Anatomy, Pathophysiology, and Disease Processes Block 1

531 cards

Medical conditions and explanations.


 
  
Created May 12, 2011
by
mrschenault

 

 
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1
Chemical
 
Atoms and molecules. Atoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, and calcium are essential to the maintenance...
2
Cellular
 
Molecules combine to form cells. The cells of the body are the basic structural and functional...
3
Epithelial
 
Protective tissue found in the linings of cavities and organs and as part of the integumentary...
4
Muscle (tissue)
 
Responsible for all of the movement of the body. It is subdivided into divisions of skeletal...
5
Connective (tissue)
 
Tissue that binds the body together and supports posture and function. This tissue is divided...
6
Nervous (tissue)
 
Composed of nerve cells. It is used as the communication system of the body by passing electronic...
7
Organ
 
The different kinds of tissue discussed above combine to form the organ level. The organs are...
8
System
 
A system is made up of several organs that have a common function. For example, the organs...
9
Organism
 
The largest structural level is the organism level. All the parts which make up the body and...
10
Tissue
 
Tissues are made up of groups of cells and the materials surrounding them. They work together...
11
Acquired
 
This means that the patient was not born with it (it was not hereditary or congenital).
Example:...
12
Congenital
 
Present at birth. This differs from a hereditary condition in that it is not necessarily inherited...
13
Deficiency
 
A lack or defect. Many diseases are caused by a lack of some vital chemical substance or compound,...
14
Degenerative
 
Pertaining to deteriorating. Going from normal to less than normal or dysfunctional. The deterioration...
15
Developmental
 
A type of disease that occurs as a result of some abnormality in the development of tissue,...
16
Essential
 
A term assigned to diseases for which the cause is unknown. It is assumed that it arises spontaneously,...
17
Familial
 
Occurring in or affecting more members of a family than would be expected by chance alone,...
18
Functional
 
A functional disease is one in which the structure is unaffected but it is not functioning...
19
Hereditary
 
This term means genetically transmitted from parent to offspring, and should be a familiar...
20
Idiopathic
 
This also means of unknown cause, arising spontaneously, such as idiopathic cardiomyopathy.
Example:...
21
Infectious
 
A disease that is caused by an infection (that makes sense, doesn’t it?). An infection is...
22
Molecular
 
A disease caused by abnormality in the chemical structure or concentration of a single molecule...
23
Neoplastic
 
Pertaining to any new and abnormal growth, specifically a new growth of tissue which is progressive...
24
Nutritional
 
A disease caused by nutritional factors, such as insufficient or excessive dietary intake....
25
Organic
 
A disease that is due to a demonstrable abnormality in a bodily structure or the composition...
26
Traumatic
 
Resulting from some type of injury: physical, chemical, or psychological. Many pathologies...
27
Acute
 
A short and relatively severe course. A patient with an acute illness has not been experiencing...
28
Asymptomatic
 
Having no symptoms. Although generally individuals do not go to a doctor or hospital when they...
29
Chronic
 
Persisting over a long period of time. This is the opposite of acute. A chronic condition can...
30
Disabling
 
Causes impairment of normal functions. This could include impairment of motility (walking),...
31
End-stage
 
A progressively deteriorating condition that has reached a point of terminal functional impairment...
32
Axial skeleton
 
The axial skeleton has 80 bones and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, thoracic...
33
Appendicular skeleton
 
The appendicular skeleton has 126 bones and includes the bones of the upper and lower extremities.
  • Upper...
34
Erythrocytes   
 
red blood cells
35
Lymphocytes   
 
white blood cells
36
Red blood cells
 
carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
37
White blood cells
 
help fight infections and aid the immune system
38
Stem cells
 
reproduce themselves and all other blood cells
39
Monocytes
 
white blood cells
40
Neutrophils
 
white blood cells
41
Phosphorus
 
mineral
42
Minerals provide bones with
 
rigidity and strength
43
Bone cells
 
Cells the body has programmed to create bones
44
Immature bone
 
The first formation of bone
45
Mature bone
 
Bone that has ossified and calcified
46
Ossification
 
Bone formation
47
Osteoblasts
 
Bone-forming cells that secrete a matrix which becomes calcified
48
Osteoclasts
 
Large multinucleated cells that reabsorb bone matrix
49
Osteocytes
 
Former osteoblasts that are surrounded by bone matrix and have calcified
50
Canaliculi
 
The narrow channels through which the osteocytes extend.
51
Cancellous bone
 
A spongy structure; refers mostly to bone tissue.
52
Cortical (compact) bone
 
The hard layer that generally makes up the outer surface of bones.
53
Lacunae
 
Small cavities containing mature bone cells.
54
Osteocytes
 
Mature bone cells.
55
Long bones
 
Long bones are bones whose length is greater than their width, such as the bones of the extremities...
56
Short bones
 
Short bones are shaped more like cubes and are generally found in the ankle and wrist (carpus...
57
Flat bones
 
Flat bones are found in the cranial vault, sternum (breastbone), shoulder blades, and ribs....
58
Irregular bones
 
Irregular bones are a mix of irregularly shaped bones that do not fall into any of the...
59
Sesamoid bones
 
Sesamoid bones are mostly rounded masses embedded in certain tendons and are usually related...
60
Wormian bones
 
Wormian bones are small bones found between suture lines of the skull where the edges of the...
61
Sinuses
 
Cavities inside a bone.
62
Head
 
Rounded end of a long bone (the rounded tip).
63
Foramen
 
Opening or hole in a bone.
64
Tubercle
 
Small rounded projections.
65
Fossa/Groove/Pit
 
Indentation of a bone, also called a depression.
66
Condyles/Epicondyles
 
Rounded bone projections.
67
Neck
 
Constricted end of a long bone before the head or rounded end.
68
Canal/Meatus
 
Long or deep hole in a bone.
69
Facets
 
Small, smooth, and flat areas.
70
Tuberosity
 
Large rounded projections.
71
Anterior fontanel
 
The space where the frontal angles of the parietal bones meet the two ununited halves of the...
72
Posterior fontanel
 
The space where the occipital angles of the parietal bones meet the occipital.
73
Anterolateral fontanels
 
An interval on either side of the head where the frontal angle of the temporal bone and greater...
74
Posterolateral fontanels
 
The interval on either side of the head between the mastoid angle of the parietal bone, the...
75
Coronal suture
 
Joins the frontal bone to the two parietal bones
76
Frontal bone
 
Bone that closes the anterior part of the cranial cavity and forms the skeleton of the forehead
77
Lambdoid suture
 
Joins the two parietal bones to the occipital bone
78
Occipital bone
 
Bone situated at the posterior and inferior part of the cranium; articulating with the two...
79
Parietal bones
 
Bones forming part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the skull, and joining each other...
80
Sagittal Sutures
 
Joins one parietal bone to the other parietal bone
81
Squamous suture
 
Joins the parietal bones to the temporal bones
82
Temporal bones
 
Bones forming part of the lateral surfaces and the base of the skull, and containing the organs...
83
Cervical spine
 
The cervical spine contains 7 vertebrae located in the neck area. In medical reports this spine...
84
Thoracic spine
 
The thoracic spine contains 12 vertebrae located in the chest area, which connect to the...
85
Articulate
 
Loosely connect or join. The 12 vertebrae of the thoracic spine articulate to the 12 ribs to...
86
Lumbar spine
 
The lumbar spine contains 5 vertebrae located in the lower back. The lumbar spine curve is...
87
Sacral spine
 
The sacral spine consists of 5 fused sacral vertebrae. It is easily distinguishable as an upside-down...
88
Coccyx (coccygeal spine)
 
The coccyx or “tailbone” is a single bone formed by fusion of 4-5 coccygeal vertebrae....
89
Intervertebral discs
 
Intervertebral disks (also correctly spelled discs) are composed of fibrous tissue and cartilage...
90
Manubrium
 
Upper portion (handle) of the sternum.
91
Body
 
Middle section of the sternum.
92
Xiphoid process
 
Distal portion of the sternum.
93
Sternal angle
 
Area of sternum where the manubrium and body join.
94
Clavicle
 
The collarbone; the first bone in the human body to ossify.
95
Sternal end
 
The end of the clavicle that is attached to the sternum.
96
Acromial end
 
The end of the clavicle that is attached to the acromion.
97
Scapula
 
Another name for the shoulder blade.
98
Acromion
 
Process that helps form point of the shoulder.
99
Coracoid
 
Process that helps form point of the shoulder.
100
Glenoid cavity
 
Cavity where the humerus rests.
101
Humerus
 
Upper arm bone.
102
Styloid process
 
Forms a margin for the tendons of two muscles to the thumb.
103
Ulna
 
Forearm bone located on the pinky side.
104
Olecranon
 
The large process at the proximal end of the ulna which projects behind the articulation with...
105
Trochlear notch
 
Pulley-shaped structure of the elbow.
106
Radial notch
 
Point at which the radius and ulna articulate.
107
Carpals
 
Wrist bones.
108
Metacarpals
 
Bones of the hands.
109
Os coxae
 
the hip bone
110
Femur
 
the thigh bone
111
Ilium
 
wings of the hip bone
112
Ischium
 
lower part of the "eye mask" of the hip bone
113
Symphysis pubis
 
the portion of the hip bone between the "eyes"
114
Greater trochanter
 
bony prominence where muscles attach to the femur
115
Lesser trochanter
 
bony prominence where muscles attach to the femur
116
Acetabulum
 
a groove in the hip bone
117
Medial epicondyle
 
a protrusion to which ligaments and tendons attach on the inferior end of the rounded shaft...
118
Lateral epicondyle
 
a protrusion to which ligaments and tendons attach on the inferior end of the rounded shaft...
119
Patella
 
kneecap
120
Tibia
 
largest of the two lower leg bones
121
Malleolus
 
the ankle bone that is a bony extension of the tibia
122
Fibula
 
long, skinny lower leg bone
123
Tarsals
 
ankle bones that support weight and act as shock absorbers
124
Talus
 
one of the 7 tarsal bones
125
Calcaneus
 
one of the 7 tarsal bones
126
Cuboid
 
one of the 7 tarsal bones
127
Navicular
 
one of the 7 tarsal bones
128
Cuneiforms
 
one of the 7 tarsal bones; there are three
129
Metatarsals
 
bones of the feet that sit upon arches; there are 5 in each foot
130
Phalanges
 
the toe bones; 14 per foot
131
Transverse arch
 
Formed at the base of the metatarsals, extending from the medial to the lateral sides of the...
132
Medial longitudinal arch
 
Predominant arch, running from the base of the calcaneus to the talus, and down to the three...
133
Lateral longitudinal arch
 
Arches just enough to redistribute body weight to the calcaneus and head of the fifth metatarsal
134
Calcaneus
 
Heel bone; the strongest bone in the foot
135
Fibrous joints
 
No joint cavity and, in general, do not move.
136
Cartilaginous joints
 
Have no cavities and are somewhat moveable.
137
Synovial joints
 
Have joint cavities that are kept lubricated by synovial fluid
138
Plane joints
 
Joints that glide where the flat ends of bones connect.
139
Uniaxial joints
 
Allow movement around one axis only.
140
Biaxial joints
 
Allow movement around two axes.
141
Multiaxial joints
 
Allow movement around three axes.
142
Flexion
 
Bending to decrease the angle between two bones. Think of this as “flexing” the biceps.
143
Extension
 
Unbending to increase the angle between two bones. Think of this as extending, as in reaching...
144
Abduction
 
Moving a body part away from the midline.
145
Adduction
 
Moving a body part toward the midline. (Think of this as adding a body part back to the body.)
146
Circumduction
 
Movement of a body part in a circle, which can include all the above joint movements as well.
147
Accessory ligament
 
Any ligament that strengthens or supports another ligament.
148
Arcuate ligament
 
Means curved or bow-shaped ligaments; they are located in the spine and assist in maintaining...
149
Collateral ligament
 
There are several types of collateral ligaments, including fibular, radial, tibial, ulnar,...
150
Coracoid ligament
 
Coracoid means like a raven’s beak and is used to describe an area on the scapula. It is...
151
Cruciate ligament
 
Cruciate means shaped like a cross. There are different types of cruciate ligaments, including...
152
Falciform ligament
 
Falciform means shaped like a sickle and appears near the sacral tuberosity as well as within...
153
Inguinal ligament
 
Inguinal is a term used to describe the groin area.
154
Interosseous ligament
 
Interosseous means between bones and describes several different ligaments.
155
Longitudinal ligament
 
Longitudinal simply means lengthwise. It is used to describe any ligament that runs lengthwise.
156
Nuchal ligament
 
Nuchal means pertaining to the neck.
157
Triquetral ligament
 
Triquetral means three cornered and appears in different places throughout the body. The prefix...
158
Apophyseal
 
A fracture in which a small fragment is torn from the bone.
159
Articular
 
A fracture of the joint surface.
160
Avulsion
 
An indirect fracture caused by tearing or pulling of a ligament.
161
Blow-out
 
A fracture of the orbital floor caused by traumatic force.
162
Boxer
 
Fracture of the metacarpal neck, caused by striking something hard with a closed fist.
163
Bucket-handle
 
Also called a "bucket-handle tear," it is a tear in the cartilage and it leaves a loop of cartilage...
164
Burst
 
Also called an "axial compression fracture," it is a fracture of a vertebra, often injuring...
165
Butterfly
 
A comminuted fracture resulting in two fragments of bone on either side of a main fragment;...
166
Buttonhole
 
Also called a "perforating fracture," it results when a bone is perforated by a missile.
167
Chisel
 
Detachment of a piece from the head of the radius.
168
Cleavage
 
Shelling off of cartilage by a small fragment of bone.
169
Closed
 
A fracture that does not penetrate or produce an open wound in the skin.
170
Colles'
 
Fracture of the lower end of the radius, where the fragment is displaced.
171
Communited
 
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed.
172
Complete
 
A fracture in which the bone is entirely broken all the way across.
173
Complicated
 
When there is injury to adjacent parts of the bone due to a fracture.
174
Compound
 
Basically just an open fracture.
175
Compression
 
A fracture as a result of compression.
176
Condylar
 
A fracture of the humerus where a small fragment that includes the condyle is separated from...
177
Dislocation
 
A fracture that occurs near a joint and results in displacement of the joint.
178
Greenstick
 
Also called "hickory-stick fracture," it is a fracture in which one side of the bone is broken...
179
Hangman's
 
A fracture through the axis (C2).
180
Impacted
 
When one fragment of a fracture is driven into another.
181
Indirect
 
A fracture that occurs at a point distant from the injury.
182
Insufficiency
 
A stress fracture that occurs when there is a normal amount of stress, but the bone is of decreased...
183
Intra-articular
 
A fracture on the articular surface of a bone (also acceptably presented as intraarticular).
184
Intracapsular
 
A fracture occurring within the capsule of a joint.
185
Intrauterine
 
Fracture of a fetal bone while in utero.
186
Le Fort
 
Fracture of the maxilla. (There are different types of Le Fort fractures; they are dictated...
187
Linear
 
A fracture extending along the length of a bone.
188
Longitudinal
 
A break extending in a longitudinal direction.
189
Oblique
 
A break extending in an oblique direction.
190
Open
 
A fracture that results in an external wound (i.e., a portion of the fractured bone protrudes...
191
Simple
 
Opposite of a compound fracture; basically a closed fracture.
192
Spiral
 
Also called a "torsion fracture," it is where a bone is literally twisted apart.
193
Spontaneous
 
Occurs as a result of some longstanding disease and is not traumatic.
194
Stress
 
Caused as a result of repeated stress to a bone (commonly seen in soldiers or athletes).
195
Subcapital
 
A fracture of a bone just below its head.
196
Torsion
 
Also called a "spiral fracture."
197
Torus
 
A fracture with localized expansion of the cortex, but little or no displacement of the lower...
198
Transverse
 
A fracture that occurs at a right angle to the axis of a bone.
199
Tuft
 
A splintered fracture of the distal phalanx.
200
Achondroplasia
 
A hereditary disorder of cartilage and bone formation.
Symptoms are disproportionately...
201
Ankylosing spondylitis
 
This is a rheumatoid arthritis of the spine. It is progressive and is found most often in young...
202
Arthritis
 
This affects joints and is the inflammation of one or more joints. There are many types. The...
203
Inflammation
 
A response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain, swelling, redness...
204
Rheumatoid
 
A type of arthritis characterized by inflammatory changes throughout the body's connective...
205
Chondrosarcoma
 
This is a malignant tumor of cartilage.
Symptoms include pain and generally the presence...
206
Degenerative joint disease
 
Joint disease characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage.
Symptoms include...
207
Ewing tumor
 
This is a cancerous tumor or malignancy that invades the entire shaft of the bone.
Symptoms...
208
Sarcoma
 
A connective tissue tumor that is usually malignant.
209
Gout
 
A systemic disease due to deposition of urate crystals.
Symptoms include episodes of...
210
Hurler syndrome
 
This is caused by irregular ossification and is due to an overproduction of mucopolysaccharides.
Symptoms...
211
Mucopolysaccharides
 
An antiarthritic compound that effectively increases the viscosity (or stickiness) of synovial...
212
Hypophosphatasia
 
This condition is a result of a deficiency in alkaline phosphatase.
Symptoms include...
213
Alkaline phosphatase
 
Enzyme produced in the bone and liver.
214
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
 
Disease of the hip joint that results in a loss of bone mass due to inadequate blood flow to...
215
Marfan syndrome
 
This results from abnormal formation of connective tissue.
Symptoms include long,...
216
Multiple myeloma
 
This is the most common bone neoplasm. It is a tumor derived from the blood cells.
Symptoms...
217
Osgood-Schlatter disease
 
This disease affects the tibial tubercle, where the patella inserts onto the tibia. It manifests...
218
Osteochondritis dissecans
 
This is the term for osteochondrosis (see below) involving the joints, particularly the shoulder...
219
Osteochondrosis
 
This is a general term for a group of developmental disorders that affect ossification centers...
220
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
 
This is also a result of abnormal formation of connective tissues.
Symptoms include...
221
Osteoid osteoma
 
This is a benign lesion that can occur in any bone, but is most common in the long bones.
Symptoms...
222
Osteomalacia
 
This is softening of bone as a result of the bone being poorly mineralized.
Symptoms...
223
Osteomyelitis
 
This is usually a bacterial infection of the bone, although it can also be a fungal infection....
224
Staphylococcus aureus
 
This is usually a bacterial infection of the bone, although it can also be a fungal infection....
225
Osteoporosis
 
This occurs when the density of the bone is inadequate to allow for the proper support required...
226
Kyphosis
 
Forward hunching of the spine.
227
Paget disease
 
A degenerative disorder of the bone resulting in the softening and swelling of bone.
Symptoms...
228
Psoriatic arthritis
 
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease which causes scaling, dryness, pustules, and abscesses...
229
Reiter syndrome
 
This is an arthritis associated with nonbacterial urethritis, conjunctivitis, cervicitis, and...
230
Rickets
 
Occurs in infants as a result of overgrowth of poorly mineralized bone and enlarged marrow...
231
Scheuermann disease
 
This disease specifically affects the ossification centers of the vertebrae.
Symptoms...
232
Scoliosis
 
Scoliosis is lateral (or sideways) curvature of the spine in the erect position. It is caused...
233
Origin
 
The less movable attachment of a muscle.
234
Insertion
 
The more movable attachment of a muscle.
235
Direct (fleshy) attachments
 
Short strands of connective tissue that make muscles appear as if they are directly connected...
236
Indirect attachments
 
Long strands of connective tissue extending beyond the muscle.
237
Tendon
 
A rope-like structure that binds muscles to bone.
238
Aponeurosis
 
A flat tissue sheet that connects muscle to bone.
239
Anterior
 
Situated in front of or toward the front of a body part or organ. This term is also used...
240
Coronal
 
Division of the body into anterior and posterior sections. Also called frontal plane. Can mean...
241
Distal
 
Remote; farther from any point of reference; opposite of proximal. (The shoulder is distal...
242
Dorsal
 
Pertaining to the back of the body; also used to denote a position that is more toward the...
243
Inferior
 
Situated below a structure or directed downward; also used to denote the lower portion of an...
244
Lateral
 
Pertaining to the side; denoting a position farther from the midline (median plane) of a structure.
245
Medial
 
Pertaining to the middle; closer to the midline of a body; pertaining to the middle layer.
246
Posterior
 
Situated in the back; also used in reference to the back or dorsal surface of the body.
247
Proximal
 
Nearest; closer to any point of reference; opposite of distal. (The shoulder is distal...
248
Sagittal
 
Division of body into left and right sides in a vertical lengthwise fashion.
249
Superior
 
Situated above, or directed upward; in official anatomic nomenclature, used in reference to...
250
Transverse
 
A horizontal plane situated at right angles to the long axis, or sagittal and coronal planes;...
251
Ventral
 
Pertaining to the abdomen; used to denote a position that is more toward the belly/abdominal...
252
Antero
 
Anterior
253
Disto
 
Distal
254
Dorso
 
Dorsal
255
Inferio
 
Inferior
256
Latero
 
Lateral
257
Medio
 
Medial
258
Postero
 
Posterior
259
Supero
 
Superior
260
Ventro
 
Ventral
261
Lateral pterygoid
 
This is a muscle of mastication. It originates on the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone....
262
Medial pterygoid
 
Also a muscle of mastication. Both pterygoid muscles are on the inside of the mandible. The...
263
Risorius
 
The risorius originates on the side of the face and inserts on the orbicularis oris muscle....
264
Mentalis
 
The mentalis muscle originates on the chin and goes into the orbicularis oris muscle. It elevates...
265
Depressor labii inferioris
 
This muscle also originates on the mandible and inserts on to the orbicularis muscle. It depresses...
266
Depressor anguli oris
 
This muscle originates on the lower part of the mandible. It pulls down the angle of the...
267
Anconeus
 
Located on the back of the humerus, it extends the forearm.
268
Extensor digiti minimi
 
A long narrow muscle located on the ulnar side of the extensor digitorum communis muscle. It...
269
Extensor digitorum communis
 
Positioned in the center of the forearm along the posterior surface. Its tendon divides into...
270
Flexor digitorum profundus
 
Lies just underneath the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. This muscle flexes the distal...
271
Flexor pollicis longus
 
Positioned deep on the front of the radius. It attaches at the base of the thumb and flexes...
272
Pronator teres
 
Positioned in upper middle part of the forearm. It arises from the epicondyle (a prominence...
273
Epicondyle
 
A prominence or projection on a bone.
274
Pronator quadratus
 
Positioned deep and extends between the ulna and radius. It works with the other pronator muscle...
275
Supinator
 
Positioned around the upper portion of the radius. It works with the biceps to turn the palm...
276
Atony
 
Lack of normal tone or strength. This happens in muscles that are deprived of innervation (which...
277
Atrophy
 
The wasting away or weakening of muscle fibers due to a lack of usage. There are many different...
278
Bursitis
 
Inflammation of a bursa.
279
Bursa
 
A sac-like cavity filled with synovial fluid and located in places where tendons or muscles...
280
Charley Horse
 
A bruised or torn muscle accompanied by cramps and severe pain. This particular injury most...
281
Cramp
 
A sustained spasm or contraction of a muscle accompanied by severe, localized pain.
282
Dystonia
 
Sustained abnormal postures or disruptions of normal movement resulting from alterations...
283
Dupuytren contracture
 
Painless thickening and contracture of the palmar fascia due to fibrous proliferation, resulting...
284
Fasciculations
 
Similar to fibrillations or tremors. A repetitive, involuntary contraction of muscle. The main...
285
Fibromyalgia
 
A rheumatic disorder characterized by achy pain, tenderness, and stiffness.
286
Myofascial pain syndrome
 
Fibromyalgia is also called myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyositis. A group of rheumatic...
287
Ganglion
 
A thin-walled band cyst formed on a joint capsule or tendon sheath.
288
Leiomyoma
 
A benign tumor of smooth muscle tissue (e.g., the uterus).
289
Muscular dystrophy
 
A genetic abnormality of muscle tissue characterized by dysfunction and ultimately deterioration.
290
Myalgia
 
muscle pain
291
Myasthenia gravis
 
A chronic progressive neuromuscular weakness, usually starting with the muscles of the face...
292
Myopathy
 
Any disease of the muscles
293
Myositis ossificans
 
A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.
294
Paralysis
 
The loss of nervous control of a muscle. Paralysis is commonly thought of as related to paraplegia,...
295
Paraplegia
 
A paralysis of the legs (lower extremities).
296
Quadriplegia
 
A paralysis of all four limbs.
297
Plantar fasciitis
 
Excessive pulling or stretching of the calcaneal periosteum by the plantar fascia, resulting...
298
Polymyositis
 
An autoimmune disorder which causes atrophy and weakness of the muscles.
299
Rigor mortis
 
Rigor means chilled, stiffness, rigidity. Rigor mortis is the muscular hardness occurring 4–7...
300
Tendinitis
 
Inflammation of tendons and of tendon-muscle attachments due to trauma or repetitive wear....
301
Tennis elbow
 
Also called lateral and medial epicondylitis. A strain of the lateral forearm muscles or the...
302
Tetanus
 
A disease caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which produces a toxin that causes muscles...
303
Torticollis
 
Persistent contraction of a sternocleidomastoid muscle, drawing the head to one side and distorting...
304
Anorexia
 
A loss or total lack of appetite.
305
Borborygmi
 
The audible rumbling sounds of gas moving through the intestinal tract. This is the plural...
306
Chills
 
A shivering or a shaking.
307
Rigor
 
Shivering or trembling, usually accompanied by fever; also called chills.
308
Constipation
 
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces. This term could be classified as either a symptom...
309
Obstipation
 
Constipation that continues for a prolonged period of time.
310
Dysphagia
 
This is a subjective feeling of difficulty swallowing. It occurs when there is impaired progression...
311
Fever
 
An elevation in temperature above normal. This is also called pyrexia. If a patient has a fever,...
312
Afebrile
 
Not having a fever.
313
Flatus
 
Gas produced by bacterial action on waste matter in the intestines. Composed primarily of hydrogen...
314
Bloating
 
The feeling of excessive gas in the colon.
315
Belching
 
Expressing of excessive gas through the mouth.
316
Flatulence
 
Expressing of excessive gas through the anus.
317
Heartburn
 
A retrosternal sensation of burning felt in waves and arising upward toward the neck.
318
Hematemesis
 
Vomiting of blood.
319
Hematochezia
 
The passage of bloody stools.
320
Melena
 
Melan(o)- is a combining form that means black. The term melena refers both to the passage...
321
Nausea
 
An unpleasant sensation in the epigastric and abdominal area, which often results in vomiting.
322
Odynophagia
 
Pain during swallowing.
323
Pallor
 
Paleness or the absence of skin color.
324
Regurgitation
 
Flow in the opposite direction than is normal.
325
Tenesmus
 
Straining, especially ineffective and painful straining during a bowel movement or urination.
326
Vomiting
 
Also called emesis. The forcible expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth. (Try not...
327
Weakness
 
Lacking physical strength.
328
Weight-loss
 
This is self-explanatory: losing pounds.
329
Achalasia
 
This is an impairment of normal esophageal peristalsis. (You may remember that peristalsis...
330
Anorexia Nervosa
 
This is a mental condition characterized by an individual's refusal to eat enough to maintain...
331
Appendicitis
 
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix. (The term appendix is actually a general term...
332
Vermiform
 
The vermiform appendix specifically identifies the diverticulum of the cecum. However, healthcare...
333
Atresia
 
The absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular organ.
334
Bezoar
 
Tightly packed, partially digested agglomerations of hair or vegetable matter. Seeds, bubble...
335
Botulism
 
A type of food poisoning caused by the production of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum...
336
Cheiloschisis
 
This is another term for cleft lip or harelip. It is a congenital abnormality.
337
Cholecystitis
 
Inflammation of the gallbladder. There are different types of cholecystitis, the most common...
338
Cholelithiasis
 
The presence or formation of gallstones.
339
Dysentery
 
Any of a variety of disorders marked by inflammation of the intestines, especially the colon....
340
Amebic dysentery
 
The most common type of dysentery, due to an ulceration of the bowel caused by amebiasis.
341
Amebiasis
 
The state of being infected by amebae.
342
Dyspepsia
 
General term which means impairment to the power or function of digestion. It often refers...
343
Enteritis
 
Inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine. Often this is combined (e.g.,...
344
Enterocolitis
 
Inflammation of both the intestine and colon.
345
Cholera
 
A form of enteritis that is spread by food and water contaminated with feces. It is much more...
346
Esophagitis
 
Inflammation of the esophagus.
347
Fecalith
 
An intestinal concretion (the process of becoming harder or more solid) formed around a center...
348
Fistula
 
An abnormal passage or communication between two organs or from an internal organ to the surface...
349
Gastritis
 
Inflammation of the stomach. This is commonly combined (e.g., gastroenteritis). This is often...
350
Gastroenteritis
 
Acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines.
351
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
 
The reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. It is often represented by the acronym GERD...
352
Halitosis
 
Offensive breath. This can be real as the result of ingested substances, gingival disease,...
353
Hepatitis
 
Inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be due to viral, bacterial, or parasitic factors....
354
Hernia
 
The protrusion of a loop or knuckle of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening. There...
355
Abdominal hernia
 
The protrusion of some internal body structure through the abdominal wall.
356
Hiatal hernia
 
The protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm. There are both a sliding hiatal hernia and...
357
Sliding hiatal hernia
 
A hernia in which the stomach and a section of esophagus which joins the stomach slide up into...
358
Paraesophageal hiatal hernia
 
A hernia in which part of the stomach squeezes through the hiatus, but the esophagus and stomach...
359
Inguinal hernia
 
A hernia into the inguinal canal. There are both direct and indirect inguinal hernias.
360
Umbilical hernia
 
Protrusion of part of the intestine through the umbilicus.
361
Hirschsprung disease
 
Congenital megacolon, or a dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon due to the sustained contraction...
362
Hypertrophy
 
The enlargement of an organ due to an increase in the size of its cells.
363
ileus
 
The temporary cessation of intestinal peristalsis, which often leads to obstruction. A common...
364
Adynamic ileus
 
A suspension of peristalsis because of paralysis or atony (lack of normal muscle tone or strength)....
365
Inflammatory bowel disease
 
This can be used to describe a variety of bowel disorders which are inflammatory in nature,...
366
Crohn disease
 
It is not known what causes Crohn disease; it can affect any part of the GI tract from the...
367
Ulcerative colitis
 
A chronic, nonspecific, inflammatory, and ulcerative disease that arises in the colonic mucosa...
368
Intussusception
 
This occurs when a segment of bowel advances and protrudes into the segment distal to it.
369
Irritable bowel syndrome
 
Intermittent or constant abdominal distress and bowel dysfunction which has no demonstrable...
370
Jaundice
 
A syndrome characterized by the bile pigment in the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae with...
371
Leukoplakia
 
A white patch on a mucous membrane that will not rub off. This occurs in the oral mucosa and...
372
Malabsorption
 
Impaired intestinal absorption of nutrients. If the body is not absorbing nutrients properly,...
373
Mumps
 
An acute, highly contagious viral disease which causes painful enlargement of the salivary...
374
Obstruction
 
The state or condition of being clogged or blocked. In gastroenterology it usually refers to...
375
Pancreatitis
 
Inflammation of the pancreas.
376
Parasites
 
A plant or animal which lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains...
377
Giardia
 
An intestinal protozoa that has a large sucking disc which adheres to the microvilli of the...
378
Giardiasis
 
The infection that occurs with the presence of the Giardia parasite.
379
Peptic ulcer disease
 
Inflammation and ulceration in the duodenum and stomach caused by gastric acid juice. Peptic...
380
Barrett esophagus
 
Barrett esophagus is a chronic peptic ulcer of the esophagus and is commonly seen in medical...
381
Peritonitis
 
Inflammation of the peritoneum. Symptoms include abdominal pain and tenderness, constipation,...
382
Pharyngitis
 
Inflammation of the pharynx. This is the most common etiology of a sore throat.
383
Polyp
 
This refers to any mass of tissue that arises from the bowel wall and protrudes into the lumen....
384
Sessile
 
Sessile means attached by a base.
385
Pedunculated
 
Pedunculated means attached by a stem-like structure or stalk.
386
Prolapse
 
The falling down or sinking of a part. This pathology can affect the GI system through anal...
387
Pruritus ani
 
Pruritus means itching. Pruritus ani is intense, chronic itching in the anal region.
388
Schatzki ring
 
A 2–4 mm mucosal structure, probably congenital in nature, which causes a ring-like narrowing...
389
Ulcers
 
A defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue. There are many kinds of ulcers...
390
Volvulus
 
Intestinal obstruction that is due to a knotting or twisting of the bowel.
391
Nasal septum
 
The partition that divides the two equal cavities of the nose.
392
Perpendicular ethmoid
 
One bone that makes up the nasal septum.
393
Vomer
 
One bone that makes up the nasal septum.
394
External nares
 
The nostrils.
395
Choanae
 
Internal nares that link the external nares to the nasopharynx.
396
Conchae bones
 
Also called turbinate bones, they create a passageway for the air.
397
Meatus
 
The passage created by the conchae where air flows.
398
Nasopharynx
 
The nasal portion of the pharynx.
399
Septum
 
Partition between the two sides of the nasal cavity.
400
Ethmoid
 
Perforated like a sieve, such as the ethmoid bone.
401
Vomer
 
Bone of the nasal septum.
402
Choana(e)
 
Link from external nares to nasopharynx.
403
Turbinates
 
Another name for conchae.
404
Meatus
 
Passageway in the body, especially an onpening on the surface.
405
Epithelium
 
Lining of small cavities.
406
Epistaxis
 
Nosebleed.
407
Olfaction
 
Sense of smell.
408
Olfactory epithelia
 
Lines the olfactory region of the nasal cavity.
409
Paranasal sinuses
 
Air spaces contained by certain bones of the face.
410
Maxillary sinus
 
One of the paired paranasal sinuses located in the body of the maxilla.
411
Frontal sinus
 
One of the paired irregular shaped paranasal sinuses located in the frontal bone.
412
Sphenoid sinus
 
One of the paired paranasal sinuses in the anterior part of the body of the sphenoid bone.
413
Ethmoidal sinus
 
One of the paranasal sinuses located withing the ethmoid bone.
414
Auditory
 
Pertaining to the sense of hearing
415
Eustachian
 
Tube connecting the nasopharynx to the middle ear.
416
Adenoids
 
Pharyngeal tonsils.
417
Laryngopharynx
 
Where the respiratory and digestive systems diverge.
418
Thyroid
 
Gland situated in the lower part of the front of the neck.
419
Cricoid
 
Ring-shaped cartilage making up the lower larynx.
420
Arytenoid
 
Vocal cord cartilage.
421
Bifurcates
 
Divided into two branches.
422
Bifurcation
 
Site where a single structure divides into two.
423
Carina
 
Cartilaginous plate of the trachea.
424
Bronchial tree
 
Another name for pulmonary bronchus.
425
Tertiary
 
Third in order.
426
Bronchioles
 
One of the subdivisions of the branched bronchial tree.
427
Alveolar ducts
 
Small passages connecting the respiratory bronchioles and the alveolar sacs.
428
Alveoli
 
Functional units of the respiratory system.
429
Mediastinal space
 
Space separating the lungs.
430
Mediastinum
 
Mass of tissues and organs seperating the two pleural sacs.
431
Lobules
 
Division of lung lobes.
432
Pleura
 
Serous membrane of the thoracic cavity.
433
Visceral
 
Pleura which is adherent to the outer surface of the lung.
434
Parietal
 
Pleura that lines the thoracic wall and diaphragm.
435
Ventilation
 
Process of the exchange of air between the lungs and the ambient air.
436
Inspiration
 
Drawing air inward to the lungs.
437
Diaphragm
 
Partition that separtates the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
438
Expiration
 
The relaxation of the chest wall.
439
Diffusion
 
Process of becoming widely spread.
440
Pulmonary alveoli
 
Small outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs where gas exchange takes place.
441
Pulmonology
 
Specialty that deals primarily with problems of the respiratory system.
442
Incentive spirometry
 
Measurement of the breathing capacity of the lungs.
443
Chest pain
 
Any discomfort in the thoracic cavity.
444
Clubbing
 
Enlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes with loss of the nailbed angle. this can be...
445
Congestion
 
Excessive or abnormal accumulation of fluid (such as mucus in the sinuses).
446
Cough
 
A sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs. This is a reflex to keep the airway free of...
447
Cyanosis
 
Bluish discoloration, particularly of the nailbeds and perioral area. Again, this may be seen...
448
Dyspnea
 
Difficulty breathing.
449
Hemoptysis
 
Coughing up blood or bloodstained sputum, usually due to bleeding somewhere in the respiratory...
450
Hiccup (hiccough)
 
An involuntary spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm that occurs on inspiration and results...
451
Malaise
 
A vague feeling of bodily discomfort and fatigue, not necessarily related specifically to respiratory...
452
Sputum
 
Matter that is ejected from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea through the mouth. The consistency...
453
Purulent
 
Containing pus.
454
Rales
 
Usually pronounced “rawls” (but sometimes “rails” or “rals”—rhyming with “pals”)....
455
Rhonchi
 
Continuous dry rattling sounds in the throat or bronchial tube due to a partial obstruction.
456
Stridor
 
A musical sound, heard with a stethoscope on inspiration.
457
Tachypnea
 
Shortness of breath. Excessive rapidity of respiration or quick, shallow breathing.
458
Wheezing
 
Whistling or wheezing noises associated with breathing; a telltale symptom of asthma.
459
Abscess
 
A localized collection of pus buried in tissues, organs, or confined spaces.
460
Adult respiratory distress syndrome
 
Chronic respiratory failure associated with various acute pulmonary injuries. It is characterized...
461
Apnea
 
Cessation of breathing.
462
Asphyxia
 
Suffocation. This can be deliberate and traumatic, occur as a result of some obstruction of...
463
Asthma
 
This is a condition that is marked by recurrent attacks of paroxysmal dyspnea and it is manifested...
464
Paroxysmal
 
A paroxysm is a sudden recurrence or intensification of symptoms.
465
Atelectasis
 
Incomplete expansion of a lung, a shrunken or airless lung. This can be either acute or chronic...
466
Bronchiectasis
 
An irreversible chronic dilation of the bronchi that is usually accompanied by infection. It...
467
Fetid
 
Having a rank or disagreeable smell.
468
Expectoration
 
The act of coughing up and spitting out materials from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea.
469
Bronchitis
 
Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the bronchial tubes. Significant contributing...
470
Bronchopneumonia
 
An inflammation of the lungs which usually begins in the terminal bronchioles.
471
Bronchiolitis
 
Another name for bronchopneumonia.
472
Bronchoalveolitis
 
Another name for bronchopneumonia.
473
Bronchopneumonitis
 
Another name for bronchopneumonia.
474
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
 
A generalized term related to persistent airways obstructions. COPD is associated with various...
475
Coccidioidomycosis
 
A fungal disease that infects the respiratory system as a result of the inhalation of spores....
476
Emphysema
 
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs, especially the lungs. In pulmonary...
477
Empyema
 
Accumulation of pus in a cavity of the body. Although there are different types, when the term...
478
Epiglottitis
 
Inflammation of the epiglottis.
479
Epistaxis
 
Nosebleed (hemorrhage from the nose).
480
Hemothorax
 
A collection of blood in the pleural cavity. This often results from a blunt or penetrating...
481
Hyaline membrane disease
 
This is a disorder usually affecting premature newborns in which the alveoli are lined by a...
482
Hyperventilation
 
A state in which there is an increase in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli,...
483
Infiltrate
 
Material deposited in organs or cells which are not normal to it, or in excessive quantities....
484
Interstitial lung disease
 
Interstitial is a term that means pertaining to or situated between parts or in the interspaces...
485
Laryngitis
 
Inflammation of the larynx. Usually associated with dryness and soreness of the throat, hoarseness,...
486
Papilloma
 
A papilloma is a benign tumor. In the respiratory system, these are common in children, starting...
487
Pertussis
 
An acute, highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract, most frequently seen in young...
488
Pleural effusion
 
Excess fluid in the pleural space. The presence of fluid in the pleural space is usually determined...
489
Serous
 
Fluid that is clear and yellow.
490
Sanguineous
 
Bloody or blood-tinged fluid.
491
Serosanguineous
 
Fluid containing both serum and blood.
492
Pleurisy
 
Inflammation of the pleura. It is usually characterized by pain that is worse with breathing...
493
Pneumoconiosis
 
A condition characterized by the permanent deposition of substantial amounts of particulate...
494
Anthracosis
 
A common type of pneumoconiosis, also called “black lung.”
495
Asbestosis
 
A common type of pneumoconiosis due to the inhalation of asbestos fibers.
496
Berylliosis
 
A common type of pneumoconiosis due to beryllium dust.
497
Silicosis
 
A common type of pneumoconiosis due to sand particles.
498
Pneumonia
 
Also called pneumonitis, this is inflammation of the lung resulting in consolidation, which...
499
Pneumonitis
 
Another name for pneumonia. (Pneumonia can also be viral or fungal in nature. A few of...
500
Consolidation
 
A pathologic process where normally aerated lung tissue is converted into a dense, airless...
501
Hemophilus influenzae
 
This is the second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. The most serious strain of...
502
Klebsiella pneumoniae
 
This is the most frequent of the gram-negative bacilli and it normally affects already compromised...
503
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
 
A gram-negative pathogen.
504
Acinetobacter
 
A gram-negative pathogen.
505
Legionella pneumophila
 
Also known as Legionnaires' disease, this only accounts for 1% to 8% of pneumonias. It can...
506
Legionaire's disease
 
Another name for Legionella pneumophila.
507
Mycoplasma pneumionae
 
This is the most common pathogen for children and young adults (age 5 to 35 years), but is...
508
Pneumococcus pneumoniae
 
Pneumococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause for bacterial pneumonia. It usually begins...
509
Staphylococcus aureus
 
Staphylococcus aureus accounts for approximately 2% of community-acquired pneumonias. Patients...
510
Streptococcus pneumoniae
 
This has become relatively rare since World War I and is usually a complication of influenza,...
511
Pneumothorax
 
Free air in the pleural cavity between the visceral and parietal pleurae. It may occur either...
512
Rhinitis
 
Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose. Often accompanied by rhinorrhea (a runny...
513
Rhinorrhea
 
runny nose
514
Sarcoidosis
 
Also called Boeck sarcoid, this is a systemic disease of unknown etiology with the most severe...
515
Boeck sarcoid
 
Another name for sarcoidosis.
516
Granulomatous
 
Pertaining to any small nodular aggregation of a certain kind of cells.
517
Sinusitis
 
Inflammation of a sinus. It is usually designated by the name of the sinus that is inflamed...
518
Tonsillitis
 
Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the palatine tonsils.
519
Tracheitis
 
Inflammation of the trachea.
520
Tuberculosis
 
A chronic, recurrent infection most common in the lungs, although any organ may be affected....
521
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
 
The gram-positive bacterium that causes tuberculosis.
522
Upper respiratory infection (URI)
 
The common cold. An acute, usually afebrile viral infection of the respiratory tract with inflammation...
523
Wegener's granulomatous
 
An uncommon disease that usually begins as a localized granulomatous inflammation of the upper...
524
Ovaries
 
Paired organs that produce gametes and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
525
Fallopian Tubes
 
Tubes that transport the ovum to the uterus.
526
Uterus
 
A hollow muscular organ where the fetus matures.
527
Vagina
 
A muscular tube that passes from the cervical opening to the uterus and to the outside of the...
528
Ampulla
 
The longest portion of the fallopian tube.
529
Infundibulum
 
The funnel-shaped distal end of the fallopian tube.
530
Cervix
 
The tapered distal portion of the uterus.
531
Endometrium
 
The inner lining of the uterus that undergoes changes based on the menstrual cycle.


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