Anatomy unit 3 part 2

105 cards

chap 11 muscl es unit


 
  
Created Jul 8, 2010
by
cmdennis

 

 
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1
Universal Characteristics of Muscle (5)
 

- responsiveness

- conductivity

- contractability

- extensibility

-...

2
Responsiveness
 

- (excitability)

- capable of response to chemical signals, stretch or other signals,...

3
Conductivity
 
local electrical charge triggers a wave of excitation that travels along the muscle fiber
4
Contractility
 
shortens when stimulated
5
Extensibility
 
capable of being stretched
6
elasticity
 

returns to its original resting length after being stretched

 

7
Myofibers (muscle fibers)
 

- voluntary striated muscle attached to bones

- as long as 30 cm

8
Muscle fiber drawing
 
page 406
9
Triad
 
T tubule and 2 terminal cisternae
10
Active Site
 
region of a protein that binds to a ligand
11
Sarcolemma
 

plasme membrane

tunnel like T-tibules that penetrate the cell

carry electric...

12
Sarcoplasm
 

cytoplasm

contains myofibrils, glycogen, myoglobin, mitochondria

13
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
 

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

network around each myofibril

14
Myofibrils
 
bundles of parallel protein microfilaments called myofilaments
15
Myofilaments
 
3 types: thick, thin, elastic
16
Terminal Cisternae
 
dilated end sacs that store calcium
17
Thick filaments
 

made up of ab. 500 myosin molecules

2 intertwined polypeptides (golf clubs)

arranged...

18
Bare Zone
 
central area with no heads
19
Thin Filaments
 

2 intertwined strands of fibrous actin (string of golf balls)

have active site for...

20
G Actin (globular)
 
a subunit of fibrous actin with an active site (individual golf ball)
21
Tropomyosin
 
a "bar" that blocks the active sites for G actin
22
Troponin
 

"pad-lock"

calcium binding molecule stuck to each tropomyosin molecule

23
Elastic Filaments
 

keeps thick and thin filaments aligned with each other

resists overstretching

helps...

24
Titin
 

huge springy protein

runs through core of each thick filament

connects thick...

25
Contractile Protein
 

does the work

ex: myosin and actin

26
Regulatory Protein
 

ex: troponin and tropomyosin

act like a switch that starts and stops shortening...

27
Accessory Protein
 

ex: dystrophin

links actin of outermost myofilament to peripheral protein

28
Striations
 
myosin and actin organized in a precise way to produce dark and light bands due to overlapping
29
A Band
 

dark band of striation

think and thin filaments overlap

30
I Band
 

light band of striation

thin and elastic filaments overlap

31
Sarcomere
 
the segment of the  myofibril from one Z disc to another
32
Motor Unit
 
motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates
33
Small Motor Unit
 

fine degree of control

ex: writing tiny letters

34
Large Motor Unit
 

more strength than control

powerful contractions supplied by large motor units

ex:...

35
Synapse
 
point where a nerve fiber meets its target cell
36
Neuromuscular Junction
 
when target cell is a muscle fiber
37
Neuromuscular Junction Drawing
 
p. 411
38
Synaptic knob
 

swollen end of a nerve fiber

contains synaptic vessicles with acetylcholine

ACh...

39
synaptic cleft
 
tiny gap between synaptic knob and muscle sarcolemma
40
Schwann Cell
 

envelops and isolates all of the NMJ from surrounding tissue fluid

prevents leakage

41
Basal Lamina
 

thin layer of collagen and glycoprotein separates schwann cell and entire muscle from surrounding...

42
Polarized
 
having a charge
43
Resting Membrane Potential
 

due to Na outside of cell and K and other anions inside of cell

-90 mV maintained...

44
Depolarization
 

moving away from -90 mV

ion gates open allowing Na to rush into cell makind ICF...

45
Repolarization
 

going back towards -90 mV

K rushes out of cell making ICF negaitve again

46
Action Potential
 
quick up and down voltage shift
47
4 Actions involved in muscle contraction and relaxation
 

1) excitation

2) excitation

3) contraction

4) relaxation

48
1st step of contraction
 

arrival of nerve signal

nerve signal stimulates voltage gated calcium channels that...

49
2nd step
 
ACh is released
50
3rd step
 
ACh binds to a receptor on muscle cell
51
4th step
 

ligand gate opens and causes an end-plate potential

52
End Plate Potential
 

when Na and K channels open

voltage blips from -90 to 75 quickly

53
5th step
 

opening of voltage-regulated ion gates

action potentials are created

54
6th step
 
action potentials spreads down into T tubules
55
7th step
 
terminal cisternae release calcium
56
8th step
 
calcium binds to troponin
57
9th step
 
tropomyosin shifts and active sites on actin are exposed
58
10th step
 

myosin ATPase in myosin head hydrolyzes an ATP molecule, activating the head and cocking...

59
11th step
 

myosin-actin cross bridge is formed

(binds to active site on actin)

60
12th step
 
power stroke (sliding of thin filament over thick filament)
61
13th step
 

with the binding of more ATP, myosin head releases the thin filament and extends to attach...

62
14th step
 
nerve stimulation ceases and acetylcholinesterase removes ACh from receptors so stimulation...
63
15th step
 
ACh breaks down acteylcholinesterase
64
16th step
 

reabsorption of calcium ions by sarcoplasmic reticulum

* calsequestrin

65
Caslsequestrin
 
isolates calcium
66
17th step
 

loss of calcium ions from troponin

this moves over the active sites which stops...

67
18th step
 
return of tropomyosin to position blocking active sites of actin
68
Muscle TOne
 

partial contraction

(makes it not flabby)

69
Length Tension Relationship
 
amount of tension generated depends on length of muscle before it was stimulated
70
Threshold
 
minimum voltage necessary to produce action potential
71
Twitch
 
a single brief stimulus at that voltage produces a quick cycle of contraction and relaxation
72
Latent Period
 
2 msec delay between the onset of stimulus and onset of twitch response
73
6 Reasons a twitch will vary in strength
 

1) stimulus frequency

2) concentration of Ca in sarcoplasm

3) how stretched...

74
Recruitment
 

the process of bringing more motor units into play

 

75
MMU
 

multiple motor unit (recruitment)

ex: jug of milk, big box

76
Treppe
 

each twitch develops more tension than the one before

staircase

77
Temporal Summation
 
results from 2 stimuli arriving close together
78
Wave Summation
 
results from one wave of contraction added to another
79
Incomplete Tetanus
 
each stimulus arrives before the previous twitch is over
80
Complete Tetanus
 
no time to relax between stimuli so twitches fuse into smooth prolonged contractions
81
Isometric Muscle Contraction
 

develops tension without changing length

ex: the muscle tension right before you...

82
Isotonic Muscle Contraction
 

"keep same tone"

concentric and eccentric

83
Concentric
 

tension development while shortening

ex: curls, lifting the book

84
Eccentric
 

tension development while lengthening

ex: curls, letting it back down

85
How a muscle meets immediate demand for energy
 

- short, intense exercise

- 2 enzyme systems control these phosphate transfers

-...

86
Immediate demand for energy in short, intense exercise
 

Oxygen need is briefly supplied by myoglobin (stored)

muscles get ATP by borrowing...

87
Myokinase
 
transfers phosphate group from one adp to another
88
Creatine Phosphate (CP)
 
phosphate-storage molecule
89
Creatine Kinase
 

obtains phosphate group from CP

fast-acting system that helps maintain the ATP level...

90
Phosphagen System
 

ATP and CP collectively

provides nearly all energy used for short bursts of intense...

91
Muscle meets Short Term demand for Energy
 

as phosphagen system is exhausted, muscles shift to anaerobic fermentation

- muscles...

92
Glycogen Lactic Acid System
 
converts glucose to 2 ATP and lactic acid (toxic) in the absense of oxygen
93
Muscle meets Long Term demand for Energy
 

after a few seconds, respiratory and cardio systems catch up and deliver oxygen to the muscles...

94
Fatigue
 
progressive weakness and loss of contractility from prolonged use
95
Causes of Fatigue
 

- ATP synthesis declines as glycogen is consumed (run out of glucose)

- ATP shortage

-...

96
Oxygen Debt
 
the difference between the resting rate of oxygen consumption and the elevated rate following...
97
EPOC
 

excess post-exercise oxygen consumption- when heavy breathing continues after strenous exercise

-...

98
4 purposes of extra oxygen
 

1) replease oxygen reserves of myoglobin depleted in the first minute of exercise

2)...

99
Slow Oxidative muscle fibers
 

slow-twitch, red, or type I

abundant mitochondria, myoglobin and capillaries (blood)

adapted...

100
Fast Glycolytic muscle fibers
 

fast-twitch, white, or type II fibers

well adapted for quick responses, bur not...

101
Factors that affect muscle strength
 

1) muscle size

2) fascicle arrangement

3) size of motor units

4)...

102
Resistance Exercise
 

weightlifiting

stimulates cell enlargement due to synthesis of more myofilaments

myofibrils...

103
Endurance Training
 

aerobic exercises

produces an increase in mitochondria, glycogen, and density of...

104
Skeletal vs. Smooth vs. Cardiac muscles
 
table 11.5 page 431
105
Smooth Muscles response to stretch
 

stretch opens calcium gate

stress-relaxation response necessary for hollow organs...

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