Anatomy & Physiology 5th Ed Gunstream

83 cards

Chapter 10 to 16


 
  
Created Nov 10, 2012
by
dakotamomx5

 

 
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1

CH 10 Endoctine System

 Define Endocrine gland.

 

A ductless gland whose secretions into the blood.

2
CH 10   Endoctine System

Define Hormone
 

(  hormon = to set in motion)
A chemical messenger

3
CH 10  Define Negative-feedback mechanism.
 

A mechanism that returns a condition to its normal state, thereby maintaining...

4
CH 10  Define  Hypersecretion
 

(hyper = above)

Production of an excessive amount of a secretion.

5
CH 10  Define  Hyposecretion
 

(hypo = below)

Production of an insufficient amount...

6
CH 10  Define Prostaglandin
 

A chemical released by cells producing local actions by nearby cells.

7
CH 10  What is a second messenger?
 

Intracellular molecule, activated by a nonsteroid hormone, that produces...

8
CH 10  Define

Target cell
 
A Target Cell is a cell whose functions are
affected by a specific...
9

CH 10 Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

What dose the Growth Hormone...

 

GH Promotes growth of body cells and cell division; promotes protein synthesis
 

10
CH 10  Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary

Gland.What does the Thyroid-stimulating...
 
It stimulates the thyroid to produce the thyroid hormone.
11
CH 10  Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

What does the Adrenocorticotropic...
 
It Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids.
12
CH 10  Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

What does the Follicle-stimulating...
 

In ovaries it stimulates development of follicles and secretion of estrogen,

13
CH 10  Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

What does the Luteinizing...
 
In females, promotes ovulation, secretion of progesterone by ovaries, preparation...
14
CH 10  Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

What does Prolactin (PRL)...
 
It Stimulates milk secretion and maintains milk production by mammary glands.
15
CH 10  Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland.

What does...
 
It Decreases excretion of water by kidneys.
16
CH 10  Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Gland. 

 What...
 
It stimulates contractions of uterus in childbirth and contraction of milk glands when nursing...
17
CH 10  Hormones of the Thyroid Gland.

What does the Thyroxine (T 4 ) and...
 
It Increase metabolic rate; accelerate growth and stimulate neural activity.
 
18
CH 10 Hormones of the Thyroid Gland.

What does Calcitonin (CT) do?

 
It Lowers blood calcium levels by promoting calcium deposition in bones; inhibits removal of...
19
CH 10  Parathyroid Hormone.

What does the Parathyroid hormone (PTH) do?
 
It Increases blood calcium level by promoting calcium removal from bones and calcium reabsorption...
20
CH 10  Hormones of the Adrenal Glands.
(Adrenal Medulla)
What does the Epinephrine...
 
Prepare body to meet emergencies; increase heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, and...
21
CH 10  Hormones of the Adrenal Glands. (Adrenal Cortex)
What does the Aldosterone...
 
It Increases blood levels of sodium and water; decreases blood levels of potassium.
22
CH 10   Hormones of the Adrenal Glands. (Adrenal Cortex)
What does the...
 
It Promotes normal metabolism; provides resistance to stress and inhibits inflammation; promotes...
23
CH 10    Hormones of the Adrenal Glands. (Adrenal Cortex)
What does the...
 
It Effects are insignificant in normal adult males; contribute to the sex drive in females.
24
CH 10  Hormones of the Pancreas
What does the Glucagon hormone do?
 
It Increases blood glucose by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen and other nutrients...
25

CH 10  Hormones of the Pancreas
What does Insulin do?

 

 
It Decreases blood glucose by aiding movement of glucose into cells and promoting the conversion...
26
CH 10 
What does the Pineal Gland secret and where is it located?
 
It secretes the Hormone Melatonin which seems to regulate the wake-sleep cycle. The Pineal...
27
CH 11  Blood
Define Agglutination
 
(agglutin = to stick together) The clumping of red blood cells in an antigen–antibody...
28
CH 11 Blood 
Define Antibody
 
A protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to a specific antigen.
29
CH 11 Blood 
Define Antigen

 
A substance that stimulates the production of antibodies.
30
CH 11  Blood 
Define Erythrocyte
 
(erythr = red) A red blood cell.
31
CH 11  Blood 
Define Formed elements
 
The cellular components of blood: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.
32
CH 11 Blood 
Define Hemoglobin

 
(hemo = blood) The red, oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells.
33
CH 11  Blood 
Define Leukocyte
 
 (leuk = white) A white blood cell.
34
CH 11 Blood  
Define Plasma
 
The liquid portion of blood.
35
CH 11  Blood 
Define Thrombocyte
 
(thromb = clot) A platelet; a formed element that initiates the clotting process.
36
CH 11  Blood 
Define Thrombus
 
A stationary blood clot.
37
CH 11  Blood 

What dose Hemoglobin consists of?
 

It consists of Heme, a pigment containing an IRON ATOM in its molecule...

38
CH 11  Blood 

What is another name for red blood cells (RBC's)
 

Erythrocytes

39
CH 11  Formed Elements in Blood 

Describe a Erythrocyte and its function
 

They are Biconcaved disks with no nucleus that transports O2 oxygen and CO2 Carbon...

40
CH 11  Formed Elements in Blood
Describe a Leukocytes (WBC) and the function.  
 

 They are White blood cells (WBC) that keep its nucleus and helps defend against...

41
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood Granulocytes 

What is the color of Neutrophils...
 

They are Purple and functions is Phagocytosis (eating dead or dying cells)

42
CH 11  Formed Elements in Blood Granulocytes
What is the color of Eosinophils and...
 

They are Red and functions is to kill worms, it counteracts histamine, and destroys worms,...

43
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood Granulocytes.


What is the color of Basophils...
 

They are Blue, U-shaped or lobed and intensifies swelling in response to allergic reactions...

44
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood AgranulocytesDescribe a Lymphocytes (T&B Cells)and its function?
 
They are slightly larger than RBC’s and provide immunity.
45
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood Agranulocytes.
Describe a Monocytes and its function?
 
They are the largest and eats things Phagocytosis
46
CH 11 Formed Elements in Blood.Describe Thrombocytes and what is another name?

 
Platelets which are tiny cytoplasmic fragments that form platelet plugs and start clotting...
47
CH 11.2  When Oxygen enters RBCs and combines with hemoglobin what does it form?
 
Oxyhemoglobin and giving it a bright red color
48
CH 11.2 What happens after the release of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin to body cells, and what...
 
The result is called deoxyhemoglobin and itcarries a small amount of carbon dioxide giving...
49
CH 10 Endoctine System

Name 2 types of hormones their action on target cell and...
 
2 types of hormones are Steroid/Steriod like and NON-Steriod.

Steriod goes in...
50
CH 10 Endoctine System

How does the HYPOTHALAMUS control the ANTERIOR PITUITARY?
 
Hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by secreating releasing and release-inhibiting...
51

What is the action of the hormone THYROXINE

 

Metabolism

52
What is the action of the hormone Calcitonin
 
Lower blood calcium
53
What is the action of the hormone PARATHYROID HORMONE
 
Raise blood calcium
54
What is the action of the hormone EPINEPHRINE
 
Short term stress
55
What is the action of the hormone ALDOSTERONE
 
Conserves salt
56
What is the action of the hormone CORTISOL
 
Long term stress
57
What is the action of the hormone Adrenal sex hormones
 
Not usually significant
58
What is the action of the hormone Glucagon
 
Raise blood glucose
59
What is the action of the hormone Insulin
 
Lowers blood glucose
60
What is the action of the hormone Melatonin
 
Wake / sleep cycle
61
CH 11 The Blood Define EXTRINSIC FACTOR
 
B-12  is obtained external to the body
62
CH 11 The Blood Define INTRINSIC FACTOR
 

stomach lining secreting the intrinsic factor helps absorption of B-12

63
CH 11 The Blood Define MACROPHAGE
 
Big WBC Macrophages engulf and digest old & damaged eryhrocytes(RBC). Big...
64
CH 11 The Blood Define BILIRUBIN
 

Found in bile, secreted by the liver in bile

65
CH 11 The Blood

Of the formed element give the description and function of Erythrocytes...
 
RBC's are Biconcaved disks w/ no nucleus that transport oxgen
66
Of the formed element give the description and function of  Neutorphils
 
Neutorphils are Purple, Function is to defend=(Phagocytosis}
67
Of the formed element give the description and function of Eosinophils
 
Eosinophils are red, function is to defend=destroy parasitic worms, & counteract histamine...
68
Of the formed element give the description and function of Basophils
 
Basophils are blue, functions is to defend=Intensify inflammation - releasing histamine &...
69
Of the formed element give the description and function of Lymphocytes
 
Lymphocytes have a large nucleus & function has a vital role...
70
Of the formed element give the description and function of Platelets
 
Platelets are Cytoplasmic fragements & starts the clotting process.
71
What are four (4) constituents of plasma.
 

(4) constituents of plasma are

1. Fluid part of blood over 90% water
72
For erytroblastosis fetalis to occur what must the blood type be?
 
Mother NEG
Father  POS
Baby    POS
73
What is given to the a mother whom is RH NEG?
 

Rhogam injection which works like antibodies fighting mothers antibodies.

74

What are the steps of the conduction system?
 
1. SA node fires
2. Atria contract
3. AV node fires
4. impulse goes to AV...
75
Define systole
 
Systole is when the ventricles are contracting. (Top number in blood pressure)
76
Define Diastole
 
Diastole is whenthe bentricles are relased. (Bottom number in blood pressuer)
77

What is the function of the Right Atrium?

 
The Right Atrium RECEIVES blood fro the Venae Cavae.
78
What is the function of the Right Ventricle?
 
The Right Ventricle pumps blood to lungs.
79
What is the function of the Left Atrium?
 
The Left Atrium Receives blood from the Lungs
80
What is the function of the Left Ventricle?
 

The Left Ventricle pumps blood to the AORTA (body)

81
What is the function and structure of ARTERIES
 

Arteries move blood away from the heart & are elastic

82
What is the function and structure of Capillaries
 
Capillaries function by chemical exhange and are 1 cell layer thick.
83
What is the function and structure of Veins?
 
Veins move blood toward the heart and there structure has valves to preven backflow of blood.

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