ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-BLOOD

39 cards


 
  
Created Apr 14, 2009
by
ginnyk08

 

 
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1
Blood Characteristics *pH between (1) *Temperature of (2) *Composes about (3) of body...
 
1) 7.35 and 7.45 2) 38 degrees C or 100.4 degrees F 3) 8% 4) 6 quarts 5) 5X
2
Blood Functions *(1) nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones *Helps maintain the stability...
 
1) Transports 2) interstitial fluid 3) Heat
3
Composition of Blood Red blood cells About (1) of total blood volume This...
 
1) 45% 2) hematocrit 3) 1% 4) 55% 5) Mixture
4
pH of blood (1) – condition when blood pH shifts in an acid direction. (2) – condition...
 
1) Acidosis 2) Alkalosis 3) respiratory and renal 4) 7.35 to 7.45
5
Blood Cell Types (1) blood cells *Erythrocytes *Biconcave discs *This shape...
 
1) Red 2) Gases 3) surface area 4) hemoglobin
6
Red Blood Cell Production     “Erythropoiesis” *Initially occurs in (1) *After birth,...
 
1) yolk sac, liver, and spleen 2) bones 3) 120 days 4) Erythropoietin 5) Released 6) oxygen...
7
Dietary Factors that Affect RBC Production     B-complex vitamins Necessary for (1) synthesis Iron Necessary...
 
1) DNA 2) hemoglobin  
8
Anemia   Too few(1) or too little (2) This reduces the (3) of the blood which can result...
 
1)  red blood cells 2) hemoglobin 3) oxygen-carrying capacity 4) anemia    
9
Anemia     Iron Deficiency Anemia Causes Chronic (1) Dietary (2) Increased (3) requirement Pregnancy,...
 
1) blood loss 2) deficiency 3) iron 4) skin 5) shortness of 6) Decreased 7) Decreased  
10
Anemia     Megaloblastic Anemias Defined by large, abnormal appearing (1) in the (2) Caused...
 
1) red blood cell precursor cells 2) bone marrow 3) B12 or folate 4) Decreased 5) neurologic...
11
Anemia     Hemolytic anemias Result from increased (1) Either (2) determined or acquired Many...
 
1) red cell destruction 2) genetically 3) single base 4) amino acid sequence 5) crystallizing 6)...
12
RBC Destruction As they age, RBCs become (1) (2) destroy damaged RBCs in the liver and...
 
1) fragile and damaged 2) Macrophages 3) Hemoglobin molecules
13
Destruction of RBC's   Red blood cells have an average life span of (1)   (2) in the...
 
1) 120 Days 2) Macrophanges 3) hemoglobin 4) hydrolyzed 5) Bilirubin 6) Bile 7) transferrin 8)...
14
White Blood Cells   Protect against (1) Develop in response to (2) Interleukins Colony-stimulating...
 
1) disease 2) hormones
15
White Blood Cells   Granulocytes (1) the size of a RBC   (2) Fine cytoplasmic granules...
 
1) Twice 2) Neutrophils 3) Eosinophils 4) Basophils    
16
White Blood Cells   Agranulocytes   (1) Arise from red bone marrow Largest blood cells Nuclei...
 
1) Monocytes 2) Lymphocytes  
17
Types of lymphocytes    (1) – matures in the thymus gland – do not produce antibodies,...
 
1) T lymphocytes 2) B lymphocytes
18
White Blood Cell Counts     Number of white blood cells in a microliter of human blood Normally...
 
1) 4500-10,000 cells 2) leukocytosis 3) acute infection 4) leukemia 5) leukopenia 6)...
19
Platelets   Develop from(1) in response to (2) Arise from very large cells called (3)...
 
1)  hemocytoblasts 2) thrombopoietin 3) megakaryocytes 4) nucleus 5) damaged blood vessels...
20
Blood Plasma     (1) water and contains organic and inorganic (2) Functions Transporting...
 
1) 92% 2) biochemicals 3) nutrients, gases, vitamins 4) fluid and electrolyte 5) pH    
21
Blood Plasma     Plasma proteins Most (1) of the dissolved substances (2) Smallest,...
 
1) abundant 2) Albumins 3) Globulins 4) Fibrinogin
22
Blood Plasma     (1) Oxygen and carbon dioxide are most important Also contains nitrogen (2) Amino...
 
1) Gasses 2) Nutrients 3) Non-protein nitrogenous substances
23
 
Fact
24
Blood Plasma   Electrolytes Absorbed from the (1) or released as (2) Include sodium,...
 
1) intestine 2) by-products of cellular metabolism 3) Sodium and chloride 4) osmotic pressure...
25
Hemostasis   The (?) of bleeding Three important steps (1) (2) (3)
 
?) stoppage   1) Blood vessel spasm 2) Platelet plug formation 3) Blood coagulation  
26
 Blood Vessel Spasm   Breaking a smaller blood vessel stimulate contraction of smooth muscles...
 
1) Vasospasm 2) lessens 3) Only a few minutes  4) Serotonin
27
Platelet Plug Formation   Platelets (1) to any rough surface and to collagen in connective...
 
1) adhere 2) Plug 3) vascular break
28
 Blood Coagulation   Formation of a (1) Uses many clotting factors Some promote (2) and...
 
1) blood clot 2) coagulation 3) anticoagulants 4) concentration    
29
Blood Coagulation   Major event is conversion of (1) into (2)             ...
 
1) soluble fibrinogen 2) insoluble fibrin 3) tissue thromboplastin 4) prothrombin activator 5) calcium...
30
Blood Coagulation   Once fibrin threads form, they stick to the exposed surfaces of (1),...
 
1) damaged blood vessels 2) blood cells and platelets 3) blood clot 4) degree of tissue...
31
Dissolving of Blood Clots   Fibroblasts invade(1) and produce (2)  that helps strengthen...
 
1)  blood clots 2) fibrous connective tissue 3) blood vessel 4) disappear 5) plasminogen...
32
DISORDERS OF HEMOSTASIS   Blood normally clots within (1) Undesirable clotting (2): ...
 
1) 3 to 6 minutes 2) Thrombus 3) Embolus 4) Thrombocytopenia 5) Hemophilia
33
Thrombocytopenia   Platelet count below (1) Usually asymptomatic until platelet count reaches...
 
1) 100,000 2) 20,000 3) production 4) destruction 5) loss 6) dilution      
34
Hemophilia   Caused by deficiencies of (1) Manifests as bleeding from larger vessels, resulting...
 
1) clotting factors 2) joint hematomas
35
Hemophilia A   (1) recessive Deficiency of factor VIII Characterized by bleeding into (3),...
 
1) X-linked 2) VIII 3) Muscles 4) Tissue 5) Joints 6) recombinant factor VIII
36
Hemophilia B     “(1) disease” Indistinguishable from (2) Factor (3) deficiency Treatment...
 
1) Christmas 2) hemophilia A 3) IX 4) replacement of factor IX
37
Blood Groups   Antigens and Antibodies (1) is the clumping of RBCs after a transfusion...
 
1) Agglutination 2) antigens 3) Plasma 4) serious transfusion reactions 5)  ABO 6)...
38
ABO Blood Group   Based on the presence or absence of (?)             ...
 
?) two major protein antigens – A and B 1) Only A 2) Only B 3) Both A and B 4) Or neither...
39
Rh Blood Group   Named after the (1)  in which it was first studied Most...
 
1) rhesus monkey 2) antigen D 3) Rh positive 4)  Rh negative 5) inherited trait


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