Anatomy & Physiology 1 (BIOL 2401) Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Flash Cards For Lone Star College BIOL 2401 With Dr. Hoyer.  Summer 2010

Flashcard Set Preview

Side ASide B
Anatomy means...
Structure (morphology)
Physiology means...
What is anatomical variability?
Humans vary in external and internal anatomy.
What is palpation?
Feel body surface with hands. (pulses and breathing rates)
What is auscultation?
Listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope.
What is percussion?
A method of tapping on a surface to determine the underlying structure. (abdomen and thorax)
What is an autopsy?
Postmortem (after death) examination of the body.
What is a disorder?
Derangement or abnormality of function.
What is a disease?
Illness characterized by recognizable signs and symptoms.
What is a sign?
Objective change that one can observe and measure.
What is a symptom?
Subjective change in body functions not apparent to observer.
What is a diagnosis?
Distinguishing one desease from another.
What are the levels of organization?
1) Chemical Level2) Cellular Level3) Tissue Level4) Organ Level5) System Level6) Organismal Level
What are the organ systems?
1) Muscular2) Reproductive3) Lymphatic4) Respiratory5) Integumentary6) Nervous7) Skeletal8) Urinary9) Digestive10) Endocrine11) ...
What are the (generally accepted) necessary life functions?
1) Maintain internal and external environment2) Movement (contractility)3) Assimilation4) Responsiveness (irritability)5) Digestion and absorption6) ...
What are the life survival needs?
1) Nutrients (carbs, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals)2) Oxygen (20% of "air"/oxidative reactions)3) Water (60-80% of body weight)4) Normal Body Temperature...
What is homeostasis?
To maintain a relatively stable internal environment in a changing external environment.
What are some features of homeostasis?
1) Disruption of homeostatis can lead to disease and death2) Requires most of the body's metabolic energy3) Normal values for the general population are clinically...
What are the 3 interdependent components of control?
1) Receptor2) Control Center3) Effector
What is a receptor?
Monitors environments and responds to stimuli
What is a control center?
Interprets signals and maintains set point
What is an effector?
Provides a response to the stimulus.
What is a local disease?
is an infectious process that originates in and is confined to one organ system or general area in the body, such as a sprained ankle, a boil on the hand, an abscess of finger.
What is a systemic disease?
is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole
What is a negative feedback loop?
A type of self-regulating system where increased output from the system inhibits future production by the system. In other words, the system controls how much...
Negative feedback mechanisms can become overwhelmed allowing what?
Destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over.
What is a positive feedback loop?
Positive feedback loops enhance or amplify changes; this tends to move a system away from its equilibrium state and make it more unstable and short-lived.Examples are [normal] blood...
Intracellular fluid (ICF) is located where?
Inside cells
Extracellular fluid (ECF) is located where?
Outside cells
ECF is made up of what components?
1) Interstitial/Intercellular/Tissue fluid (bathes and surrounds cells)2) Plasma
What are two descriptions of fluids?
1) Fluids are in constant motion2) Fluids surround all body cells
What is the anatomical position?
1) Standing upright2) Facing the observer3) Head level4) Feet flat on the floor5) Feet slightly apart6) Palms forward7) Thumbs out
What are the anatomical directional terms and meanings?
Anterior: In front of, front Posterior: After, behind, following, toward the rear Distal: Away from, farther from the origin Proximal: Near,...
Know the anterior regional terms/locations.

See image
Know the posterior regional terms/locations.

See image
What are the planes of the body?
1) Frontal (coronal, vertical)-front/back2) Median (midsagittal, veritcal))-right/left sides thru center3) Transverse (cross-section, horizontal)-top/bottom
What are the body cavities?
1) Dorsal (contains cranial cavity and vertebral canal)2) Ventral (contains thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities)
What is the difference between the parietal and visceral membranes?
Parietal membranes face an outer wall, and visceral membranes face an inner wall. In between the membranes is a space containing serous fluid.
What are the 3 serous cavities of the body?
The pericardial cavity (surrounding the heart), pleural cavity (surrounding the lungs) and peritoneal cavity (surrounding most organs of the abdomen.
What are the other body cavities?
1) oral2) digestive3) nasal4) orbital5) middle ear6) synovial (joint cavities)
What are the 9 abdominopelvic regions and what organs are located within each one?

See image
What are the abdominopelvic quadrants?

See image

Upgrade and get a lot more done!