Drugs (dissolving) / Ultrasound (Pulverizing) / Lasers (Vaporizing) / Surgery (removal)
47
Medical term for Ultrasound treatment of Gallstones
 
Lithotripsy
48
What happens with a gallstone?  How/ Where does it cause pain
 
blocks bile duct preventing bile salts and bile pigments from entering intestine.  ...
49
result of gallstones which causes yellow bile pigment to accumulate in the skin
 
Obstructive Jaundice
50
yellow pigment deposited in the skin is considered to be ____, and can be a sign of what two...
 
Jaundiced  /  Gallstones or Liver Disease
51
Enzyme needed for digestion of Lactose
 
lactase
52
What causes dificiency of intestinal lactase in some people when it is present at birth?
 
Genetic factors
53
Lactose intollerance causes what to occur in the digestive tract? (2)
 
1.  Osmotic gradients that prevent water absorption and pulls water from interstitial...
54
How do you treat Lactose Intollerance?
 
Introduce Lactase (drops or tablets)
55
bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain can be a sign of what two malabsorption syndromes?
 
Lactose Intollerance or Gluten-sensitive Enteropathy (Celiac Disease)
56
An Immune system reaction to gluten where complexes activate T Cells which attack the intestinal...
 
Gluten-sensitive Enteropathy or Celiac Disease


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