Animal Science Exam 2 - [10/16/12]


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What is a breed?
Animals of common origin having characteristics that distinguish them from other groups of...
What are the two new breeds (hybrids)? Define both.
Composite breeds: 2 or more breeds combined with known percentages to form a new breed (ex....
Hereford cattle come horned and polled which is genetically the same, but polled is a ___________...
Where were cattle first domesticated?
Europe and Asia
What are the primary bloodlines of cattle?
Bos Taurus Bos Indicus Bos Bisea
Describe the Bos Taurus breed.
British breed. appear in more temperate zones include Bos Primigenius & Bos langifrons
Decribe the Bos Indicus breed
"zebu" cattle of Asia, India, and Africa humpbacked with droopy ears disease...
Decribe the Bos Indicus breed
"zebu" cattle of Asia, India, and Africa humpbacked with droopy ears disease...
Decribe the Bos Indicus breed
"zebu" cattle of Asia, India, and Africa humpbacked with droopy ears disease...
Classification of breeds fall into three categories: Sire breeds, Maternal breeds, and Dual...
Sire breeds tends to belarger-framed, heavier muscled and faster growing Maternal breeds...
Name the Classification Groups in order.
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Name the Order, Family, Genus, Species of cattle.
Artiodactylai (even toed/hoofed) Bovidae (hollow horn) Bos (hollow horn( Bos Taurus/Bos Indicas
What is the ability of offspring to out perform the ability of the parent breeds?
Heterosis/Hybrid Vigor
What is the purpose of Breed complementarity.complimentary of traits?
They take advantake of the parents more disirable traits
What is the best breed/cross breed?
Ther eis no best breed or cross breed.
What are the two types of Cow-Calf production?
Commercial (grocery store production) Purebred (produces replacement genetics)
What does a Stocker Operator do?
Takes weaned calves and grazes them on cheap grains
What is the purpose of a seedstock producer?
Provides replacement genetics such as bulls, heifers, and semen/embryos
How much is earned in Commercial feedlot production?
15 to 20k, and as much as 100k to 250k
How much is earned in Farmer/Feeder feedlot production?
3 to 5k, as much as 10-15k
Elaborate on Texas and beef cattle production.
First place in beef cow production with 5 million head, making up 10% of the U.S. Production Also...
How can you determine age by teeth?
calf and yearling- temporary incisors 2 yr : central pair of 4 permanent incisors 3 yr: 4 permanent...
What is the purpose of identification of beef cattle?
To establish ownership Individual identification Age identification Disease contro programs
What are the 5 purposes of dehorning cattle?
Uniformity Reduction in shed/feed space To eliminate bruising Value to packer Ease of working
What are the four different ways to dehorn?
Dehorning cattle Knife Dehorning cup Hot iron
What is the purpose of castrating bull calves?
A more docile temperament Lean meat texture/marbling They fatten fatter Can be allowed to mix...
Name the four methods of castration, and which two are bloodless?
Knife (most common) emasculator burdizzo (bloodless) elastrator (bloodless)
When evaluating beef cattle, what visual aspects should you inspect?
Size and scale Structural correctness muscle condition capacity sex character
Why should you be concerned with structural correctness?
-It influences longevity -Influences ability of bulls to breed and for cows to harvest forage *cattle...
What is the acceptable REA bH for muscle?
11 and 15 square inches
What is the fleshing ability?
the ability of a cow to regain condition after calving
What 3 things (the 3 "uts") determine a good or bad keeper?
Body Capacity Butts --lots of muscle = good Guts --Roomy gut = good (flat sided butts/guts...
What parts of the mammary system are evaluated?
Teat size and shape Udder depth Udder balance Udder quality
What are the four parts of the Performance Evaluation?
Reproduction Maternal Growth Performance testing (thru gain test or ultrasound data)
What two things are evauated in the Contemporary Group?
Conception rate & Calf crop weaned (%)
What two things are evaluated in Maternal Performance?
Weaning weight & cow efficiency
What 3 things are considered in weaning weight adjustments?
-Weaning age of calf -Age of dam -Sex of calf
What is the weaning weight?
205 days!
Cow efficiency tends to favor _______ cows?
What three things influence growth performance?
--Yearling Weight --Average daily weight --Feed efficiency
Four Genetic Eval terms.
-Expected progeny differnce (EPD) -Accuracy (ACC) -Maternal milk (EPD) -Yearling weight...
Name the signs of Estrus.
-Stands to be mounted -Nervousness -Mucus secretion
Growth promoting substances are either natural or a copy of a natural compound. What percentage...
63% of all cattle are given the enhancers, 90% of all fed cattle are given these enhancers....
Name three growth enhancers.
--inophores --methane inhibitors --probiotics
Sire selection will account for ___ to_____% of the improvements to the herd.
85 to 95%
Name a few beef cattle diseases.
internal parstes- worms external parasites- ticks, fleas, flies foot rot Johne's disease...
At what age do bulls and heifers reach puberty?
10 months
How long is the estrous cycle?
21 days
What is the length of Estrus?
18 hours
What is the time of ovulation?
12 hours post-estrus
How long is the gestation period in cows?
283 days
Is later better than earlier for artificial insemination?
What are hormones?
used to improve feed ifficiency and average daily gain. This method has been used and research...
What is the largest money generating commodity in all of agriculture in recent times? It accounts...
The Beef Industry Accounts for 40% money made for all agricultural branches combined.
What is the gross annumal income of the beef industry in the U.S.?
35 billion dollars
What does inbreeding do to the number of recessive genes in the population of a herd?
It allows them to be expressed
Phenotypic Effects of Inbreeding --->
-Increased phenotypic uniformity if accompanied by selection -superior genetics: high % of...
How is inbreeding used in livestock production?
Crossing of inbred lines (heterosis) quickly identifies undesirable recessive genes/traits....
There are four types of Outbreeding.
1. Outcrossing (unrelated animals w/in same breed) 2. Species crossing (different species) 3....
What it hybrid vigor defined as?
the superiority of the crossbred offspring over the average of the pure breeds (parents) used...
The top two primary reasons to cross-breed are
hybrid vigor/heterosis        & complementarity of traits
What is the preferred system of mating for commercial swine production?And is also used extensively...
The two basic types of crossbreeding in cattle include:
Rotational: Combining 2 or more breeds Terminal- does not keep replacements--all animals...
The genetic effects of crossbreeding, the opposite of inbreeding, results in...
increased hybrid vigor
How is outcrossing used in a herd?
The most popular system, unrelated animals within the same breed are mated to form mostly...
"Grading up," only useful in cattle and horses is.....................
the continuous use of purebred sires of the same breed
What does the future hold for livestock mating systems?
Composite animals: that fit their environment, are super efficient, and super productive Increased...

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