Anatomy/Physiology Lecture "Nervous System"

127 cards

Lecture Exam 2


 
  
Created Jul 4, 2012
by
rartsch

 

 
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  Side A   Side B
1
Information monitored and gathered from inside and outside the body
 
Sensory Input
2
What is Integration?
 
processing of sensory input
3
A response sent out to body through efferent pathway to organs like muscles or glands
 
motor output
4
CNS defintion.... made up of what?
 
Central Nervous System..... brain and spinal cord
5
What is the structure and function of the CNS?
 
Structure:  Brain and Spinal Cord
Function: Control Center and Integration of Sensory...
6
What are the 5 levels of awareness (from basic to vital) of the CNS
 
1. Spinal Cord
2. Brain Stem
3. Brain
4. Limbic System
5. Cortex/Neocortex
7
What part of the CNS handles simple jobs like basic reflexes, urination, or knee-jerk?
 
The Spinal Cord
8
What part of the CNS handles vital signs/functions like swallowing, coughing, heart rate, or...
 
The Brain Stem
9
What part of the CNS contains centers for homeostasis like Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Pituitary,...
 
The Brain
10
What part of the CNS handles emotions like fear, sex drive, submission, domination, sympathy,...
 
The Limbic System
11
What part of the CNS handles consiousness, voluntary orders of movement?
 
The Cortex
12
What part of the CNS handles higher functions like language, complex thoughts, and spacial...
 
The Neocortex
13
What 2 regions of the CNS are connected with regard to psychosomatic diseases?
 
The Brain (homeostasis)
The Limbic System (emotions)
14
What are the effector organs in the motor output that produce a response? 
 
Muscles and Glands
15
What system is a Voluntary Motor Response? Example (1)
 
Somatic Nervous System or SNS
(Skeletal Muscles)
16
What system is an Involuntary Motor Response? Example (2)
 
Autonomic Nervous System or ANS
(Visceral Muscles, Glands)
17
What are the two subdivisions of the Autonomic Nervous System?
 
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
18
What is the Sympathetic Division of the ANS responsible for ?  Organ Example (1)
 
Activates during activity or emergencies
(Heart)
19
What is the Parasympathetic Division of the ANS responsible for?  Organ Example (1)
 
Energy Conservation, Maintenance, Housekeeping type functions
(the Bladder)
20
The Spinal and Cranial Nerves are made up of how many pairs respectively?
 
31 and 12
21
What is the structure and function of the PSN
 
Structure: Cranial & Spinal Nerves
Function: Communication lines between CNS & body

22
What is the structure and function of the Sensory (afferent) Division
 
Structure:  Somatic & Visceral Nerve Fibers
Function: Conduct impulses to CNS
23
What is the structure and function of the Motor (efferent) Division
 
Structure:  Somatic & Autonomic Nerve Fibers
Function:  Conducts impulses...
24
What is the structure and function of the SNS
 
Structure:  Somatic (voluntary) motor
Function:  Conduct impulses from CNS to...
25
What is the structure and function (2) of the ANS
 
Structure: Visceral (involuntary) motor
Function:  Conduct impulses from CNS to cardiac...
26
What is the function of the Sympathetic Division of the ANS
 
Function:  Mobilizes body system during activity or emergency (heart, ex)
27
What is the function of the Parasympathetic Division of the ANS
 
Function:  Conserving Energy and Housekeeping
(the bladder)
28
What are the 2 principle Nerve Cell Types?
 
Neurons & Neuroglia (glial cells)
29
What type of nerve cell does not expand, has limited stem cell, and is an excitable cell.
 
Neuron
30
What type of nerve cell is a supporting cell that can grow, has stem cells, and can become...
 
Neuroglia
31
What are the 5 types of Neuroglia?
 
Astrocytes (CNS)
Ependymal Cells (CNS- line brain vetricles)
Microglia (CNS- brain phagocytes
Oligodendrocytes...
32
Astrocytes (type of cell, shape, where, function (2)
 
Glial cell (Most abundant)
branched
Cling to neurons, capillaries & synaptic endings
Control...
33
What glial cell is a brain phagocyte?
 
Microglia
34
What glial cell lines the brain ventricles and move the cerebrospinal fluid with their cilia?
 
Ependymal Cell
35
What glial cells form the myelin sheaths in the CNS/PNS?
Which one forms neurilemma?
 
Oligodendrocytes (CNS) & Schwann Cells (PNS)
Schwann Cells
36
Neurons: Lifespan? Mitotic or Amitotic? Metabolic Rate High or Low?  Function of Neuronal...
 
100 years of more
Amitotic
High
Electrical Signaling
37
Cell Body:  2 other names? 
 
Perikaryon or Soma
38
What is the Blood-Brain Barrier
 
A separation maintained by astrocytes (a go-between) that keeps toxins flowing in the blood...
39
What are protective, insulating coverings of neuron fibers that increase impulse speed called?
 
myelin sheaths
40
Clusters of Neuron bodies in the CNS are called?
 
Nuclei
41
Clusters of Neuron bodies and dendrites in the PNS are called?  In the CNS? (2)....  ...
 
Ganglia (PNS)  ** although PNS is mainly Nerves **
Cortex and Basal Nuclei (CNS)
Gray
42
Armlike extensions from the cell body of all neurons
 
Processes
43
Processes in the CNS are called?  in the PNS?
 
Tracts (CNS)
Nerves (PNS)
44
What are the 2 neuron processes of the body called?
 
Dendrites and Axons
45
Short process that is main receptive or input region.  (Neurons have many of these)
 
Dendrite
46
Single process of a Neuron that is typically very long and conducts impulses away from cell...
 
Axon
47
Occasional 'fork in the road' of an axon
 
Axon Collateral
48
End of the road of an axon (branched profusely) (3 different names)
 
Axon Terminal
Synaptic Knob
Bouton ('button')
49
The initial, cone-shaped region of a neuron's conducting process
 
Axon Hillock
50
A LONG axon is called?
 
Nerve Fiber
51
Signals sent TOWARD the cell body from the dendrites needs to be added up....called?
 
Graded Potential
52
impulses are generated in the region between the axon hillock and the axon and called?
 
Trigger Zone
53
impulses are conveyed along the axon to the axon terminals which are the ___________ region...
 
Secretory Region
54
Signaling chemicals stored in vesicles at the axon terminals?
 
Neurotransmitters
55
The nucleus and cytoplasmic bulge on the myelin sheath of Schwann Cells is called?
 
Neurilemma
56
Schwann cells leave gaps between each other at regular intervals called?
 
Nodes of Ranvier
57
The brain's white matter is composed of ?  The gray matter?
 
Myelinated Fibers (White)
Nerve Cell Bodies and Unmyelinated Fibers (Gray)
58
What is the plasma membrane region of the axon through which the impulse is conducted?
 
Axolemma
59
Where can pharmaceuticals effect, enhance, or stop signals?
 
Synapse/ Axon Terminal / Bouton
60
Transport proteins direction that move material toward axon terminal?   What would...
 
Anterograde
mitochondria, membrane components, enzymes
61
Transport proteins direction that move material toward cell body?   What would move...
 
Retrograde
organelles for degrading, signaling molecules, viruses (Rabies & Herpes),...
62
Neurotransmitters function is to  __________ or _________ other cell bodies
 
Stimulate or Inhibit
63
'AP' stand for?  and it travels over what?
 
Action Potential
Axolemma
64
Clusters of myelinated fibers in the CNS called? (2) ....in the PNS?  What color matter?
 
Tracts or Columns (CNS)
Nerves (PNS)
White
65
What are the 3 types of Neurons?
 
Sensory (Afferent)
Interneuron (Shuttle between)
Motor (Efferent)
66
Which is faster Continuous Conduction (unmyelated) or Saltatory Conduction (myelated)? ...
 
Saltatory Conduction
30 times faster
Insulation prevents ion/voltage leakage so impulse...
67
Neurons that make up 99% of the neurons in the body?
 
Interneurons
68
What membrane channels are always open? (2 names)
 
Leakage Channels or Non-Gated Channels
69
What membrane channels open when a neurotransmitter binds? (2 names)
 
Chemically Gated or Ligand-Gated Channels
70
What membrane channels open/close in response to changes in membrane potential?
 
Voltage-gated Channels
71
Movement according to concentration gradient and electrical gradient (opposite charges) forms...
 
Electrochemical Gradient
72
What is the approximate mV of a membrane (inside or cytoplasmic side) at Resting Membrane Potential?
Why...
 
-70mV
K+ diffuses out of cell (toward it's low gradient) faster than Na+ can diffuse in...
73
which ion, K+ or Na+, is in greater quantity inside the cell?
outside cell?

 
K+ (inside)
Na+ (outside)
74
What stops Na+ and K+ diffusion through membrane from becoming even?
 
Sodium-Potassium Pump pumps out  3 Na+ and brings in 2 K+, maintaining/restoring -70mV
75
When the mV of a membrane becomes less negative (moves closer to zero or above zero) it is...
 
Depolarization
76
When the mV of a membrane becomes more negative (moves further from zero or resting potential)...
 
Hyperpolarization
77
Changes in the membrane potential can produce what 2 types of signals?
 
Graded Potentials (short, incoming signals-Dendrites)
Action Potentials (long, outgoing...
78
Cell membranes that conduct impulses over muscles fibers are called?
 
Sarcolemma
79
What are the two synaptic gap junctions that signals are sent over called?
 
Neuroneural Junctions (NNJ)
Neuromuscular Junctions (NMJ)
80
In order for a neuron to signal, the AP must be __________ along the axon's entire length
 
Propogated  (then it is self-propogated once threshold is reached)
81
What is sodium's voltage-gated channel's 'Threshold of Sensitivity' ?
 
-55mV
82
Once local voltage causes a threshold to be reached and a self-propogating depolarization occurs,...
 
an Action Potential
83
outgoing signals are ____________potential and go over the __________membrane.
incoming...
 
Action (potential) / Axolemma
Graded (potential) / Dendrolemma
84
What is the total amplitude of an Action Potential (AP)
 
100mV (-70mV to +30mV)
85
Do Graded Potentials decrease over distance/time?  Action Potentials?
 
Graded - yes
Action - no
86
Repolarization (AP-3) restores which, resting electrical conditions or resting ionic conditions?
 
Resting Electrical Conditions
87
What restores resting ionic conditions after AP?
 
Sodium-Potassium Pump
88
The CNS determines the intensity of a stimulus by what?
 
Frequency of impulses
89
Action Potential is a brief ______________________
 
reversal of the membrane potential (charge)
90
AP's resting state has ________ion channels open and ___________ ion channels closed.
 
Leakage (open)
Na+ and K+ (closed)
91
AP conduction is called a ____________.
 
Propogation
92
No impulses can go through during the ________period, and only extremely strong impulses can...
 
Absolute Refractory Period
Relative Refractory Period
93
Conducts an impulse toward a synapse
 
Presynaptic Neuron
94
Conducts an impulse away from a synapse
 
Postsynaptic Neuron
95
What are the 3 types of Synapses?
 
Axodendritic Synapse
Axosomatic Synapse
Axoaxonic Synapse
96
A Chemical Synapse is typically composes of what two parts?
 
Axon Terminal containing synaptic vessicles (w/ neurotransmitters) of presynaptic Neuron
Reception...
97
Neurotransmitter release from presynaptic neuron across synaptic cleft to receptor region of...
 
Unidirectional communication between neurons.
98
What kind of channels are on the postsynaptic neuron at the synaptic cleft?
 
Ligand-gated channels (or chemical-gated channels)
99
What 3 possible events happen to the neurotransmitter once the effect is terminated?
 
Reuptake (in presynaptic neuron)
Degradation (by enzymes in extracellular fluid)
Diffusion...
100
When neurotransmitter binds to the ligand-gated channel, what happens? (2)
 
Ion gradient flow (Na+/K+)
Graded Potential (along postsynaptic membrane/cycle repeats)
101
How long is Synaptic Delay?
 
 0.3 - 5.0 ms
102
a depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane that results in the opening of Na+/K+ channels...
 
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
103
a hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane that results in the opening of K+/Cl- and...
 
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
104
What is responsible for the coupling of excitation and contraction of skeletal muscle fibers?
 
Calcium
105
A 'Triad' is made up of what?
 
2 terminal cisternae and 1 Terminal (T) Tubule
106
The Terminal Cisternae of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) is connected to the T Tubule via...
 
Voltage-gated Calcium Channels (proteins)
107
When calcium ions bind to troponin, what happens?
 
Troponin changes shape and causes the bound tropomyosin to move off of Actin binding sites.
108
What type of tranport causes Ca+, Na+, and K+ to return to their resting ionic potential?
 
Active Transport via ATP driven pumps
109
granules of stored glycogen that provide glucose during periods of muscle cell activity
 
glycosomes
110
Red pigment in muscles that store oxygen
 
myoglobin
111
Giant protein elastic filament that attaches to the Z disc and the thick filament that helps...
 
Titin
112
The name of the neurotransmitter released into synaptic cleft of Neuromuscular Junction for...
 
Acetylcholine (ACh)
113
Enzymatic breakdown of ACh is done by what enzyme?
What is ACh broken down into?
 
Acetylcholinesterase
Acetic Acid & Choline
114
One or more presynaptic neurons transmit impulses in rapid-fire order during __________ summation
 
Temporal
115
Postsynaptic neuron is stimulated by a large number of terminals at the same time during ___________...
 
Spatial
116
Dopamine, NADR (NE)/ADR, Serotonin, and Histamine are types of what and part of this group
 
Neurotransmitters
Biological Amines
117
GABA and Glutamate are types of what and part of this group.
Which is excitatory and which...
 
Neurotransmitters
Amino Acids
GABA - Inhibitory
Glutamate - Excitatory
118
Substance P and Endorphins are types of what and part of this group.
Which is excitatory...
 
Neurotransmitters
Peptides
Substance P - Excitatory
Endorphins - Inhibitory
119
Morphine, Heroin, and Methadone mimic what?
 
Endorphins
120
Coffee, Tea, and Chocolate work by doing what?
 
Blocking receptor sites for inhibitory neurotransmitter in sleep-wake cycle, Adenosine.
121
Inhibitory neurotransmitter in sleep-wake cycle
 
Adenosine
122
Neurotransmitter, Endocannabinoid, is linked to what drug and it's effects?
 
Marijuana, increased appetite, memory loss
123
What type processing when one input travels one pathway to a specific destination resulting...
 
Serial Processing
Reflexes
124
What type of processing when one input travels along several pathways producing several responses. ...
 
Parallel Processing
A smell reminds of the odor and an associated experience.
125
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an excitatory neurotransmitter except in the _______________
 
Heart
126
Inhibitory CNS amino acid neurotransmitter is ___________, and excitatory is ____________
 
GABA
Glutamate
127
Substance P is blocked by ___________
 
Endorphins


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