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Side ASide B
Information monitored and gathered from inside and outside the body
What is Integration?
processing of sensory input
A response sent out to body through efferent pathway to organs like muscles or glands
CNS defintion.... made up of what?
Central Nervous System..... brain and spinal cord
What is the structure and function of the CNS?
Structure: Brain and Spinal CordFunction: Control Center and Integration of Sensory Input
What are the 5 levels of awareness (from basic to vital) of the CNS
1. Spinal Cord2. Brain Stem3. Brain4. Limbic System5. Cortex/Neocortex
What part of the CNS handles simple jobs like basic reflexes, urination, or knee-jerk?
The Spinal Cord
What part of the CNS handles vital signs/functions like swallowing, coughing, heart rate, or blood pressure?
The Brain Stem
What part of the CNS contains centers for homeostasis like Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Pituitary, and Pineal glands?
What part of the CNS handles emotions like fear, sex drive, submission, domination, sympathy, empathy, learning, and intuition (gut feeling/warning signs)?
The Limbic System
What part of the CNS handles consiousness, voluntary orders of movement?
What part of the CNS handles higher functions like language, complex thoughts, and spacial reasoning?
What 2 regions of the CNS are connected with regard to psychosomatic diseases?
The Brain (homeostasis)The Limbic System (emotions)
What are the effector organs in the motor output that produce a response?
Muscles and Glands
What system is a Voluntary Motor Response? Example (1)
Somatic Nervous System or SNS (Skeletal Muscles)
What system is an Involuntary Motor Response? Example (2)
Autonomic Nervous System or ANS(Visceral Muscles, Glands)
What are the two subdivisions of the Autonomic Nervous System?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
What is the Sympathetic Division of the ANS responsible for ? Organ Example (1)
Activates during activity or emergencies(Heart)
What is the Parasympathetic Division of the ANS responsible for? Organ Example (1)
Energy Conservation, Maintenance, Housekeeping type functions(the Bladder)
The Spinal and Cranial Nerves are made up of how many pairs respectively?
31 and 12
What is the structure and function of the PSN
Structure: Cranial & Spinal NervesFunction: Communication lines between CNS & body
What is the structure and function of the Sensory (afferent) Division
Structure: Somatic & Visceral Nerve FibersFunction: Conduct impulses to CNS
What is the structure and function of the Motor (efferent) Division
Structure: Somatic & Autonomic Nerve FibersFunction: Conducts impulses from CNS to effectors
What is the structure and function of the SNS
Structure: Somatic (voluntary) motorFunction: Conduct impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles
What is the structure and function (2) of the ANS
Structure: Visceral (involuntary) motorFunction: Conduct impulses from CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles and glands
What is the function of the Sympathetic Division of the ANS
Function: Mobilizes body system during activity or emergency (heart, ex)
What is the function of the Parasympathetic Division of the ANS
Function: Conserving Energy and Housekeeping(the bladder)
What are the 2 principle Nerve Cell Types?
Neurons & Neuroglia (glial cells)
What type of nerve cell does not expand, has limited stem cell, and is an excitable cell.
What type of nerve cell is a supporting cell that can grow, has stem cells, and can become cancerous
What are the 5 types of Neuroglia?
Astrocytes (CNS)Ependymal Cells (CNS- line brain vetricles)Microglia (CNS- brain phagocytesOligodendrocytes (CNS - myelin sheet)Schwann Cells (PNS - myelin sheet)
Astrocytes (type of cell, shape, where, function (2)
Glial cell (Most abundant)branchedCling to neurons, capillaries & synaptic endingsControl chemical environment around synapseSupport neurons and form part of Blood, Brain, Barrier
What glial cell is a brain phagocyte?
What glial cell lines the brain ventricles and move the cerebrospinal fluid with their cilia?
What glial cells form the myelin sheaths in the CNS/PNS?Which one forms neurilemma?
Oligodendrocytes (CNS) & Schwann Cells (PNS)Schwann Cells
Neurons: Lifespan? Mitotic or Amitotic? Metabolic Rate High or Low? Function of Neuronal Membrane?
100 years of moreAmitoticHighElectrical Signaling
Cell Body: 2 other names?
Perikaryon or Soma
What is the Blood-Brain Barrier
A separation maintained by astrocytes (a go-between) that keeps toxins flowing in the blood stream from entering the brain.
What are protective, insulating coverings of neuron fibers that increase impulse speed called?
Clusters of Neuron bodies in the CNS are called?
Clusters of Neuron bodies and dendrites in the PNS are called? In the CNS? (2).... What color matter?
Ganglia (PNS) ** although PNS is mainly Nerves **Cortex and Basal Nuclei (CNS)Gray
Armlike extensions from the cell body of all neurons
Processes in the CNS are called? in the PNS?
Tracts (CNS)Nerves (PNS)
What are the 2 neuron processes of the body called?
Dendrites and Axons
Short process that is main receptive or input region. (Neurons have many of these)
Single process of a Neuron that is typically very long and conducts impulses away from cell body
Occasional 'fork in the road' of an axon
End of the road of an axon (branched profusely) (3 different names)
Axon TerminalSynaptic KnobBouton ('button')
The initial, cone-shaped region of a neuron's conducting process
A LONG axon is called?
Signals sent TOWARD the cell body from the dendrites needs to be added up....called?
impulses are generated in the region between the axon hillock and the axon and called?
impulses are conveyed along the axon to the axon terminals which are the ___________ region of the neuron?
Signaling chemicals stored in vesicles at the axon terminals?
The nucleus and cytoplasmic bulge on the myelin sheath of Schwann Cells is called?
Schwann cells leave gaps between each other at regular intervals called?
Nodes of Ranvier
The brain's white matter is composed of ? The gray matter?
Myelinated Fibers (White)Nerve Cell Bodies and Unmyelinated Fibers (Gray)
What is the plasma membrane region of the axon through which the impulse is conducted?
Where can pharmaceuticals effect, enhance, or stop signals?
Synapse/ Axon Terminal / Bouton
Transport proteins direction that move material toward axon terminal? What would move in this direction?
Anterogrademitochondria, membrane components, enzymes
Transport proteins direction that move material toward cell body? What would move in this direction?
Retrogradeorganelles for degrading, signaling molecules, viruses (Rabies & Herpes), and bacterial toxins (bad)
Neurotransmitters function is to __________ or _________ other cell bodies
Stimulate or Inhibit
'AP' stand for? and it travels over what?
Clusters of myelinated fibers in the CNS called? (2) ....in the PNS? What color matter?
Tracts or Columns (CNS)Nerves (PNS)White
What are the 3 types of Neurons?
Sensory (Afferent)Interneuron (Shuttle between)Motor (Efferent)
Which is faster Continuous Conduction (unmyelated) or Saltatory Conduction (myelated)? How much faster? Why?
Saltatory Conduction30 times fasterInsulation prevents ion/voltage leakage so impulse doesn't decay
Neurons that make up 99% of the neurons in the body?
What membrane channels are always open? (2 names)
Leakage Channels or Non-Gated Channels
What membrane channels open when a neurotransmitter binds? (2 names)
Chemically Gated or Ligand-Gated Channels
What membrane channels open/close in response to changes in membrane potential?
Movement according to concentration gradient and electrical gradient (opposite charges) forms what type of cumulative gradient?
What is the approximate mV of a membrane (inside or cytoplasmic side) at Resting Membrane Potential?Why negative?
-70mVK+ diffuses out of cell (toward it's low gradient) faster than Na+ can diffuse in (toward it's low gradient)
which ion, K+ or Na+, is in greater quantity inside the cell?outside cell?
K+ (inside)Na+ (outside)
What stops Na+ and K+ diffusion through membrane from becoming even?
Sodium-Potassium Pump pumps out 3 Na+ and brings in 2 K+, maintaining/restoring -70mV
When the mV of a membrane becomes less negative (moves closer to zero or above zero) it is called?
When the mV of a membrane becomes more negative (moves further from zero or resting potential) it is called?
Changes in the membrane potential can produce what 2 types of signals?
Graded Potentials (short, incoming signals-Dendrites)Action Potentials (long, outgoing signals-Axons)
Cell membranes that conduct impulses over muscles fibers are called?
What are the two synaptic gap junctions that signals are sent over called?
Neuroneural Junctions (NNJ)Neuromuscular Junctions (NMJ)
In order for a neuron to signal, the AP must be __________ along the axon's entire length
Propogated (then it is self-propogated once threshold is reached)
What is sodium's voltage-gated channel's 'Threshold of Sensitivity' ?
Once local voltage causes a threshold to be reached and a self-propogating depolarization occurs, what is generated?
an Action Potential
outgoing signals are ____________potential and go over the __________membrane.incoming signals are ___________potential and go over the __________membrane
Action (potential) / AxolemmaGraded (potential) / Dendrolemma
What is the total amplitude of an Action Potential (AP)
100mV (-70mV to +30mV)
Do Graded Potentials decrease over distance/time? Action Potentials?
Graded - yesAction - no
Repolarization (AP-3) restores which, resting electrical conditions or resting ionic conditions?
Resting Electrical Conditions
What restores resting ionic conditions after AP?
The CNS determines the intensity of a stimulus by what?
Frequency of impulses
Action Potential is a brief ______________________
reversal of the membrane potential (charge)
AP's resting state has ________ion channels open and ___________ ion channels closed.
Leakage (open)Na+ and K+ (closed)
AP conduction is called a ____________.
No impulses can go through during the ________period, and only extremely strong impulses can go through during the ________period.
Absolute Refractory PeriodRelative Refractory Period
Conducts an impulse toward a synapse
Conducts an impulse away from a synapse
What are the 3 types of Synapses?
Axodendritic SynapseAxosomatic SynapseAxoaxonic Synapse
A Chemical Synapse is typically composes of what two parts?
Axon Terminal containing synaptic vessicles (w/ neurotransmitters) of presynaptic NeuronReception region of postsynaptic neuron
Neurotransmitter release from presynaptic neuron across synaptic cleft to receptor region of postsynaptic cleft ensures that what will happen?
Unidirectional communication between neurons.
What kind of channels are on the postsynaptic neuron at the synaptic cleft?
Ligand-gated channels (or chemical-gated channels)
What 3 possible events happen to the neurotransmitter once the effect is terminated?
Reuptake (in presynaptic neuron)Degradation (by enzymes in extracellular fluid)Diffusion away (from Synaptic Cleft in ECF)
When neurotransmitter binds to the ligand-gated channel, what happens? (2)
Ion gradient flow (Na+/K+)Graded Potential (along postsynaptic membrane/cycle repeats)
How long is Synaptic Delay?
0.3 - 5.0 ms
a depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane that results in the opening of Na+/K+ channels and a graded potential, bringing the membrane closer to an AP threshold.
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
a hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane that results in the opening of K+/Cl- and movement AWAY from the AP threshold
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
What is responsible for the coupling of excitation and contraction of skeletal muscle fibers?
A 'Triad' is made up of what?
2 terminal cisternae and 1 Terminal (T) Tubule
The Terminal Cisternae of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) is connected to the T Tubule via what?
Voltage-gated Calcium Channels (proteins)
When calcium ions bind to troponin, what happens?
Troponin changes shape and causes the bound tropomyosin to move off of Actin binding sites.
What type of tranport causes Ca+, Na+, and K+ to return to their resting ionic potential?
Active Transport via ATP driven pumps
granules of stored glycogen that provide glucose during periods of muscle cell activity
Red pigment in muscles that store oxygen
Giant protein elastic filament that attaches to the Z disc and the thick filament that helps the muscle cell spring back after being stretched
The name of the neurotransmitter released into synaptic cleft of Neuromuscular Junction for contractions, also CNS, and some ANS neurons?
Enzymatic breakdown of ACh is done by what enzyme?What is ACh broken down into?
AcetylcholinesteraseAcetic Acid & Choline
One or more presynaptic neurons transmit impulses in rapid-fire order during __________ summation
Postsynaptic neuron is stimulated by a large number of terminals at the same time during ___________ summation.
Dopamine, NADR (NE)/ADR, Serotonin, and Histamine are types of what and part of this group
GABA and Glutamate are types of what and part of this group.Which is excitatory and which is inhibitory?
NeurotransmittersAmino AcidsGABA - InhibitoryGlutamate - Excitatory
Substance P and Endorphins are types of what and part of this group.Which is excitatory and which is inhibitory?
NeurotransmittersPeptidesSubstance P - ExcitatoryEndorphins - Inhibitory
Morphine, Heroin, and Methadone mimic what?
Coffee, Tea, and Chocolate work by doing what?
Blocking receptor sites for inhibitory neurotransmitter in sleep-wake cycle, Adenosine.
Inhibitory neurotransmitter in sleep-wake cycle
Neurotransmitter, Endocannabinoid, is linked to what drug and it's effects?
Marijuana, increased appetite, memory loss
What type processing when one input travels one pathway to a specific destination resulting in the same, predictable response? Example?
What type of processing when one input travels along several pathways producing several responses. Example?
Parallel ProcessingA smell reminds of the odor and an associated experience.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an excitatory neurotransmitter except in the _______________
Inhibitory CNS amino acid neurotransmitter is ___________, and excitatory is ____________
Substance P is blocked by ___________