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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-BLOOD


  
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Blood Characteristics *pH between (1) *Temperature of (2) *Composes about (3) of body weight (approximately (4)) *(5) more viscous than water
 
1) 7.35 and 7.45 2) 38 degrees C or 100.4 degrees F 3) 8% 4) 6 quarts 5) 5X
Blood Functions *(1) nutrients, oxygen, wastes, and hormones *Helps maintain the stability of the (2) *Distributes (3)
 
1) Transports 2) interstitial fluid 3) Heat
Composition of Blood Red blood cells About (1) of total blood volume This percentage is called “(2)” White blood cells and Platelets Less than (3) Liquid (plasma) About (4) (5) of water, amino acids, proteins, carbs, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes
 
1) 45% 2) hematocrit 3) 1% 4) 55% 5) Mixture
pH of blood (1) – condition when blood pH shifts in an acid direction. (2) – condition when blood pH shifts in a basic direction. Both the (3) systems are called into play to get the pH back into the normal range of (4).
 
1) Acidosis 2) Alkalosis 3) respiratory and renal 4) 7.35 to 7.45
Blood Cell Types (1) blood cells *Erythrocytes *Biconcave discs *This shape helps transport (2) because it increases (3) *Also makes cell membrane closer to (4), the oxygen-carrying molecule in the cell
 
1) Red 2) Gases 3) surface area 4) hemoglobin

Red Blood Cell Production
 
  “Erythropoiesis” *Initially occurs in (1) *After birth, occurs in spaces of (2) *Average life span is (3) *(4) is the hormone that controls the rate of red blood cell formation through negative feedback *(5) by kidneys and liver in response to prolonged (6)
 

1) yolk sac, liver, and spleen
2) bones
3) 120 days
4) Erythropoietin
5) Released
6) oxygen deficiency
 
 

Dietary Factors that Affect RBC Production
 
  B-complex vitamins Necessary for (1) synthesis Iron Necessary for (2) synthesis
 

1) DNA
2) hemoglobin
 

Anemia
  Too few(1) or too little (2) This reduces the (3) of the blood which can result in pale skin color and fatigue Many different kinds of (4)
 

1)  red blood cells
2) hemoglobin
3) oxygen-carrying capacity
4) anemia
 
 

Anemia
 
  Iron Deficiency Anemia Causes Chronic (1) Dietary (2) Increased (3) requirement Pregnancy, infancy, preadolescents Symptoms Pale(4), fatigue,(5) breath Labs (6) hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RBC count (7) serum iron and increased iron binding capacity
 

1) blood loss
2) deficiency
3) iron
4) skin
5) shortness of
6) Decreased
7) Decreased
 

Anemia
 
  Megaloblastic Anemias Defined by large, abnormal appearing (1) in the (2) Caused by (3) deficiency Lab abnormalities (4)  red cells, white cells, and platelets Main difference is in clinical symptoms  With B12 deficiency may have (5) due to degeneration of the spinal cord; folate deficiency does not have (6)
 

1) red blood cell precursor cells
2) bone marrow
3) B12 or folate
4) Decreased
5) neurologic symptoms
6) neurologic symptoms
 

Anemia
 
  Hemolytic anemias Result from increased (1) Either (2) determined or acquired Many different types Sickle cell anemia Caused by a (3) change in DNA that changes the(4)in the RBC Results in hemoglobin (5) in low oxygen environments The mutated blood cells are (6)shaped and can block (7) leading to joint pain and organ damage
 

1) red cell destruction
2) genetically
3) single base
4) amino acid sequence
5) crystallizing
6) abnormally
7) circulation
 
 
RBC Destruction As they age, RBCs become (1) (2) destroy damaged RBCs in the liver and spleen (3) are released and recycled
 
1) fragile and damaged 2) Macrophages 3) Hemoglobin molecules

Destruction of RBC's
 
Red blood cells have an average life span of (1)
 
(2) in the spleen, the liver, and bone marrow phagocytize worn out RBC's to yeild the two compntents of (3), the protien portion(globin), which is (4) into amino acids and heme.
The heme is broken down into "(5)" (a (6) pigment), which is excreted, and iron: the iron is transported by plasma protien called "(7)"  back to the bone marrow and reused in the producation of (8).
 

1) 120 Days
2) Macrophanges
3) hemoglobin
4) hydrolyzed
5) Bilirubin
6) Bile
7) transferrin
8) new hemoglobin
 
 
 
 
 

White Blood Cells
  Protect against (1) Develop in response to (2) Interleukins Colony-stimulating factors
 

1) disease
2) hormones

White Blood Cells
  Granulocytes (1) the size of a RBC   (2) Fine cytoplasmic granules that appear light purple in neutral stain Lobed nucleus with 2-5 sections (3) Course, uniform cytoplasmic granules that appear deep red in acid stain Nucleus has two lobes (4) Similar to eosinophils but with fewer more irregularly shaped cytoplasmic granules Deep blue in basic stain
 

1) Twice
2) Neutrophils
3) Eosinophils
4) Basophils
 
 

White Blood Cells
  Agranulocytes   (1) Arise from red bone marrow Largest blood cells Nuclei vary in shape (2) Slightly larger than RBCs Large round nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm
 

1) Monocytes
2) Lymphocytes
 

Types of lymphocytes
 
 (1) – matures in the thymus gland – do not produce antibodies, but are involved in cell mediated immunity.
  (2) – matures in the bone marrow – produce antibodies and are involved in humoral immunity.
 

1) T lymphocytes
2) B lymphocytes

White Blood Cell Counts
 
  Number of white blood cells in a microliter of human blood Normally (1) An increase above the “normal” value = (2) Generally indicates (3) Greatly elevated levels may indicate (4) A decrease below the “normal” value = (5) May occur with certain (6) like influenza, measles, mumps, chickenpox, AIDS, or polio
 

1) 4500-10,000 cells
2) leukocytosis
3) acute infection
4) leukemia
5) leukopenia
6) infections

Platelets
  Develop from(1) in response to (2) Arise from very large cells called (3) Lack a (4) Helps close breaks in (5) and initiates formation of (6)
 

1)  hemocytoblasts
2) thrombopoietin
3) megakaryocytes
4) nucleus
5) damaged blood vessels
6) blood clots
 

Blood Plasma
 
  (1) water and contains organic and inorganic (2) Functions Transporting (3) Helping regulate (4) balance Maintaining favorable (5)
 

1) 92%
2) biochemicals
3) nutrients, gases, vitamins
4) fluid and electrolyte
5) pH
 
 

Blood Plasma
 
  Plasma proteins Most (1) of the dissolved substances (2) Smallest, but account for 60% of the plasma proteins Synthesized in the liver Important determinant of osmotic pressure, thus helping regulate water movement between the blood and tissues (3) Make up 36% of plasma proteins Liver synthesizes alpha and beta globulins Important in transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins Lymphatic tissues produce gamma globulins Type of antibody (4) Largest; 4% of plasma proteins Functions in blood coagulation Synthesized in the liver
 

1) abundant
2) Albumins
3) Globulins
4) Fibrinogin

Blood Plasma
 
  (1) Oxygen and carbon dioxide are most important Also contains nitrogen (2) Amino acids, simple sugars, nucleotides, and lipids (3) Molecules that have nitrogen atoms but aren’t proteins Amino acids, urea, uric acid
 

1) Gasses
2) Nutrients
3) Non-protein nitrogenous substances
 
Fact

Blood Plasma
  Electrolytes Absorbed from the (1) or released as (2) Include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, and sulfate ions (3) are most abundant Bicarbonate is important in maintaining (4)
 

1) intestine
2) by-products of cellular metabolism
3) Sodium and chloride
4) osmotic pressure and pH of plasma
 
 

Hemostasis
  The (?) of bleeding Three important steps (1) (2) (3)
 

?) stoppage
 
1) Blood vessel spasm
2) Platelet plug formation
3) Blood coagulation
 

 Blood Vessel Spasm
  Breaking a smaller blood vessel stimulate contraction of smooth muscles in its walls, called (1) Blood loss (2) almost immediately Lasts (3) Also, as platelets come to the area they release (4), which contracts smooth muscles further
 

1) Vasospasm
2) lessens
3) Only a few minutes 
4) Serotonin

Platelet Plug Formation
  Platelets (1) to any rough surface and to collagen in connective tissue Platelets also adhere to each other, forming a (2) in the (3)
 

1) adhere
2) Plug
3) vascular break

 Blood Coagulation
  Formation of a (1) Uses many clotting factors Some promote (2) and some inhibit it Normally (3) prevail, but in the setting of injury chemicals that favor coagulation may increase in (4)
 

1) blood clot
2) coagulation
3) anticoagulants
4) concentration
 
 

Blood Coagulation
 
Major event is conversion of (1) into (2)             
First, damaged tissues release(3) which results in production of (4)                    
This requires (5_
Prothrombin activator acts on (6)
Prothrombin is an (7)produced by the (8) which is converted to (9)
(10) catalyzes a reaction that cuts fibrinogen into (11) which join and form long threads
 
 

1) soluble fibrinogen
2) insoluble fibrin
3) tissue thromboplastin
4) prothrombin activator
5) calcium ions, proteins,and phospholipids
6) prothrombin
7) alpha globulin
8) liver
9)thrombin
10) Thrombin
11) pieces of fibrin
 
 
 
 

Blood Coagulation
 
Once fibrin threads form, they stick to the exposed surfaces of (1), creating a meshwork that entraps (2)
Result is a (3)
The amount of prothrombin activator that appears in the blood is directly proportional to the (4)
 

1) damaged blood vessels
2) blood cells and platelets
3) blood clot
4) degree of tissue damage

Dissolving of Blood Clots
 
Fibroblasts invade(1) and produce (2)  that helps strengthen the (3)
Most clots (4)  in time
This requires activation of (5)      
This protein-splitting enzyme digests (6)
 

1)  blood clots
2) fibrous connective tissue
3) blood vessel
4) disappear
5) plasminogen to plasmin
6) fibrin threads
 
 

DISORDERS OF HEMOSTASIS
 
Blood normally clots within (1)
Undesirable clotting
(2):  blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel
Embolus:  clot that dislodges and is carried away by blood flow
Bleeding disorders
(4)
(5)
 

1) 3 to 6 minutes
2) Thrombus
3) Embolus
4) Thrombocytopenia
5) Hemophilia

Thrombocytopenia
 
Platelet count below (1)
Usually asymptomatic until platelet count reaches below (2)
At this time, petechial cutaneous bleeding, intracranial bleeding, and oozing from mucosal surfaces may be seen
Result of decreased (3), increased (4), unreplaced (5), or (6) of platelets
 

1) 100,000
2) 20,000
3) production
4) destruction
5) loss
6) dilution
 
 
 

Hemophilia  
Caused by deficiencies of (1)
Manifests as bleeding from larger vessels, resulting in (2) , large ecchymoses, and extensive bleeding with trauma
 

1) clotting factors
2) joint hematomas

Hemophilia A
 
(1) recessive
Deficiency of factor VIII
Characterized by bleeding into (3), subcutaneous (4), and (5)
Treatment is (6)
 
 

1) X-linked
2) VIII
3) Muscles
4) Tissue
5) Joints
6) recombinant factor VIII

Hemophilia B
 
 
“(1) disease”
Indistinguishable from (2)
Factor (3) deficiency
Treatment is (4)
 
 

1) Christmas
2) hemophilia A
3) IX
4) replacement of factor IX

Blood Groups

Antigens and Antibodies
(1) is the clumping of RBCs after a transfusion reaction
RBCs have surface molecules called (2) which react with antibodies carried in (3)
Only a few antigens can produce (4), including the(5) group and the (6) group
Symptoms of a transfusion reaction might include (7)
 

1) Agglutination
2) antigens
3) Plasma
4) serious transfusion reactions
5) ABO
6) Rh
7) anxiety, breathing difficulty, facial flushing, headache, and severe neck, chest, and back pain

ABO Blood Group

Based on the presence or absence of (?)
RBCs have only one of four possible combinations
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
This blood type is (5)
 

?) two major protein antigens – A and B
1) Only A
2) Only B
3) Both A and B
4) Or neither A nor B
5) inherited

Rh Blood Group

Named after the (1) in which it was first studied
Most prevalent antigen in humans is (2)
If present, blood is said to be (3)
If absent, it is (4)
Also an (5)
 

1) rhesus monkey
2) antigen D
3) Rh positive
4) Rh negative
5) inherited trait

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