Anthropology Exam 1

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Created Sep 21, 2010
by brittani_bearb
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Ontology
Who are we? Where do we come from? Why are we here?
History of Evolutionary Though
Greeks
Plato
- materialistic explaination of creation - nature is physical matter moving in accordance...
Aristotle
- dev. methods for study of nature, ethics, and politics - Taxonomy of Nature - Fixity of...
Medieval Paradigm
- reconcile Aristotle and Genesis - life created by God - life is fixed and unchanging...
Who were scholars of Middle Ages?
monks
6 Ideas of Middle Ages
1. world is of recent origin 2. world is in a state of degeneratin 3. feudalism ends, tade...
Michelangelo's David (1504)
- defense of civic liverties embodied in the Florentine Republic - symbol of thinking
Tenents of the Enlightenment
- DOI is made - Progress - Rational Thought
Empiricalism
- explain nature with Natural Law instead of Holy Scripture - Scientific Method
Carolus Linnaeus
- latinized name -wrote Systema Naturae - taxonomy: classification of all...
George Leclerc Buffon
- wrote Natural History (44 volumes) 1. species will change as a result of adaptation to new...
Baron George Leopold Cuvier
- saw evidence for creation - change in form will render it incapable of survival - Law...
Erasmus Darwin
- Charles' grandfather - wrote Zoonomia - transformism: alternative to creationism...
Boucher de Perthes
- found man-made stones along with fossils - people at this time thought animals and people...
Jean Baptist de Lamarck
- NO Fixity of Species - Inheritance of Acquired Traits: (1) all organisms have life forces...
Charles Lyell
- father of Geology - uniformitarianism: geologic forces that shape the Earth today,...
Charles Darwin
- 5 year voyage on HMS Beagle (Galapagos Finches) - read/ studied Lyell and Malthus - gentleman...
Thomas Malthus
- Competition!! (among organisms) - pop. increases geometrically; food supply expands linearly...
4 reasons Darwin would not publish his theory of NS
(1) reputation and honor (2) wife was religious woman even though he was not a religious man (3)...
Alfred Russel Wallace
- sent saay (similar to Darwin's theory of NS) to Darwin for review - Lyell presented both...
The unit of Natural Selection is the _______.
Individual
The unit of Evolution is the _______.
Population
Allison Jolly
- other view of NS - why not cooperation/ compasion instead of cut-throat competition
Rick Potts
- other view of NS - one species is in a lot of different env., etc.
Arguments for Evolution (5)
(1) Geographic Clustering (2) Rudimentary Organs (3) Geographic Distribution (4) Fossil...
Evolution
change in genetic structure of a population
Species
group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Population
group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area
Gene Pool
total complement of genes shared by reproductive member of a population
Gene
chunks of genetic material, composed of DNA sequences
Alleles
- alternate form of a gene - Alleles at same locus on paired chromosome govern same trait
Genotype
genetic makeup of an individual
Phenotype
observable traits
Hardy-Weinburg Equilibrium Model
- no change in population genetics (1) large pop w/ many variations (2) no movement in or...
Microevolution
(1) mutation - ultimate source of genetic variation; random/spontaneous; sex cells (2)...
Macroevolution
- evolutionary change above the level of species - speciation/ cladogenesis (splitting in...
Phylogeny
three showing evolutionary relationships
Clade
diagram showing members who share homologous features derived from a common ancestor
Homologies
similar characteristics due to relatedness and inherited from common ancestors (1) Anatomy,...
Speciation
- lineage-splitting event - produces one/more sep. species - 3 causes: (1) Geographic Isolation,...
Evolution is a _____, _____ change
slow, gradual - upward movement on lineage
punctuated equilibrium
species in statis/equilibrium for long periods of time followed by short, rapid periods of...
Primate
"of first rank" -2 major suborders: (1) Prosimians - "before monkeys" - Lemurs,...
Strepsirhimi Characteristics
-wet, naked, glandular nostrils - Lemurs and Lorises
Haplorhini Characteristics
- dry nose, better eye sight, larger brain - Tarsiers, Monkeys, Apes, and Humans
Primate Characteristics
(1) well dev. vision (2) diurnal (active during day) (3) diverse modes of locomotion (4)...
Suborder: Prosimii
Lemur, Lorises, Tarsiers
Suborder: Anthropoidea
Monkeys, Apes, Humans
Platyrrhini
- New World Monkeys - flat nose, good vision, arboreal (trees), extra premolar, prehensile...
Catarrhini
- Old World Monkeys - terrestrial and arboreal, sharp nose, omnivore, tails but NOT prehensile,...
Superfamily: Hominoidea
(1) Lesser Apes (2) Great Apes (3) Humans - no tails, doubled brain size (from monkeys),...
Are lesser apes in Africa?
No
Gibbon
- SE Asia - unique ball/socket joint - masters of brachiation; 35 mph through trees - vocal,...
Siamangs
twice the size of gibbons
Great Apes
(1) Orangutans (SE Asia) (2) Gorillas (Africa) (3) Chimpanzees (Africa)
Orangutans
- forest man; intelligent - 2 species: Sumatra & Borneo - endangered; most do not live to...
Gorillas
- Central Africa - 2 Species: Mountain (dark and thick hair) and Western Lowlands (grey and...
2009
year of the Gorilla
Chimpanzees
- Africa - 2 species - live in diverse env; arboreal and terrestrial quadrupeds - MEAT,...
Bonobos
- middle part down hair - mainly vegetarians - egalitarian - matriarchal - constant sexual...
Family Hominidae
- world- wide, erect posture, bipdal locomotion, tool dependence, large brains, live in groups,...
Why be social?
- protection from predators - ability to better comete for resources
What is the basic unit of primate society?
-mother and infants - childhood is a learning and socialization period - allomothering, assistance...
Harlow's experiment
- infant preferred cloth mother over milk mother - infants raised without contact with mothers...
What factors affects social groupings?
- kinship and rules of dispersal
Gelada baboons
- males disperse, females stay in natal groups, males are twice as large and much more colorful...
Hamadryas baboons
- females disperse and males stay in natal groups, males dominate up to 11 females at a time...
How is order maintained in the social group? (3 ways)
(1) Dominance Hierchary - by means of status (age, sex, relatives, strength, motivation,...
Why is there aggression and violence among primates?
maintain status, competition over food, territoriality, competition over mates
Why do males attack females?
Feeding competition, redirected anger, unprovoked (superiority), sexual coercion
Female counter strategies
female female coalitions, female makes friends with another male for protection

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