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Anatomy & Physiology 5th Ed Gunstream


Chapter 10 To 16
  
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CH 10 Endoctine System

Define Endocrine gland.
 
A ductless gland whose secretions into the blood.
CH 10 Endoctine System

Define Hormone
 
( hormon = to set in motion)
A chemical messenger
secreted by an endocrine gland.
CH 10 Define Negative-feedback mechanism.
 
A mechanism that returns a condition to its normal state, thereby maintaining homeostasis.
CH 10 Define Hypersecretion
 
(hyper = above)

Production of an excessive amount of a secretion.
CH 10 Define Hyposecretion
 
(hypo = below) Production of an insufficient amount of secretion.
CH 10 Define Prostaglandin
 
A chemical released by cells producing local actions by nearby cells.
CH 10 What is a second messenger?
 
Intracellular molecule, activated by a nonsteroid hormone, that produces the specific cellular effect associated with the hormone.
CH 10 Define

Target cell
 
A Target Cell is a cell whose functions are
affected by a specific hormone.
CH 10 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

What dose the Growth Hormone (GH) do?
 
GH Promotes growth of body cells and cell division; promotes protein synthesis
CH 10 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary

Gland.What does the Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) do?




 
It stimulates the thyroid to produce the thyroid hormone.
CH 10 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

What does the Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) do?







 
It Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids.
CH 10 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

What does the Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).


 
In ovaries it stimulates development of follicles and secretion of estrogen,
In testes, stimulates the production of sperm.

CH 10 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

What does the Luteinizing hormone (LH) do?

 
In females, promotes ovulation, secretion of progesterone by ovaries, preparation of uterus to receive embryo, and preparation of mammary glands for milk secretion.
In males, stimulates testes to secrete testosterone.

CH 10 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

What does Prolactin (PRL) do?

 
It Stimulates milk secretion and maintains milk production by mammary glands.
CH 10 Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland.

What does the Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) do?


 
It Decreases excretion of water by kidneys.
CH 10 Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland.

What does the Oxytocin (OT) do?


 
It stimulates contractions of uterus in childbirth and contraction of milk glands when nursing infant.
CH 10 Hormones of the Thyroid Gland.

What does the Thyroxine (T 4 ) and Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) do?






 
It Increase metabolic rate; accelerate growth and stimulate neural activity.
CH 10 Hormones of the Thyroid Gland.

What does Calcitonin (CT) do?


 
It Lowers blood calcium levels by promoting calcium deposition in bones; inhibits removal of calcium from bones.
CH 10 Parathyroid Hormone.

What does the Parathyroid hormone (PTH) do?
 
It Increases blood calcium level by promoting calcium removal from bones and calcium reabsorption by kidneys.
The most important regulator of blood calcium levels.
CH 10 Hormones of the Adrenal Glands.
(Adrenal Medulla)
What does the Epinephrine and norepinephrine do?



 
Prepare body to meet emergencies; increase heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, and metabolic rate; increase blood sugar by converting glycogen to glucose; dilate respiratory passages.
CH 10 Hormones of the Adrenal Glands. (Adrenal Cortex)
What does the Aldosterone do?
 
It Increases blood levels of sodium and water; decreases blood levels of potassium.
CH 10 Hormones of the Adrenal Glands. (Adrenal Cortex)
What does the Cortisol do?

 
It Promotes normal metabolism; provides resistance to stress and inhibits inflammation; promotes formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources.
CH 10 Hormones of the Adrenal Glands. (Adrenal Cortex)
What does the Adrenal sex hormones do?

 
It Effects are insignificant in normal adult males; contribute to the sex drive in females.
CH 10 Hormones of the Pancreas
What does the Glucagon hormone do?
 
It Increases blood glucose by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen and other nutrients into glucose
CH 10 Hormones of the Pancreas
What does Insulin do?

 
It Decreases blood glucose by aiding movement of glucose into cells and promoting the conversion of glucose into glycogen.
CH 10
What does the Pineal Gland secret and where is it located?
 
It secretes the Hormone Melatonin which seems to regulate the wake-sleep cycle. The Pineal gland is a small cone shaped nodule of endocrine tissue located in the brain.
CH 11 Blood
Define Agglutination
 
(agglutin = to stick together) The clumping of red blood cells in an antigen–antibody reaction.
CH 11 Blood
Define Antibody
 
A protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen.
CH 11 Blood
Define Antigen

 
A substance that stimulates the production of antibodies.
CH 11 Blood
Define Erythrocyte
 
(erythr = red) A red blood cell.
CH 11 Blood
Define Formed elements
 
The cellular components of blood: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.
CH 11 Blood
Define Hemoglobin

 
(hemo = blood) The red, oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells.
CH 11 Blood
Define Leukocyte
 
(leuk = white) A white blood cell.
CH 11 Blood
Define Plasma
 
The liquid portion of blood.
CH 11 Blood
Define Thrombocyte
 
(thromb = clot) A platelet; a formed element that initiates the clotting process.
CH 11 Blood
Define Thrombus
 
A stationary blood clot.
CH 11 Blood

What dose Hemoglobin consists of?
 
It consists of Heme, a pigment containing an IRON ATOM in its molecule and globin, a protein.
CH 11 Blood

What is another name for red blood cells (RBC's)
 
Erythrocytes
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood

Describe a Erythrocyte and its function
 
They are Biconcaved disks with no nucleus that transports O2 oxygen and CO2 Carbon Dioxide
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood
Describe a Leukocytes (WBC) and the function.

 
They are White blood cells (WBC) that keep its nucleus and helps defend against invasion of microorganisms.
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood Granulocytes

What is the color of Neutrophils and its function?
 
They are Purple and functions is Phagocytosis (eating dead or dying cells)
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood Granulocytes
What is the color of Eosinophils and its function?
 
They are Red and functions is to kill worms, it counteracts histamine, and destroys worms, and phagocytosis.
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood Granulocytes.


What is the color of Basophils and its function?

 
They are Blue, U-shaped or lobed and intensifies swelling in response to allergic reactions by releasing histamine & heparin
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood AgranulocytesDescribe a Lymphocytes (T&B Cells)and its function?

 
They are slightly larger than RBC’s and provide immunity.
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood Agranulocytes.
Describe a Monocytes and its function?



 
They are the largest and eats things Phagocytosis
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood.Describe Thrombocytes and what is another name?


 
Platelets which are tiny cytoplasmic fragments that form platelet plugs and start clotting of the blood.
CH 11.2 When Oxygen enters RBCs and combines with hemoglobin what does it form?
 
Oxyhemoglobin and giving it a bright red color
CH 11.2 What happens after the release of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin to body cells, and what is it called?
 
The result is called deoxyhemoglobin and itcarries a small amount of carbon dioxide giving it a dark red color.
CH 10 Endoctine System

Name 2 types of hormones their action on target cell and how it is adminstered.

 
2 types of hormones are Steroid/Steriod like and NON-Steriod.

Steriod goes in the Nucleus Non-Steriod attaches outside.

Both are injected.
CH 10 Endoctine System

How does the HYPOTHALAMUS control the ANTERIOR PITUITARY?
 
Hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by secreating releasing and release-inhibiting hormones.
What is the action of the hormone THYROXINE
 
Metabolism
What is the action of the hormone Calcitonin
 
Lower blood calcium
What is the action of the hormone PARATHYROID HORMONE
 
Raise blood calcium
What is the action of the hormone EPINEPHRINE
 
Short term stress
What is the action of the hormone ALDOSTERONE
 
Conserves salt
What is the action of the hormone CORTISOL
 
Long term stress
What is the action of the hormone Adrenal sex hormones
 
Not usually significant
What is the action of the hormone Glucagon
 
Raise blood glucose
What is the action of the hormone Insulin
 
Lowers blood glucose
What is the action of the hormone Melatonin
 
Wake / sleep cycle
CH 11 The Blood Define EXTRINSIC FACTOR
 
B-12 is obtained external to the body
CH 11 The Blood Define INTRINSIC FACTOR
 
stomach lining secreting the intrinsic factor helps absorption of B-12
CH 11 The Blood Define MACROPHAGE
 
Big WBC Macrophages engulf and digest old & damaged eryhrocytes(RBC). Big eatters
CH 11 The Blood Define BILIRUBIN
 
Found in bile, secreted by the liver in bile
CH 11 The Blood

Of the formed element give the description and function of Erythrocytes (RBC's)
 
RBC's are Biconcaved disks w/ no nucleus that transport oxgen
Of the formed element give the description and function of Neutorphils
 
Neutorphils are Purple, Function is to defend=(Phagocytosis}
Of the formed element give the description and function of Eosinophils
 
Eosinophils are red, function is to defend=destroy parasitic worms, & counteract histamine release in allergic reactions.
Of the formed element give the description and function of Basophils
 
Basophils are blue, functions is to defend=Intensify inflammation - releasing histamine & heparin.
Of the formed element give the description and function of Lymphocytes
 
Lymphocytes have a large nucleus & function has a vital role in immunity Defends
Of the formed element give the description and function of Platelets
 
Platelets are Cytoplasmic fragements & starts the clotting process.
What are four (4) constituents of plasma.
 

(4) constituents of plasma are

1. Fluid part of blood over 90% water
2. Electrolytes
3. Carbon dioxide
4. Nutrients
For erytroblastosis fetalis to occur what must the blood type be?
 
Mother NEG
Father POS
Baby POS
What is given to the a mother whom is RH NEG?
 
Rhogam injection which works like antibodies fighting mothers antibodies.

What are the steps of the conduction system?
 
1. SA node fires
2. Atria contract
3. AV node fires
4. impulse goes to AV bundle
5. impulse goes to bundle branches
6. impluse goes to Purkinje fibers
7. ventricles contract
Define systole
 
Systole is when the ventricles are contracting. (Top number in blood pressure)
Define Diastole
 
Diastole is whenthe bentricles are relased. (Bottom number in blood pressuer)
What is the function of the Right Atrium?
 
The Right Atrium RECEIVES blood fro the Venae Cavae.
What is the function of the Right Ventricle?
 
The Right Ventricle pumps blood to lungs.
What is the function of the Left Atrium?
 
The Left Atrium Receives blood from the Lungs
What is the function of the Left Ventricle?
 
The Left Ventricle pumps blood to the AORTA (body)
What is the function and structure of ARTERIES
 
Arteries move blood away from the heart & are elastic
What is the function and structure of Capillaries
 
Capillaries function by chemical exhange and are 1 cell layer thick.
What is the function and structure of Veins?
 
Veins move blood toward the heart and there structure has valves to preven backflow of blood.

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