Anatomy & Physiology 5th Ed Gunstream

Chapter 10 To 16
  
Created Nov 10, 2012
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CH 10 Endoctine System  Define Endocrine gland.
A ductless gland whose secretions into the blood.
CH 10   Endoctine System Define Hormone
(  hormon = to set in motion) A chemical messenger secreted by an endocrine...
CH 10  Define Negative-feedback mechanism.
A mechanism that returns a condition to its normal state, thereby maintaining homeostasis.
CH 10  Define  Hypersecretion
(hyper = above) Production of an excessive amount of a secretion.
CH 10  Define  Hyposecretion
(hypo = below) Production of an insufficient amount of secretion.
CH 10  Define Prostaglandin
A chemical released by cells producing local actions by nearby cells.
CH 10  What is a second messenger?
Intracellular molecule, activated by a nonsteroid hormone, that produces the specific cellular...
CH 10  Define Target cell
A Target Cell is a cell whose functions are affected by a specific hormone.
CH 10 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland. What dose the Growth Hormone (GH) do?
GH Promotes growth of body cells and cell division; promotes protein synthesis  
CH 10  Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.What does the Thyroid-stimulating hormone...
It stimulates the thyroid to produce the thyroid hormone.
CH 10  Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland. What does the Adrenocorticotropic hormone...
It Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids.
CH 10  Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland. What does the Follicle-stimulating hormone...
In ovaries it stimulates development of follicles and secretion of estrogen, In...
CH 10  Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland. What does the Luteinizing hormone (LH)...
In females, promotes ovulation, secretion of progesterone by ovaries, preparation...
CH 10  Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland. What does Prolactin (PRL) do?
It Stimulates milk secretion and maintains milk production by mammary glands.
CH 10  Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland. What does the  Antidiuretic...
It Decreases excretion of water by kidneys.
CH 10  Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland.   What does the...
It stimulates contractions of uterus in childbirth and contraction of milk glands when nursing...
CH 10  Hormones of the Thyroid Gland. What does the Thyroxine (T 4 ) and Triiodothyronine...
It Increase metabolic rate; accelerate growth and stimulate neural activity.  
CH 10 Hormones of the Thyroid Gland. What does Calcitonin (CT) do?
It Lowers blood calcium levels by promoting calcium deposition in bones; inhibits removal of...
CH 10  Parathyroid Hormone. What does the Parathyroid hormone (PTH) do?
It Increases blood calcium level by promoting calcium removal from bones and calcium reabsorption...
CH 10  Hormones of the Adrenal Glands. (Adrenal Medulla) What does the Epinephrine and...
Prepare body to meet emergencies; increase heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, and...
CH 10  Hormones of the Adrenal Glands. (Adrenal Cortex) What does the Aldosterone do?   
It Increases blood levels of sodium and water; decreases blood levels of potassium.
CH 10   Hormones of the Adrenal Glands. (Adrenal Cortex) What does the Cortisol...
It Promotes normal metabolism; provides resistance to stress and inhibits inflammation; promotes...
CH 10    Hormones of the Adrenal Glands. (Adrenal Cortex) What does the Adrenal...
It Effects are insignificant in normal adult males; contribute to the sex drive in females.
CH 10  Hormones of the Pancreas What does the Glucagon hormone do?
It Increases blood glucose by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen and other nutrients...
CH 10  Hormones of the Pancreas What does Insulin do?  
It Decreases blood glucose by aiding movement of glucose into cells and promoting the conversion...
CH 10  What does the Pineal Gland secret and where is it located?
It secretes the Hormone Melatonin which seems to regulate the wake-sleep cycle. The Pineal...
CH 11  Blood Define Agglutination
(agglutin = to stick together) The clumping of red blood cells in an antigen–antibody...
CH 11 Blood  Define Antibody
A protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen.
CH 11 Blood  Define Antigen
A substance that stimulates the production of antibodies.
CH 11  Blood  Define Erythrocyte
(erythr = red) A red blood cell.
CH 11  Blood  Define Formed elements
The cellular components of blood: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.
CH 11 Blood  Define Hemoglobin
(hemo = blood) The red, oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells.
CH 11  Blood  Define Leukocyte
 (leuk = white) A white blood cell.
CH 11 Blood   Define Plasma
The liquid portion of blood.
CH 11  Blood  Define Thrombocyte
(thromb = clot) A platelet; a formed element that initiates the clotting process.
CH 11  Blood  Define Thrombus
A stationary blood clot.
CH 11  Blood  What dose Hemoglobin consists of?
It consists of Heme, a pigment containing an IRON ATOM in its molecule and...
CH 11  Blood  What is another name for red blood cells (RBC's)
Erythrocytes
CH 11  Formed Elements in Blood  Describe a Erythrocyte and its function
They are Biconcaved disks with no nucleus that transports O2 oxygen and CO2 Carbon Dioxide  
CH 11  Formed Elements in Blood Describe a Leukocytes (WBC) and the function.  
 They are White blood cells (WBC) that keep its nucleus and helps defend against invasion...
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood Granulocytes  What is the color of Neutrophils...
They are Purple and functions is Phagocytosis (eating dead or dying cells)
CH 11  Formed Elements in Blood Granulocytes What is the color of Eosinophils and its...
They are Red and functions is to kill worms, it counteracts histamine, and destroys worms,...
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood Granulocytes. What is the color of Basophils and its function?   
They are Blue, U-shaped or lobed and intensifies swelling in response to allergic reactions...
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood AgranulocytesDescribe a Lymphocytes (T&B Cells)and its function?
They are slightly larger than RBC’s and provide immunity.
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood Agranulocytes. Describe a Monocytes and its function?
They are the largest and eats things Phagocytosis
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood.Describe Thrombocytes and what is another name?
Platelets which are tiny cytoplasmic fragments that form platelet plugs and start clotting...
CH 11.2  When Oxygen enters RBCs and combines with hemoglobin what does it form?
Oxyhemoglobin and giving it a bright red color
CH 11.2 What happens after the release of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin to body cells, and what...
The result is called deoxyhemoglobin and itcarries a small amount of carbon dioxide giving...
CH 10 Endoctine System Name 2 types of hormones their action on target cell and how it is...
2 types of hormones are Steroid/Steriod like and NON-Steriod. Steriod goes in the Nucleus...
CH 10 Endoctine System How does the HYPOTHALAMUS control the ANTERIOR PITUITARY?
Hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by secreating releasing and release-inhibiting...
What is the action of the hormone THYROXINE
Metabolism
What is the action of the hormone Calcitonin
Lower blood calcium
What is the action of the hormone PARATHYROID HORMONE
Raise blood calcium
What is the action of the hormone EPINEPHRINE
Short term stress
What is the action of the hormone ALDOSTERONE
Conserves salt
What is the action of the hormone CORTISOL
Long term stress
What is the action of the hormone Adrenal sex hormones
Not usually significant
What is the action of the hormone Glucagon
Raise blood glucose
What is the action of the hormone Insulin
Lowers blood glucose
What is the action of the hormone Melatonin
Wake / sleep cycle
CH 11 The Blood Define EXTRINSIC FACTOR
B-12  is obtained external to the body
CH 11 The Blood Define INTRINSIC FACTOR
stomach lining secreting the intrinsic factor helps absorption of B-12
CH 11 The Blood Define MACROPHAGE
Big WBC Macrophages engulf and digest old & damaged eryhrocytes(RBC). Big...
CH 11 The Blood Define BILIRUBIN
Found in bile, secreted by the liver in bile
CH 11 The Blood Of the formed element give the description and function of Erythrocytes (RBC's)...
RBC's are Biconcaved disks w/ no nucleus that transport oxgen
Of the formed element give the description and function of  Neutorphils
Neutorphils are Purple, Function is to defend=(Phagocytosis}
Of the formed element give the description and function of Eosinophils
Eosinophils are red, function is to defend=destroy parasitic worms, & counteract histamine...
Of the formed element give the description and function of Basophils
Basophils are blue, functions is to defend=Intensify inflammation - releasing histamine &...
Of the formed element give the description and function of Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes have a large nucleus & function has a vital role...
Of the formed element give the description and function of Platelets
Platelets are Cytoplasmic fragements & starts the clotting process.
What are four (4) constituents of plasma.
(4) constituents of plasma are 1. Fluid part of blood over 90% water 2. Electrolytes 3. Carbon...
For erytroblastosis fetalis to occur what must the blood type be?
Mother NEG Father  POS Baby    POS
What is given to the a mother whom is RH NEG?
Rhogam injection which works like antibodies fighting mothers antibodies.
What are the steps of the conduction system?
1. SA node fires 2. Atria contract 3. AV node fires 4. impulse goes to AV bundle 5. impulse...
Define systole
Systole is when the ventricles are contracting. (Top number in blood pressure)
Define Diastole
Diastole is whenthe bentricles are relased. (Bottom number in blood pressuer)
What is the function of the Right Atrium?
The Right Atrium RECEIVES blood fro the Venae Cavae.
What is the function of the Right Ventricle?
The Right Ventricle pumps blood to lungs.
What is the function of the Left Atrium?
The Left Atrium Receives blood from the Lungs
What is the function of the Left Ventricle?
The Left Ventricle pumps blood to the AORTA (body)
What is the function and structure of ARTERIES
Arteries move blood away from the heart & are elastic
What is the function and structure of Capillaries
Capillaries function by chemical exhange and are 1 cell layer thick.
What is the function and structure of Veins?
Veins move blood toward the heart and there structure has valves to preven backflow of blood.

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