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Side ASide B
foraging varied plant and animal foods at end of ice age; prelude to Neolithic
New Stone Age;” grind and polish stone tools and early domestication; the first cultural period with first signs of domestication are present
grasses, top of the hill
: subtropical woodland; Garden of Eden
: dry soil; treeless plain
hot; watered by rivers
Food production started in the
settled, sedentary life; developed before farming and herding in the Middle East
The change from foraging to food production developed... indepedently or with other cultures?
independently: in at least seven world areas, though with different crops and animals.
an early American tool tradition; projectile point attached to a hunting spear; only lasted for 450 years
: a lineage marked by one or more specific genetic mutations.
the most significant contrast between Old and New World food production.
Animal domestication. It was much more important in the Old World
society with central government, administrative specialization, and social classes.
involving multiple factors causes, or variables.
mature states that are large, multiethnic, militaristic, and expansive.
society with rudimentary status distinctions; most typical in foraging economy; made up bands and tribes; only distinguish between age, gender, and individual qualities
society with hereditary inequality but lacking social stratification; most typical in horticultural, pastoral, and some foraging economies; made up of chiefdoms and some tribes
presence of social divisions (strata) with unequal wealth and power; most typical in agricultural economies; made up of states
communities with varying size, function, and building types
ranked society with two- or three-level settlement hierarchy
states arising through competition among chiefdoms
early Mesopotamian wedge style writing, using stylus on clay
The shape of early states was...
Adaptive strategy:Name them.
means of making a living, (foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism, and industrialism)
Common feature among foraging communities:
people rely on available natural resources for their subsistence, rather than controlling the reproduction of plants and animals
basic social units usually fewer than 100 people which may split seasonally; foragers
Horticulture (shifting cultivation):
a nonindustrial plant cultivation with fallowing; uses simple tools and their fields are not permanently cultivated; often involves slash-and-burn techniques
cultivation using land and labor continuously and intensively. Use animals, irrigation and terracing.
The advantage of agriculture over horticulture is that...
the long term yield per area is far greater and more dependable.
a continuum of land and labor use; horticulture stands at the low-labor shifting-plot end while agriculturalists stand at the labor-intensive permanent-plot end.
The key difference between horticulture and agriculture is that
horticulture always uses a fallow period while agriculture doesn’t.
herders of domesticated animals; live in symbiosis with their herds; confined to the Old World
annual movement of entire pastoral group with herds
only part of population moves seasonally with herds; those that stay in the village live off of horticulture
a system of resource production, distribution, and consumption of resources
Mode of production:
specific set of social relations that organizes labor
rational allocation of scarce resources among alternative uses
small-scale farmer with rent fund obligations; they live in state organized societies and produce food without the elaborate technology. Their rent fund is their main concern and...
The nuclear family consists of...
parents and children, normally living together in the same household.
consist of lineages and clans who claim a common ancestry; they are basic units in the social organization of nonindustrial food producers