Animal Science Exam 2 - [10/16/12]

67 cards


 
  
Created Oct 16, 2012
by
Leezy123

 

 
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1
What is a breed?
 
Animals of common origin having characteristics that distinguish them from other groups of...
2
What are the two new breeds (hybrids)? Define both.
 
Composite breeds: 2 or more breeds combined with known percentages to form a new breed (ex....
3
Hereford cattle come horned and polled which is genetically the same, but polled is a ___________...
 
Recessive
4
Where were cattle first domesticated?
 
Europe and Asia
5
What are the primary bloodlines of cattle?
 
Bos Taurus
Bos Indicus
Bos Bisea
6
Describe the Bos Taurus breed.
 
British breed.
appear in more temperate zones
include Bos Primigenius &...
7
Decribe the Bos Indicus breed
 
"zebu" cattle of Asia, India, and Africa
humpbacked with droopy ears
8
Decribe the Bos Indicus breed
 
"zebu" cattle of Asia, India, and Africa
humpbacked with droopy ears
9
Decribe the Bos Indicus breed
 
"zebu" cattle of Asia, India, and Africa
humpbacked with droopy ears
10
Classification of breeds fall into three categories: Sire breeds, Maternal breeds, and Dual...
 
Sire breeds tends to belarger-framed, heavier muscled and faster growing Maternal breeds...
11
Name the Classification Groups in order.
 
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
12
Name the Order, Family, Genus, Species of cattle.
 
Artiodactylai (even toed/hoofed)
Bovidae (hollow horn)
Bos (hollow horn(
Bos...
13
What is the ability of offspring to out perform the ability of the parent breeds?
 
Heterosis/Hybrid Vigor
14
What is the purpose of Breed complementarity.complimentary of traits?
 
They take advantake of the parents more disirable traits
15
What is the best breed/cross breed?
 
Ther eis no best breed or cross breed.
16
What are the two types of Cow-Calf production?
 
Commercial (grocery store production) Purebred (produces replacement genetics)
17
What does a Stocker Operator do?
 
Takes weaned calves and grazes them on cheap grains
18
What is the purpose of a seedstock producer?
 
Provides replacement genetics such as bulls, heifers, and semen/embryos
19
How much is earned in Commercial feedlot production?
 
15 to 20k, and as much as 100k to 250k
20
How much is earned in Farmer/Feeder feedlot production?
 
3 to 5k, as much as 10-15k
21
Elaborate on Texas and beef cattle production.
 
First place in beef cow production with 5 million head, making up 10% of the U.S. Production Also...
22
How can you determine age by teeth?
 
calf and yearling- temporary incisors
2 yr : central pair of 4 permanent incisors
23
What is the purpose of identification of beef cattle?
 
To establish ownership
Individual identification
Age identification
Disease...
24
What are the 5 purposes of dehorning cattle?
 
Uniformity
Reduction in shed/feed space
To eliminate bruising
Value to packer
25
What are the four different ways to dehorn?
 
Dehorning cattle
Knife
Dehorning cup
Hot iron
26
What is the purpose of castrating bull calves?
 
A more docile temperament
Lean meat texture/marbling
They fatten fatter
Can...
27
Name the four methods of castration, and which two are bloodless?
 
Knife (most common)
emasculator
burdizzo (bloodless)
elastrator (bloodless)
28
When evaluating beef cattle, what visual aspects should you inspect?
 
Size and scale
Structural correctness
muscle
condition
capacity
29
Why should you be concerned with structural correctness?
 
-It influences longevity
-Influences ability of bulls to breed and for cows to harvest...
30
What is the acceptable REA bH for muscle?
 
11 and 15 square inches
31
What is the fleshing ability?
 
the ability of a cow to regain condition after calving
32
What 3 things (the 3 "uts") determine a good or bad keeper?
 
Body Capacity

Butts
--lots of muscle = good
Guts
--Roomy...
33
What parts of the mammary system are evaluated?
 
Teat size and shape
Udder depth
Udder balance
Udder quality
34
What are the four parts of the Performance Evaluation?
 
Reproduction
Maternal
Growth
Performance testing (thru gain test or ultrasound...
35
What two things are evauated in the Contemporary Group?
 
Conception rate & Calf crop weaned (%)
36
What two things are evaluated in Maternal Performance?
 
Weaning weight & cow efficiency
37
What 3 things are considered in weaning weight adjustments?
 
-Weaning age of calf
-Age of dam
-Sex of calf
38
What is the weaning weight?
 
205 days!
39
Cow efficiency tends to favor _______ cows?
 
Smaller
40
What three things influence growth performance?
 
--Yearling Weight
--Average daily weight
--Feed efficiency
41
Four Genetic Eval terms.
 
-Expected progeny differnce (EPD)
-Accuracy (ACC)
-Maternal milk (EPD)
-Yearling...
42
Name the signs of Estrus.
 
-Stands to be mounted
-Nervousness
-Mucus secretion
43
Growth promoting substances are either natural or a copy of a natural compound. What percentage...
 
63% of all cattle are given the enhancers, 90% of all fed cattle are given these enhancers....
44
Name three growth enhancers.
 
--inophores
--methane inhibitors
--probiotics
45
Sire selection will account for ___ to_____% of the improvements to the herd.
 
85 to 95%
46
Name a few beef cattle diseases.
 
internal parstes- worms
external parasites- ticks, fleas, flies
foot rot
Johne's...
47
At what age do bulls and heifers reach puberty?
 
10 months
48
How long is the estrous cycle?
 
21 days
49
What is the length of Estrus?
 
18 hours
50
What is the time of ovulation?
 
12 hours post-estrus
51
How long is the gestation period in cows?
 
283 days
52
Is later better than earlier for artificial insemination?
 
Yes
53
What are hormones?
 
used to improve feed ifficiency and average daily gain. This method has been used and research...
54
What is the largest money generating commodity in all of agriculture in recent times? It accounts...
 
The Beef Industry
Accounts for 40% money made for all agricultural branches combined.
55
What is the gross annumal income of the beef industry in the U.S.?
 
35 billion dollars
56
What does inbreeding do to the number of recessive genes in the population of a herd?
 
It allows them to be expressed
57
Phenotypic Effects of Inbreeding --->
 
-Increased phenotypic uniformity if accompanied by selection
-superior genetics: high...
58
How is inbreeding used in livestock production?
 
Crossing of inbred lines (heterosis) quickly identifies undesirable recessive genes/traits....
59
There are four types of Outbreeding.
 
1. Outcrossing (unrelated animals w/in same breed)
2. Species crossing (different...
60
What it hybrid vigor defined as?
 
the superiority of the crossbred offspring over the average of the pure breeds (parents) used...
61
The top two primary reasons to cross-breed are
 
hybrid vigor/heterosis
       &
complementarity...
62
What is the preferred system of mating for commercial swine production?And is also used extensively...
 
crossbreeding
63
The two basic types of crossbreeding in cattle include:
 
Rotational: Combining 2 or more breeds Terminal- does not keep replacements--all animals...
64
The genetic effects of crossbreeding, the opposite of inbreeding, results in...
 
increased hybrid vigor
65
How is outcrossing used in a herd?
 
The most popular system, unrelated animals within the same breed are mated to form mostly...
66
"Grading up," only useful in cattle and horses is.....................
 
the continuous use of purebred sires of the same breed
67
What does the future hold for livestock mating systems?
 
Composite animals: that fit their environment, are super efficient, and super productive Increased...

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