Anthropology Quiz

40 cards

Flashcards are based on the first farmers, cities and state, adaptive strategies, means of production, families, kinship, descent, and marriage.


 
  
Created Nov 19, 2009
by
xxxtetyanaxxx

 

 
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1
Broad-spectrum Revolution
 
foraging varied plant and animal foods at end of ice age; prelude to Neolithic
2
Neolithic Revolution: 
 
New Stone Age;” grind and polish stone tools and early domestication; the first cultural...
3
Highland plateau: 
 
grasses, top of the hill
4
Hilly flanks
 
: subtropical woodland; Garden of Eden
5
Lowland steppe
 
: dry soil; treeless plain
6
Alluvial plain:
 
hot; watered by rivers
7
Food production started in the 
 
hilly flanks
8
Sedentism:
 
settled, sedentary life; developed before farming and herding in the Middle East
9
The change from foraging to food production developed... indepedently or with other cultures?
 
independently: in at least seven world areas, though with different crops and animals. 
10
Clovis:
 
an early American tool tradition; projectile point attached to a hunting spear; only lasted...
11
Haplogroup
 
: a lineage marked by one or more specific genetic mutations. 
12
the most significant contrast between Old and New World food production. 
 
Animal domestication. It was much more important in the Old World 
13
State:
 
society with central government, administrative specialization, and social classes.
14
Multivariate: 
 
involving multiple factors causes, or variables.
15
empires: 
 
mature states that are large, multiethnic, militaristic, and expansive. 
16
Egalitarian society:

 
society with rudimentary status distinctions; most typical in foraging economy; made up bands...
17
Ranked societies:
 
society with hereditary inequality but lacking social stratification; most typical in horticultural,...
18
Stratification: 
 
presence of social divisions (strata) with unequal wealth and power; most typical in agricultural...
19
Settlement hierarchy:

 
communities with varying size, function, and building types
20
Chiefdom:
 
ranked society with two- or three-level settlement hierarchy
21
Primary states: 
 
states arising through competition among chiefdoms
22
Cuneiform: 
 
early Mesopotamian wedge style writing, using stylus on clay
23
The shape of early states was...
 
a pyramid.
24
Adaptive strategy:

Name them.
 
means of making a living,

(foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism, and industrialism)
25
Common feature among foraging communities: 
 
people rely on available natural resources for their subsistence, rather than controlling the...
26
bands: 
 
basic social units usually fewer than 100 people which may split seasonally; foragers
27
Horticulture (shifting cultivation): 
 
a nonindustrial plant cultivation with fallowing; uses simple tools and their fields are not...
28
Agriculture: 
 
cultivation using land and labor continuously and intensively. Use animals, irrigation and...
29
The advantage of agriculture over horticulture is that...
 
the long term yield per area is far greater and more dependable.
30
Cultivation continuum: 
 
a continuum of land and labor use; horticulture stands at the low-labor shifting-plot end...
31
The key difference between horticulture and agriculture is that 
 
horticulture always uses a fallow period while agriculture doesn’t. 
32
Pastoralists: 
 
herders of domesticated animals; live in symbiosis with their herds; confined to the Old World
33
-Pastoral nomadism:

 
annual movement of entire pastoral group with herds
34
-transhumance: 
 
only part of population moves seasonally with herds; those that stay in the village live off...
35
Economy:

 
a system of resource production, distribution, and consumption of resources
36
Mode of production: 
 
specific set of social relations that organizes labor
37
Economizing:


 
rational allocation of scarce resources among alternative uses 
38
Peasant:
 
small-scale farmer with rent fund obligations; they live in state organized societies and...
39
The nuclear family consists of...
 
parents and children, normally living together in the same household. 
40
Descent groups: 
 
consist of lineages and clans who claim a common ancestry; they are basic units in the social...

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