Anthropology Exam 1

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Created Sep 21, 2010
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brittani_bearb

 

 
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1
Ontology
 
Who are we? Where do we come from? Why are we here?
2
History of Evolutionary Though
 
Greeks
3
Plato
 

- materialistic explaination of creation

- nature is physical matter moving...

4
Aristotle
 

- dev. methods for study of nature, ethics, and politics

- Taxonomy of Nature

-...

5
Medieval Paradigm
 

- reconcile Aristotle and Genesis

- life created by God

- life is fixed and...

6
Who were scholars of Middle Ages?
 
monks
7
6 Ideas of Middle Ages
 

1. world is of recent origin

2. world is in a state of degeneratin

3. feudalism...

8
Michelangelo's David (1504)
 

- defense of civic liverties embodied in the Florentine Republic

- symbol of thinking

9
Tenents of the Enlightenment
 

- DOI is made

- Progress

- Rational Thought

10
Empiricalism
 

- explain nature with Natural Law instead of Holy Scripture

- Scientific Method

11
Carolus Linnaeus
 

- latinized name

-wrote Systema Naturae

- taxonomy: classification...

12
George Leclerc Buffon
 

- wrote Natural History (44 volumes)

1. species will change as a result of adaptation...

13
Baron George Leopold Cuvier
 

- saw evidence for creation

- change in form will render it incapable of survival

-...

14
Erasmus Darwin
 

- Charles' grandfather

- wrote Zoonomia

- transformism:...

15
Boucher de Perthes
 

- found man-made stones along with fossils

- people at this time thought animals...

16
Jean Baptist de Lamarck
 

- NO Fixity of Species

- Inheritance of Acquired Traits:

(1) all organisms...

17
Charles Lyell
 

- father of Geology

- uniformitarianism: geologic forces that shape the...

18
Charles Darwin
 

- 5 year voyage on HMS Beagle (Galapagos Finches)

- read/ studied Lyell and Malthus

-...

19
Thomas Malthus
 

- Competition!! (among organisms)

- pop. increases geometrically; food supply expands...

20
4 reasons Darwin would not publish his theory of NS
 

(1) reputation and honor

(2) wife was religious woman even though he was not a religious...

21
Alfred Russel Wallace
 

- sent saay (similar to Darwin's theory of NS) to Darwin for review

- Lyell presented...

22
The unit of Natural Selection is the _______.
 
Individual
23
The unit of Evolution is the _______.
 
Population
24
Allison Jolly
 

- other view of NS

- why not cooperation/ compasion instead of cut-throat competition

25
Rick Potts
 

- other view of NS

- one species is in a lot of different env., etc.

26
Arguments for Evolution (5)
 

(1) Geographic Clustering

(2) Rudimentary Organs

(3) Geographic Distribution

(4)...

27
Evolution
 
change in genetic structure of a population
28
Species
 
group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
29
Population
 
group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area
30
Gene Pool
 
total complement of genes shared by reproductive member of a population
31
Gene
 
chunks of genetic material, composed of DNA sequences
32
Alleles
 
- alternate form of a gene - Alleles at same locus on paired chromosome govern same trait
33
Genotype
 
genetic makeup of an individual
34
Phenotype
 
observable traits
35
Hardy-Weinburg Equilibrium Model
 
- no change in population genetics (1) large pop w/ many variations (2) no movement in or...
36
Microevolution
 
(1) mutation - ultimate source of genetic variation; random/spontaneous; sex cells (2)...
37
Macroevolution
 
- evolutionary change above the level of species - speciation/ cladogenesis (splitting in...
38
Phylogeny
 
three showing evolutionary relationships
39
Clade
 
diagram showing members who share homologous features derived from a common ancestor
40
Homologies
 
similar characteristics due to relatedness and inherited from common ancestors (1) Anatomy,...
41
Speciation
 
- lineage-splitting event - produces one/more sep. species - 3 causes: (1) Geographic Isolation,...
42
Evolution is a _____, _____ change
 
slow, gradual - upward movement on lineage
43
punctuated equilibrium
 
species in statis/equilibrium for long periods of time followed by short, rapid periods of...
44
Primate
 
"of first rank" -2 major suborders: (1) Prosimians - "before monkeys" - Lemurs,...
45
Strepsirhimi Characteristics
 
-wet, naked, glandular nostrils - Lemurs and Lorises
46
Haplorhini Characteristics
 
- dry nose, better eye sight, larger brain - Tarsiers, Monkeys, Apes, and Humans
47
Primate Characteristics
 
(1) well dev. vision (2) diurnal (active during day) (3) diverse modes of locomotion (4)...
48
Suborder: Prosimii
 
Lemur, Lorises, Tarsiers
49
Suborder: Anthropoidea
 
Monkeys, Apes, Humans
50
Platyrrhini
 
- New World Monkeys - flat nose, good vision, arboreal (trees), extra premolar, prehensile...
51
Catarrhini
 
- Old World Monkeys - terrestrial and arboreal, sharp nose, omnivore, tails but NOT prehensile,...
52
Superfamily: Hominoidea
 
(1) Lesser Apes (2) Great Apes (3) Humans - no tails, doubled brain size (from monkeys),...
53
Are lesser apes in Africa?
 
No
54
Gibbon
 
- SE Asia - unique ball/socket joint - masters of brachiation; 35 mph through trees - vocal,...
55
Siamangs
 
twice the size of gibbons
56
Great Apes
 
(1) Orangutans (SE Asia) (2) Gorillas (Africa) (3) Chimpanzees (Africa)
57
Orangutans
 
- forest man; intelligent - 2 species: Sumatra & Borneo - endangered; most do not live to...
58
Gorillas
 
- Central Africa - 2 Species: Mountain (dark and thick hair) and Western Lowlands (grey and...
59
2009
 
year of the Gorilla
60
Chimpanzees
 
- Africa - 2 species - live in diverse env; arboreal and terrestrial quadrupeds - MEAT,...
61
Bonobos
 
- middle part down hair - mainly vegetarians - egalitarian - matriarchal - constant sexual...
62
Family Hominidae
 
- world- wide, erect posture, bipdal locomotion, tool dependence, large brains, live in groups,...
63
Why be social?
 
- protection from predators - ability to better comete for resources
64
What is the basic unit of primate society?
 
-mother and infants - childhood is a learning and socialization period - allomothering, assistance...
65
Harlow's experiment
 
- infant preferred cloth mother over milk mother - infants raised without contact with mothers...
66
What factors affects social groupings?
 
- kinship and rules of dispersal
67
Gelada baboons
 
- males disperse, females stay in natal groups, males are twice as large and much more colorful...
68
Hamadryas baboons
 
- females disperse and males stay in natal groups, males dominate up to 11 females at a time...
69
How is order maintained in the social group? (3 ways)
 
(1) Dominance Hierchary - by means of status (age, sex, relatives, strength, motivation,...
70
Why is there aggression and violence among primates?
 
maintain status, competition over food, territoriality, competition over mates
71
Why do males attack females?
 
Feeding competition, redirected anger, unprovoked (superiority), sexual coercion
72
Female counter strategies
 
female female coalitions, female makes friends with another male for protection

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