Anthropology

Midterm 1
 
Created Dec 6, 2006
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The concept of tabula rasa
implies that individuals are shaped primarily by their experiences, which differ from culture...
Because culture is socially constructed and learned rather than biologically inherited,
all societies must somehow ensure that culture is adequately transmitted from one generation...
Enculturation is the process of transmitting
culture from one generation to the next.
The agents of enculturation
-vary, depending on the structure of the family into which a child is born. -include peer...
Which of the following statements about self-awareness is/are correct?
all choices, except American children develop self-awareness earlier than do Ju/'hoansi children
____________ is/are the distinctive way a person thinks, feels, and behaves.
Personality
Through naming, a person not only has a personal identity,
but also recognition by the group of the person's birthright and social identity.
Among most Native American groups, the ___________ were considered sacred individuals especially...
two spirit
As Margaret Mead's pioneering studies suggest,
biological differences between males and females are extremely malleable; biology is not destiny.
Independence training is more likely in
small nuclear families.
Dependence training is more likely in
small-scale horticultural societies where a man has many wives.
Early studies of the relationship between personality and culture had assumed that they were...
modal personality.
The use of standardized tests, like the Rohrshach and TAT, to develop the modal personality...
tests devised in one cultural setting may not be appropriate in another.
Which of the following statements about modal personality is/are correct?
-Although a modal personality may be found for a particular society, a range of personalities...
Studies of ____________ were developed during World War II to explore the idea that basic personality...
national character
While critics dismiss national character studies, they are important to students today because
they illustrate the dangers of generalizing from minimal evidence to explain complex social...
Anthropologist Francis Hsu who suggests that we use the concept of ____________ to understand...
core values.
Among the Plains Indians, a man who wore women's clothes, performed women's work, and married...
-was considered normal. -was sought out as a curer, artist, and matchmaker. -was assumed...
The standards that define normal behavior for any culture
are determined by that culture itself.
Ethnic psychoses are
are mental disorders specific to particular ethnic groups.
Personality is a product of
enculturation, as expressed by individuals
Human children are ______ to survive without culture
ill-equipped
Personality characteristics related to gender are strongly affected by...
the way a group makes its living.
Both hunting-and-gathering societies and industrial societies promote _____ in their mobile...
independence training
______ determines what is normal in a society
culture
Though rare, about 1% of the world's population are ______, born with reproductive organs,...
intersexual
While cultures define normalcy, psychoses like ________, the most common of psychoses, suggest...
schizophrenia
Enculturation begins with the development of ______ -- the ability to identify individuality.
self-awareness
The behavioral environment in which the self acts includes _______, the moral values, ideals,...
normative orientation
_______ socializes people to think of themselves in terms of the larger whole.
Dependence training
Hsu's concept of _______ focuses on those values especially promoted by a particular culture.
core values
______ are those people who cross-over or occupy a culturally accepted intermediate position...
transgenders
Psychological disorders like anorexia nervosa are ________, mental disorders specific to particular...
ethnic psychoses
Horticulture
is the cultivation of crops using hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
Native American food foragers established a way of life in New England and southern Quebec...
effective cultural adaptation.
A/an ____________ is a geographic region in which a number of different societies follow similar...
culture area
Which of the following could be considered part of a society's "culture core"?
-the belief that only a chief can distribute apples to his fellow villagers -the belief that...
Which of the following research topics might be of interest to an ethnoscientist?
The ways in which a group classifies and explains the world.
Today, about __________ people use food foraging as their subsistence strategy.
250,000
Today food foraging societies
are found only in remote, marginal areas.
Which of the following does not correctly describe food foraging societies?
They are primitive because they did not progress to a higher level.
In a food foraging society, how do people store food for the future?
They rely on the generosity of others to share food.
_____________ relates to the number of people who can be supported in a particular area give...
Carrying capacity
To say that food foraging societies are egalitarian means that
the only status differences are age and sex.
As people learned to farm and their settlements grew,
society became more elaborately structured as people began to share important resources.
______________ is an extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut...
Swidden farming
_______________ involves using technologies such as irrigation, fertilizers, plows harnessed...
Intensive agriculture
The Bakhtiari are
a pastoral society which revolves around two seasonal migrations in search of better grazing...
Aztec society in the 16th century
had a capital city with a population five times the size of London at that time.
In the 16th century, the Aztec cities of Tenochtitlán and Tlatelolco
-utilized series of chinampas for their agricultural production. -were centers of trade. -had...
Preindustrial cities
have had a much longer history of success than industrial cities.
North American anthropologist Julian Steward developed the concept of ____________, that is,...
culture type
If a group is well adapted to its environment, it will change...
very little as long as conditions remain the same.
a geographic region in which a number of different societies follow a similar (not necessarily...
A culture area
Prolonged nursing of infants acts as a mode of ________
contraception
Many Bakhtiari are...
well educated, having attended university at home or abroad.
A/an __________ system is one in which goods are produced, distributed, and consumed.
economic
The productive resources used by all societies to produce goods and services include
labor. technology raw materials.
Traditionally, American society's sexual division of labor fell into which of the following...
rigid segregation
Which of the following situations involving sexual division of labor are likely to produce...
Societies in which both males and females do each others' work without embarrassment and societies...
Among the Ju/'hoansi, children are not expected to contribute much to subsistence until
their late teens.
In most societies, cooperation takes place in the basic unit of the __________, where both...
household
In many nonindustrial societies,
cooperative work is usually done with a festive, sociable air.
In contemporary industrial societies, and even many non-industrial societies, _____________...
craft specialization
Tools tend to be fewer and simpler among
mobile food foragers and pastoralists.
The mode of distribution called reciprocity refers to the exchange of goods and services
for the purpose of maintaining social relationships and gaining prestige.
When an Australian hunter gives away most of his meat to relatives without specifying what...
generalized reciprocity.
A Navajo gives ten of his sheep that he knows are infected with disease to a Hopi in exchange...
negative reciprocity.
____________ are/is important in societies where the accumulation of wealth or property could...
Leveling mechanisms
The display of wealth for social prestige is called
conspicuous consumption.
In contrast to most viewpoints, the Kula ring demonstrates that
not all trade is motivated by economic considerations.
From an economist's point of view, "market exchange" is defined by
the buying and selling of goods and services whose value is determined by supply and demand.
Typically, until well within the 20th century, ___________ was carried out in specific localities.
market exchange
___________ is anything used to make payments for other things, as well as a measure of their...
Money
The _____________ may be defined as the system by which producers of goods and services provide...
informal economy
One of the newest innovations in the market-research and design industry is
ethnography.
Everyone in the world wants the same goods and services.
false
__________ is a transaction in which a woman and man establish a continuing claim to the right...
Marriage
The ability of females and males to have sex at any time would have been advantageous to early...
sexual activity and other factors operated to tie people more closely to the social groups...
In all cultures, the ___________ provides an absolute prohibition on sexual contact between...
incest taboo
The author uses the Nayar of southwest India to illustrate that rules about sexual access can...
go through three transactions that define sexual eligibility, rights of sexual access, and...
______________ are relatives by birth, or so-called "blood kin."
Consanguineal kin
Detailed census records made in Roman Egypt show that brother-sister marriages among members...
It demonstrates that despite the human tendency to avoid inbreeding, it occasionally occurs...
Marriage within a particular group of individuals is called
endogamy.
___________ is a marriage in which an individual has a single spouse.
Monogamy
According to ____________, human thought processes are structured into contrastive pairs of...
Levi-Strauss
The Nayar family is consanguine because
women live with their brothers and dependent offspring.
Marriage to more than one husband is called
polyandry.
The levirate and the sororate
function to maintain the relationship between the family of the bride and the family of the...
Serial monogamy is characterized by
a man or a woman marrying or living with a series of partners in succession (one after the...
In a matrilateral cross-cousin marriage, a man marries the daughter of his
mother's brother.
Bride __________ refers to the period of time a groom is expected to work for his bride's family.
service
In which of the following situations would you expect to find the custom of bride price?
A bride and groom go to live with the groom's people.
When the economy is based on ____________ and when the man does most of the productive work,...
intensive agriculture
The woman/woman marriage custom found in sub-Saharan Africa
a. enables the woman who is the wife of the female husband to raise her status and live...
Like marriage, divorce in non-Western societies is a matter of great concern to the couple's...
economic
An important source of contacts in trying to arrange an Indian marriage is/are the
-social club. -match making businesses. -newspaper personals.


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