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Who are we? Where do we come from? Why are we here?
History of Evolutionary Though
- materialistic explaination of creation - nature is physical matter moving in accordance to natural laws - God= remote creator of primordial matter and laws of motion...
- dev. methods for study of nature, ethics, and politics - Taxonomy of Nature - Fixity of Species - life is fixed and unchanging
- reconcile Aristotle and Genesis - life created by God - life is fixed and unchanging (Aristotle)
Who were scholars of Middle Ages?
6 Ideas of Middle Ages
1. world is of recent origin 2. world is in a state of degeneratin 3. feudalism ends, tade and commerce begins (dev of Middle Class) 4. Arabic science and spread of literacy 5....
Michelangelo's David (1504)
- defense of civic liverties embodied in the Florentine Republic - symbol of thinking
Tenents of the Enlightenment
- DOI is made - Progress - Rational Thought
- explain nature with Natural Law instead of Holy Scripture - Scientific Method
- latinized name -wrote Systema Naturae - taxonomy: classification of all living things 1. class: mammals, 2. order: promates, 3. genus: homo, 4. species:...
George Leclerc Buffon
- wrote Natural History (44 volumes) 1. species will change as a result of adaptation to new env. 2. experimented with minerals 3. "humankind are in fact decadent apes" hung for...
Baron George Leopold Cuvier
- saw evidence for creation - change in form will render it incapable of survival - Law of Correlation: (1) interdependence between organ's form/function. (2) species breed...
- Charles' grandfather - wrote Zoonomia - transformism: alternative to creationism and catastrophism (1) all living things descend from single common ancestor (2)...
Boucher de Perthes
- found man-made stones along with fossils - people at this time thought animals and people didnt live at the same time
Jean Baptist de Lamarck
- NO Fixity of Species - Inheritance of Acquired Traits: (1) all organisms have life forces within and are awakened with use (2) as env. changed, animal's activity changed, resulting...
- father of Geology - uniformitarianism: geologic forces that shape the Earth today, have shaped it in the past; the Earth is very old.
- 5 year voyage on HMS Beagle (Galapagos Finches) - read/ studied Lyell and Malthus - gentleman naturalist - Theory of Natural Selection - noticed a struggle for survival...
- Competition!! (among organisms) - pop. increases geometrically; food supply expands linearly
4 reasons Darwin would not publish his theory of NS
(1) reputation and honor (2) wife was religious woman even though he was not a religious man (3) valued role of religion in society (4) Lyell could not influence him
Alfred Russel Wallace
- sent saay (similar to Darwin's theory of NS) to Darwin for review - Lyell presented both Darwin and Wallace's essays to Linnaean Society of London on 07/01/1858 and Darwin's "won"...
The unit of Natural Selection is the _______.
The unit of Evolution is the _______.
- other view of NS - why not cooperation/ compasion instead of cut-throat competition
- other view of NS - one species is in a lot of different env., etc.
Arguments for Evolution (5)
(1) Geographic Clustering (2) Rudimentary Organs (3) Geographic Distribution (4) Fossil Record (5) Sexual Selection
change in genetic structure of a population
group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring
group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area
total complement of genes shared by reproductive member of a population
chunks of genetic material, composed of DNA sequences
- alternate form of a gene - Alleles at same locus on paired chromosome govern same trait
genetic makeup of an individual
Hardy-Weinburg Equilibrium Model
- no change in population genetics (1) large pop w/ many variations (2) no movement in or out of pop (3) no new alleles (4) no diff. in mortality rates (5) mating is random
(1) mutation - ultimate source of genetic variation; random/spontaneous; sex cells (2) Gene Flow - exhange of genes between pop; depends on env. and cultural factors (3)...
- evolutionary change above the level of species - speciation/ cladogenesis (splitting in two) - geology, fossils, living organisms, etc.
three showing evolutionary relationships
diagram showing members who share homologous features derived from a common ancestor
similar characteristics due to relatedness and inherited from common ancestors (1) Anatomy, (2) Vestigial Structures, (3) Cellular Structure and DNA
- lineage-splitting event - produces one/more sep. species - 3 causes: (1) Geographic Isolation, (2) Reduction of gene flow (3) Reproductive Mating Periods
Evolution is a _____, _____ change
slow, gradual - upward movement on lineage
species in statis/equilibrium for long periods of time followed by short, rapid periods of change (1) opportunity knocks (2) adaptive radiation (lineage rapidly diversifies)
"of first rank" -2 major suborders: (1) Prosimians - "before monkeys" - Lemurs, Tarsiers, Lorises (2) Anthropoids -"human like" - monkeys, apes, and humans
-wet, naked, glandular nostrils - Lemurs and Lorises
- dry nose, better eye sight, larger brain - Tarsiers, Monkeys, Apes, and Humans
(1) well dev. vision (2) diurnal (active during day) (3) diverse modes of locomotion (4) dentition (32 teeth: 220.127.116.11 -->I,C,PM,M) (5) large brain (6) K-selected (inc. parental...
Lemur, Lorises, Tarsiers
Monkeys, Apes, Humans
- New World Monkeys - flat nose, good vision, arboreal (trees), extra premolar, prehensile tails
- Old World Monkeys - terrestrial and arboreal, sharp nose, omnivore, tails but NOT prehensile, dental (18.104.22.168)
(1) Lesser Apes (2) Great Apes (3) Humans - no tails, doubled brain size (from monkeys), larger bodes, more k-selected, large and strong collar bone with shoulders back
Are lesser apes in Africa?
- SE Asia - unique ball/socket joint - masters of brachiation; 35 mph through trees - vocal, pair bonding, endangered, no sexual dimorphism, vegetarians
twice the size of gibbons
(1) Orangutans (SE Asia) (2) Gorillas (Africa) (3) Chimpanzees (Africa)
- forest man; intelligent - 2 species: Sumatra & Borneo - endangered; most do not live to be 50 - largest arboreal living animal; males twice the size of females - males live alone...
- Central Africa - 2 Species: Mountain (dark and thick hair) and Western Lowlands (grey and reddish forhead, slender) -largest primate; endangered - terrestrial quadrupeds -sexually...
year of the Gorilla
- Africa - 2 species - live in diverse env; arboreal and terrestrial quadrupeds - MEAT, insects and veg. diet -multi- male group (alpha male) -mother- infant bond (solitary females) -...
- middle part down hair - mainly vegetarians - egalitarian - matriarchal - constant sexual activity (pleasure, resolve conflict)
- world- wide, erect posture, bipdal locomotion, tool dependence, large brains, live in groups, food sharing, symbol (language), culture
Why be social?
- protection from predators - ability to better comete for resources
What is the basic unit of primate society?
-mother and infants - childhood is a learning and socialization period - allomothering, assistance from male friends
- infant preferred cloth mother over milk mother - infants raised without contact with mothers did not know how to care for their infants; acted passively, males did not know how to...
What factors affects social groupings?
- kinship and rules of dispersal
- males disperse, females stay in natal groups, males are twice as large and much more colorful than females, bond into a "sisterhood" , male is central guy but depends on females in...
- females disperse and males stay in natal groups, males dominate up to 11 females at a time and steal females from other bands, father's social status passed on to sons, females much...
How is order maintained in the social group? (3 ways)
(1) Dominance Hierchary - by means of status (age, sex, relatives, strength, motivation, intelligence); know this by body language - highest rank gets best resources( food/mates) (2)...
Why is there aggression and violence among primates?
maintain status, competition over food, territoriality, competition over mates
Why do males attack females?
Feeding competition, redirected anger, unprovoked (superiority), sexual coercion
Female counter strategies
female female coalitions, female makes friends with another male for protection