Anatomy, Pathophysiology, And Disease Processes Block 1

Medical Conditions And Explanations.
Created May 12, 2011
by mrschenault
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Chemical
Atoms and molecules. Atoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, and calcium are essential to the maintenance...
Cellular
Molecules combine to form cells. The cells of the body are the basic structural and functional...
Epithelial
Protective tissue found in the linings of cavities and organs and as part of the integumentary...
Muscle (tissue)
Responsible for all of the movement of the body. It is subdivided into divisions of skeletal...
Connective (tissue)
Tissue that binds the body together and supports posture and function. This tissue is divided...
Nervous (tissue)
Composed of nerve cells. It is used as the communication system of the body by passing electronic...
Organ
The different kinds of tissue discussed above combine to form the organ level. The organs are...
System
A system is made up of several organs that have a common function. For example, the organs...
Organism
The largest structural level is the organism level. All the parts which make up the body and...
Tissue
Tissues are made up of groups of cells and the materials surrounding them. They work together...
Acquired
This means that the patient was not born with it (it was not hereditary or congenital).Example:...
Congenital
Present at birth. This differs from a hereditary condition in that it is not necessarily inherited...
Deficiency
A lack or defect. Many diseases are caused by a lack of some vital chemical substance or compound,...
Degenerative
Pertaining to deteriorating. Going from normal to less than normal or dysfunctional. The deterioration...
Developmental
A type of disease that occurs as a result of some abnormality in the development of tissue,...
Essential
A term assigned to diseases for which the cause is unknown. It is assumed that it arises spontaneously,...
Familial
Occurring in or affecting more members of a family than would be expected by chance alone,...
Functional
A functional disease is one in which the structure is unaffected but it is not functioning...
Hereditary
This term means genetically transmitted from parent to offspring, and should be a familiar...
Idiopathic
This also means of unknown cause, arising spontaneously, such as idiopathic cardiomyopathy.Example:...
Infectious
A disease that is caused by an infection (that makes sense, doesn’t it?). An infection is...
Molecular
A disease caused by abnormality in the chemical structure or concentration of a single molecule...
Neoplastic
Pertaining to any new and abnormal growth, specifically a new growth of tissue which is progressive...
Nutritional
A disease caused by nutritional factors, such as insufficient or excessive dietary intake....
Organic
A disease that is due to a demonstrable abnormality in a bodily structure or the composition...
Traumatic
Resulting from some type of injury: physical, chemical, or psychological. Many pathologies...
Acute
A short and relatively severe course. A patient with an acute illness has not been experiencing...
Asymptomatic
Having no symptoms. Although generally individuals do not go to a doctor or hospital when they...
Chronic
Persisting over a long period of time. This is the opposite of acute. A chronic condition can...
Disabling
Causes impairment of normal functions. This could include impairment of motility (walking),...
End-stage
A progressively deteriorating condition that has reached a point of terminal functional impairment...
Axial skeleton
The axial skeleton has 80 bones and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, thoracic...
Appendicular skeleton
The appendicular skeleton has 126 bones and includes the bones of the upper and lower extremities.
  • Upper...
Erythrocytes   
red blood cells
Lymphocytes   
white blood cells
Red blood cells
carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
White blood cells
help fight infections and aid the immune system
Stem cells
reproduce themselves and all other blood cells
Monocytes
white blood cells
Neutrophils
white blood cells
Phosphorus
mineral
Minerals provide bones with
rigidity and strength
Bone cells
Cells the body has programmed to create bones
Immature bone
The first formation of bone
Mature bone
Bone that has ossified and calcified
Ossification
Bone formation
Osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells that secrete a matrix which becomes calcified
Osteoclasts
Large multinucleated cells that reabsorb bone matrix
Osteocytes
Former osteoblasts that are surrounded by bone matrix and have calcified
Canaliculi
The narrow channels through which the osteocytes extend.
Cancellous bone
A spongy structure; refers mostly to bone tissue.
Cortical (compact) bone
The hard layer that generally makes up the outer surface of bones.
Lacunae
Small cavities containing mature bone cells.
Osteocytes
Mature bone cells.
Long bones
Long bones are bones whose length is greater than their width, such as the bones of the extremities...
Short bones
Short bones are shaped more like cubes and are generally found in the ankle and wrist (carpus...
Flat bones
Flat bones are found in the cranial vault, sternum (breastbone), shoulder blades, and ribs....
Irregular bones
Irregular bones are a mix of irregularly shaped bones that do not fall into any of the...
Sesamoid bones
Sesamoid bones are mostly rounded masses embedded in certain tendons and are usually related...
Wormian bones
Wormian bones are small bones found between suture lines of the skull where the edges of the...
Sinuses
Cavities inside a bone.
Head
Rounded end of a long bone (the rounded tip).
Foramen
Opening or hole in a bone.
Tubercle
Small rounded projections.
Fossa/Groove/Pit
Indentation of a bone, also called a depression.
Condyles/Epicondyles
Rounded bone projections.
Neck
Constricted end of a long bone before the head or rounded end.
Canal/Meatus
Long or deep hole in a bone.
Facets
Small, smooth, and flat areas.
Tuberosity
Large rounded projections.
Anterior fontanel
The space where the frontal angles of the parietal bones meet the two ununited halves of the...
Posterior fontanel
The space where the occipital angles of the parietal bones meet the occipital.
Anterolateral fontanels
An interval on either side of the head where the frontal angle of the temporal bone and greater...
Posterolateral fontanels
The interval on either side of the head between the mastoid angle of the parietal bone, the...
Coronal suture
Joins the frontal bone to the two parietal bones
Frontal bone
Bone that closes the anterior part of the cranial cavity and forms the skeleton of the forehead
Lambdoid suture
Joins the two parietal bones to the occipital bone
Occipital bone
Bone situated at the posterior and inferior part of the cranium; articulating with the two...
Parietal bones
Bones forming part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the skull, and joining each other...
Sagittal Sutures
Joins one parietal bone to the other parietal bone
Squamous suture
Joins the parietal bones to the temporal bones
Temporal bones
Bones forming part of the lateral surfaces and the base of the skull, and containing the organs...
Cervical spine
The cervical spine contains 7 vertebrae located in the neck area. In medical reports this spine...
Thoracic spine
The thoracic spine contains 12 vertebrae located in the chest area, which connect to the...
Articulate
Loosely connect or join. The 12 vertebrae of the thoracic spine articulate to the 12 ribs to...
Lumbar spine
The lumbar spine contains 5 vertebrae located in the lower back. The lumbar spine curve is...
Sacral spine
The sacral spine consists of 5 fused sacral vertebrae. It is easily distinguishable as an upside-down...
Coccyx (coccygeal spine)
The coccyx or “tailbone” is a single bone formed by fusion of 4-5 coccygeal vertebrae....
Intervertebral discs
Intervertebral disks (also correctly spelled discs) are composed of fibrous tissue and cartilage...
Manubrium
Upper portion (handle) of the sternum.
Body
Middle section of the sternum.
Xiphoid process
Distal portion of the sternum.
Sternal angle
Area of sternum where the manubrium and body join.
Clavicle
The collarbone; the first bone in the human body to ossify.
Sternal end
The end of the clavicle that is attached to the sternum.
Acromial end
The end of the clavicle that is attached to the acromion.
Scapula
Another name for the shoulder blade.
Acromion
Process that helps form point of the shoulder.
Coracoid
Process that helps form point of the shoulder.
Glenoid cavity
Cavity where the humerus rests.
Humerus
Upper arm bone.
Styloid process
Forms a margin for the tendons of two muscles to the thumb.
Ulna
Forearm bone located on the pinky side.
Olecranon
The large process at the proximal end of the ulna which projects behind the articulation with...
Trochlear notch
Pulley-shaped structure of the elbow.
Radial notch
Point at which the radius and ulna articulate.
Carpals
Wrist bones.
Metacarpals
Bones of the hands.
Os coxae
the hip bone
Femur
the thigh bone
Ilium
wings of the hip bone
Ischium
lower part of the "eye mask" of the hip bone
Symphysis pubis
the portion of the hip bone between the "eyes"
Greater trochanter
bony prominence where muscles attach to the femur
Lesser trochanter
bony prominence where muscles attach to the femur
Acetabulum
a groove in the hip bone
Medial epicondyle
a protrusion to which ligaments and tendons attach on the inferior end of the rounded shaft...
Lateral epicondyle
a protrusion to which ligaments and tendons attach on the inferior end of the rounded shaft...
Patella
kneecap
Tibia
largest of the two lower leg bones
Malleolus
the ankle bone that is a bony extension of the tibia
Fibula
long, skinny lower leg bone
Tarsals
ankle bones that support weight and act as shock absorbers
Talus
one of the 7 tarsal bones
Calcaneus
one of the 7 tarsal bones
Cuboid
one of the 7 tarsal bones
Navicular
one of the 7 tarsal bones
Cuneiforms
one of the 7 tarsal bones; there are three
Metatarsals
bones of the feet that sit upon arches; there are 5 in each foot
Phalanges
the toe bones; 14 per foot
Transverse arch
Formed at the base of the metatarsals, extending from the medial to the lateral sides of the...
Medial longitudinal arch
Predominant arch, running from the base of the calcaneus to the talus, and down to the three...
Lateral longitudinal arch
Arches just enough to redistribute body weight to the calcaneus and head of the fifth metatarsal
Calcaneus
Heel bone; the strongest bone in the foot
Fibrous joints
No joint cavity and, in general, do not move.
Cartilaginous joints
Have no cavities and are somewhat moveable.
Synovial joints
Have joint cavities that are kept lubricated by synovial fluid
Plane joints
Joints that glide where the flat ends of bones connect.
Uniaxial joints
Allow movement around one axis only.
Biaxial joints
Allow movement around two axes.
Multiaxial joints
Allow movement around three axes.
Flexion
Bending to decrease the angle between two bones. Think of this as “flexing” the biceps.
Extension
Unbending to increase the angle between two bones. Think of this as extending, as in reaching...
Abduction
Moving a body part away from the midline.
Adduction
Moving a body part toward the midline. (Think of this as adding a body part back to the body.)
Circumduction
Movement of a body part in a circle, which can include all the above joint movements as well.
Accessory ligament
Any ligament that strengthens or supports another ligament.
Arcuate ligament
Means curved or bow-shaped ligaments; they are located in the spine and assist in maintaining...
Collateral ligament
There are several types of collateral ligaments, including fibular, radial, tibial, ulnar,...
Coracoid ligament
Coracoid means like a raven’s beak and is used to describe an area on the scapula. It is...
Cruciate ligament
Cruciate means shaped like a cross. There are different types of cruciate ligaments, including...
Falciform ligament
Falciform means shaped like a sickle and appears near the sacral tuberosity as well as within...
Inguinal ligament
Inguinal is a term used to describe the groin area.
Interosseous ligament
Interosseous means between bones and describes several different ligaments.
Longitudinal ligament
Longitudinal simply means lengthwise. It is used to describe any ligament that runs lengthwise.
Nuchal ligament
Nuchal means pertaining to the neck.
Triquetral ligament
Triquetral means three cornered and appears in different places throughout the body. The prefix...
Apophyseal
A fracture in which a small fragment is torn from the bone.
Articular
A fracture of the joint surface.
Avulsion
An indirect fracture caused by tearing or pulling of a ligament.
Blow-out
A fracture of the orbital floor caused by traumatic force.
Boxer
Fracture of the metacarpal neck, caused by striking something hard with a closed fist.
Bucket-handle
Also called a "bucket-handle tear," it is a tear in the cartilage and it leaves a loop of cartilage...
Burst
Also called an "axial compression fracture," it is a fracture of a vertebra, often injuring...
Butterfly
A comminuted fracture resulting in two fragments of bone on either side of a main fragment;...
Buttonhole
Also called a "perforating fracture," it results when a bone is perforated by a missile.
Chisel
Detachment of a piece from the head of the radius.
Cleavage
Shelling off of cartilage by a small fragment of bone.
Closed
A fracture that does not penetrate or produce an open wound in the skin.
Colles'
Fracture of the lower end of the radius, where the fragment is displaced.
Communited
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed.
Complete
A fracture in which the bone is entirely broken all the way across.
Complicated
When there is injury to adjacent parts of the bone due to a fracture.
Compound
Basically just an open fracture.
Compression
A fracture as a result of compression.
Condylar
A fracture of the humerus where a small fragment that includes the condyle is separated from...
Dislocation
A fracture that occurs near a joint and results in displacement of the joint.
Greenstick
Also called "hickory-stick fracture," it is a fracture in which one side of the bone is broken...
Hangman's
A fracture through the axis (C2).
Impacted
When one fragment of a fracture is driven into another.
Indirect
A fracture that occurs at a point distant from the injury.
Insufficiency
A stress fracture that occurs when there is a normal amount of stress, but the bone is of decreased...
Intra-articular
A fracture on the articular surface of a bone (also acceptably presented as intraarticular).
Intracapsular
A fracture occurring within the capsule of a joint.
Intrauterine
Fracture of a fetal bone while in utero.
Le Fort
Fracture of the maxilla. (There are different types of Le Fort fractures; they are dictated...
Linear
A fracture extending along the length of a bone.
Longitudinal
A break extending in a longitudinal direction.
Oblique
A break extending in an oblique direction.
Open
A fracture that results in an external wound (i.e., a portion of the fractured bone protrudes...
Simple
Opposite of a compound fracture; basically a closed fracture.
Spiral
Also called a "torsion fracture," it is where a bone is literally twisted apart.
Spontaneous
Occurs as a result of some longstanding disease and is not traumatic.
Stress
Caused as a result of repeated stress to a bone (commonly seen in soldiers or athletes).
Subcapital
A fracture of a bone just below its head.
Torsion
Also called a "spiral fracture."
Torus
A fracture with localized expansion of the cortex, but little or no displacement of the lower...
Transverse
A fracture that occurs at a right angle to the axis of a bone.
Tuft
A splintered fracture of the distal phalanx.
Achondroplasia
A hereditary disorder of cartilage and bone formation.Symptoms are disproportionately...
Ankylosing spondylitis
This is a rheumatoid arthritis of the spine. It is progressive and is found most often in young...
Arthritis
This affects joints and is the inflammation of one or more joints. There are many types. The...
Inflammation
A response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain, swelling, redness...
Rheumatoid
A type of arthritis characterized by inflammatory changes throughout the body's connective...
Chondrosarcoma
This is a malignant tumor of cartilage.Symptoms include pain and generally the presence...
Degenerative joint disease
Joint disease characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage.Symptoms include...
Ewing tumor
This is a cancerous tumor or malignancy that invades the entire shaft of the bone.Symptoms...
Sarcoma
A connective tissue tumor that is usually malignant.
Gout
A systemic disease due to deposition of urate crystals.Symptoms include episodes of severe...
Hurler syndrome
This is caused by irregular ossification and is due to an overproduction of mucopolysaccharides.Symptoms...
Mucopolysaccharides
An antiarthritic compound that effectively increases the viscosity (or stickiness) of synovial...
Hypophosphatasia
This condition is a result of a deficiency in alkaline phosphatase.Symptoms include skeletal...
Alkaline phosphatase
Enzyme produced in the bone and liver.
Legg-Calve-Perthes disease
Disease of the hip joint that results in a loss of bone mass due to inadequate blood flow to...
Marfan syndrome
This results from abnormal formation of connective tissue.Symptoms include long, slender...
Multiple myeloma
This is the most common bone neoplasm. It is a tumor derived from the blood cells.Symptoms...
Osgood-Schlatter disease
This disease affects the tibial tubercle, where the patella inserts onto the tibia. It manifests...
Osteochondritis dissecans
This is the term for osteochondrosis (see below) involving the joints, particularly the shoulder...
Osteochondrosis
This is a general term for a group of developmental disorders that affect ossification centers...
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
This is also a result of abnormal formation of connective tissues.Symptoms include blue...
Osteoid osteoma
This is a benign lesion that can occur in any bone, but is most common in the long bones.Symptoms...
Osteomalacia
This is softening of bone as a result of the bone being poorly mineralized.Symptoms include...
Osteomyelitis
This is usually a bacterial infection of the bone, although it can also be a fungal infection....
Staphylococcus aureus
This is usually a bacterial infection of the bone, although it can also be a fungal infection....
Osteoporosis
This occurs when the density of the bone is inadequate to allow for the proper support required...
Kyphosis
Forward hunching of the spine.
Paget disease
A degenerative disorder of the bone resulting in the softening and swelling of bone.Symptoms...
Psoriatic arthritis
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease which causes scaling, dryness, pustules, and abscesses...
Reiter syndrome
This is an arthritis associated with nonbacterial urethritis, conjunctivitis, cervicitis, and...
Rickets
Occurs in infants as a result of overgrowth of poorly mineralized bone and enlarged marrow...
Scheuermann disease
This disease specifically affects the ossification centers of the vertebrae.Symptoms include...
Scoliosis
Scoliosis is lateral (or sideways) curvature of the spine in the erect position. It is caused...
Origin
The less movable attachment of a muscle.
Insertion
The more movable attachment of a muscle.
Direct (fleshy) attachments
Short strands of connective tissue that make muscles appear as if they are directly connected...
Indirect attachments
Long strands of connective tissue extending beyond the muscle.
Tendon
A rope-like structure that binds muscles to bone.
Aponeurosis
A flat tissue sheet that connects muscle to bone.
Anterior
Situated in front of or toward the front of a body part or organ. This term is also used...
Coronal
Division of the body into anterior and posterior sections. Also called frontal plane. Can mean...
Distal
Remote; farther from any point of reference; opposite of proximal. (The shoulder is distal...
Dorsal
Pertaining to the back of the body; also used to denote a position that is more toward the...
Inferior
Situated below a structure or directed downward; also used to denote the lower portion of an...
Lateral
Pertaining to the side; denoting a position farther from the midline (median plane) of a structure.
Medial
Pertaining to the middle; closer to the midline of a body; pertaining to the middle layer.
Posterior
Situated in the back; also used in reference to the back or dorsal surface of the body.
Proximal
Nearest; closer to any point of reference; opposite of distal. (The shoulder is distal...
Sagittal
Division of body into left and right sides in a vertical lengthwise fashion.
Superior
Situated above, or directed upward; in official anatomic nomenclature, used in reference to...
Transverse
A horizontal plane situated at right angles to the long axis, or sagittal and coronal planes;...
Ventral
Pertaining to the abdomen; used to denote a position that is more toward the belly/abdominal...
Antero
Anterior
Disto
Distal
Dorso
Dorsal
Inferio
Inferior
Latero
Lateral
Medio
Medial
Postero
Posterior
Supero
Superior
Ventro
Ventral
Lateral pterygoid
This is a muscle of mastication. It originates on the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone....
Medial pterygoid
Also a muscle of mastication. Both pterygoid muscles are on the inside of the mandible. The...
Risorius
The risorius originates on the side of the face and inserts on the orbicularis oris muscle....
Mentalis
The mentalis muscle originates on the chin and goes into the orbicularis oris muscle. It elevates...
Depressor labii inferioris
This muscle also originates on the mandible and inserts on to the orbicularis muscle. It depresses...
Depressor anguli oris
This muscle originates on the lower part of the mandible. It pulls down the angle of the...
Anconeus
Located on the back of the humerus, it extends the forearm.
Extensor digiti minimi
A long narrow muscle located on the ulnar side of the extensor digitorum communis muscle. It...
Extensor digitorum communis
Positioned in the center of the forearm along the posterior surface. Its tendon divides into...
Flexor digitorum profundus
Lies just underneath the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle. This muscle flexes the distal...
Flexor pollicis longus
Positioned deep on the front of the radius. It attaches at the base of the thumb and flexes...
Pronator teres
Positioned in upper middle part of the forearm. It arises from the epicondyle (a prominence...
Epicondyle
A prominence or projection on a bone.
Pronator quadratus
Positioned deep and extends between the ulna and radius. It works with the other pronator muscle...
Supinator
Positioned around the upper portion of the radius. It works with the biceps to turn the palm...
Atony
Lack of normal tone or strength. This happens in muscles that are deprived of innervation (which...
Atrophy
The wasting away or weakening of muscle fibers due to a lack of usage. There are many different...
Bursitis
Inflammation of a bursa.
Bursa
A sac-like cavity filled with synovial fluid and located in places where tendons or muscles...
Charley Horse
A bruised or torn muscle accompanied by cramps and severe pain. This particular injury most...
Cramp
A sustained spasm or contraction of a muscle accompanied by severe, localized pain.
Dystonia
Sustained abnormal postures or disruptions of normal movement resulting from alterations...
Dupuytren contracture
Painless thickening and contracture of the palmar fascia due to fibrous proliferation, resulting...
Fasciculations
Similar to fibrillations or tremors. A repetitive, involuntary contraction of muscle. The main...
Fibromyalgia
A rheumatic disorder characterized by achy pain, tenderness, and stiffness.
Myofascial pain syndrome
Fibromyalgia is also called myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyositis. A group of rheumatic...
Ganglion
A thin-walled band cyst formed on a joint capsule or tendon sheath.
Leiomyoma
A benign tumor of smooth muscle tissue (e.g., the uterus).
Muscular dystrophy
A genetic abnormality of muscle tissue characterized by dysfunction and ultimately deterioration.
Myalgia
muscle pain
Myasthenia gravis
A chronic progressive neuromuscular weakness, usually starting with the muscles of the face...
Myopathy
Any disease of the muscles
Myositis ossificans
A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.
Paralysis
The loss of nervous control of a muscle. Paralysis is commonly thought of as related to paraplegia,...
Paraplegia
A paralysis of the legs (lower extremities).
Quadriplegia
A paralysis of all four limbs.
Plantar fasciitis
Excessive pulling or stretching of the calcaneal periosteum by the plantar fascia, resulting...
Polymyositis
An autoimmune disorder which causes atrophy and weakness of the muscles.
Rigor mortis
Rigor means chilled, stiffness, rigidity. Rigor mortis is the muscular hardness occurring 4–7...
Tendinitis
Inflammation of tendons and of tendon-muscle attachments due to trauma or repetitive wear....
Tennis elbow
Also called lateral and medial epicondylitis. A strain of the lateral forearm muscles or the...
Tetanus
A disease caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which produces a toxin that causes muscles...
Torticollis
Persistent contraction of a sternocleidomastoid muscle, drawing the head to one side and distorting...
Anorexia
A loss or total lack of appetite.
Borborygmi
The audible rumbling sounds of gas moving through the intestinal tract. This is the plural...
Chills
A shivering or a shaking.
Rigor
Shivering or trembling, usually accompanied by fever; also called chills.
Constipation
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces. This term could be classified as either a symptom...
Obstipation
Constipation that continues for a prolonged period of time.
Dysphagia
This is a subjective feeling of difficulty swallowing. It occurs when there is impaired progression...
Fever
An elevation in temperature above normal. This is also called pyrexia. If a patient has a fever,...
Afebrile
Not having a fever.
Flatus
Gas produced by bacterial action on waste matter in the intestines. Composed primarily of hydrogen...
Bloating
The feeling of excessive gas in the colon.
Belching
Expressing of excessive gas through the mouth.
Flatulence
Expressing of excessive gas through the anus.
Heartburn
A retrosternal sensation of burning felt in waves and arising upward toward the neck.
Hematemesis
Vomiting of blood.
Hematochezia
The passage of bloody stools.
Melena
Melan(o)- is a combining form that means black. The term melena refers both to the passage...
Nausea
An unpleasant sensation in the epigastric and abdominal area, which often results in vomiting.
Odynophagia
Pain during swallowing.
Pallor
Paleness or the absence of skin color.
Regurgitation
Flow in the opposite direction than is normal.
Tenesmus
Straining, especially ineffective and painful straining during a bowel movement or urination.
Vomiting
Also called emesis. The forcible expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth. (Try not...
Weakness
Lacking physical strength.
Weight-loss
This is self-explanatory: losing pounds.
Achalasia
This is an impairment of normal esophageal peristalsis. (You may remember that peristalsis...
Anorexia Nervosa
This is a mental condition characterized by an individual's refusal to eat enough to maintain...
Appendicitis
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix. (The term appendix is actually a general term...
Vermiform
The vermiform appendix specifically identifies the diverticulum of the cecum. However, healthcare...
Atresia
The absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular organ.
Bezoar
Tightly packed, partially digested agglomerations of hair or vegetable matter. Seeds, bubble...
Botulism
A type of food poisoning caused by the production of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum...
Cheiloschisis
This is another term for cleft lip or harelip. It is a congenital abnormality.
Cholecystitis
Inflammation of the gallbladder. There are different types of cholecystitis, the most common...
Cholelithiasis
The presence or formation of gallstones.
Dysentery
Any of a variety of disorders marked by inflammation of the intestines, especially the colon....
Amebic dysentery
The most common type of dysentery, due to an ulceration of the bowel caused by amebiasis.
Amebiasis
The state of being infected by amebae.
Dyspepsia
General term which means impairment to the power or function of digestion. It often refers...
Enteritis
Inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine. Often this is combined (e.g.,...
Enterocolitis
Inflammation of both the intestine and colon.
Cholera
A form of enteritis that is spread by food and water contaminated with feces. It is much more...
Esophagitis
Inflammation of the esophagus.
Fecalith
An intestinal concretion (the process of becoming harder or more solid) formed around a center...
Fistula
An abnormal passage or communication between two organs or from an internal organ to the surface...
Gastritis
Inflammation of the stomach. This is commonly combined (e.g., gastroenteritis). This is often...
Gastroenteritis
Acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and the intestines.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
The reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. It is often represented by the acronym GERD...
Halitosis
Offensive breath. This can be real as the result of ingested substances, gingival disease,...
Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be due to viral, bacterial, or parasitic factors....
Hernia
The protrusion of a loop or knuckle of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening. There...
Abdominal hernia
The protrusion of some internal body structure through the abdominal wall.
Hiatal hernia
The protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm. There are both a sliding hiatal hernia and...
Sliding hiatal hernia
A hernia in which the stomach and a section of esophagus which joins the stomach slide up into...
Paraesophageal hiatal hernia
A hernia in which part of the stomach squeezes through the hiatus, but the esophagus and stomach...
Inguinal hernia
A hernia into the inguinal canal. There are both direct and indirect inguinal hernias.
Umbilical hernia
Protrusion of part of the intestine through the umbilicus.
Hirschsprung disease
Congenital megacolon, or a dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon due to the sustained contraction...
Hypertrophy
The enlargement of an organ due to an increase in the size of its cells.
ileus
The temporary cessation of intestinal peristalsis, which often leads to obstruction. A common...
Adynamic ileus
A suspension of peristalsis because of paralysis or atony (lack of normal muscle tone or strength)....
Inflammatory bowel disease
This can be used to describe a variety of bowel disorders which are inflammatory in nature,...
Crohn disease
It is not known what causes Crohn disease; it can affect any part of the GI tract from the...
Ulcerative colitis
A chronic, nonspecific, inflammatory, and ulcerative disease that arises in the colonic mucosa...
Intussusception
This occurs when a segment of bowel advances and protrudes into the segment distal to it.
Irritable bowel syndrome
Intermittent or constant abdominal distress and bowel dysfunction which has no demonstrable...
Jaundice
A syndrome characterized by the bile pigment in the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae with...
Leukoplakia
A white patch on a mucous membrane that will not rub off. This occurs in the oral mucosa and...
Malabsorption
Impaired intestinal absorption of nutrients. If the body is not absorbing nutrients properly,...
Mumps
An acute, highly contagious viral disease which causes painful enlargement of the salivary...
Obstruction
The state or condition of being clogged or blocked. In gastroenterology it usually refers to...
Pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas.
Parasites
A plant or animal which lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains...
Giardia
An intestinal protozoa that has a large sucking disc which adheres to the microvilli of the...
Giardiasis
The infection that occurs with the presence of the Giardia parasite.
Peptic ulcer disease
Inflammation and ulceration in the duodenum and stomach caused by gastric acid juice. Peptic...
Barrett esophagus
Barrett esophagus is a chronic peptic ulcer of the esophagus and is commonly seen in medical...
Peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum. Symptoms include abdominal pain and tenderness, constipation,...
Pharyngitis
Inflammation of the pharynx. This is the most common etiology of a sore throat.
Polyp
This refers to any mass of tissue that arises from the bowel wall and protrudes into the lumen....
Sessile
Sessile means attached by a base.
Pedunculated
Pedunculated means attached by a stem-like structure or stalk.
Prolapse
The falling down or sinking of a part. This pathology can affect the GI system through anal...
Pruritus ani
Pruritus means itching. Pruritus ani is intense, chronic itching in the anal region.
Schatzki ring
A 2–4 mm mucosal structure, probably congenital in nature, which causes a ring-like narrowing...
Ulcers
A defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue. There are many kinds of ulcers...
Volvulus
Intestinal obstruction that is due to a knotting or twisting of the bowel.
Nasal septum
The partition that divides the two equal cavities of the nose.
Perpendicular ethmoid
One bone that makes up the nasal septum.
Vomer
One bone that makes up the nasal septum.
External nares
The nostrils.
Choanae
Internal nares that link the external nares to the nasopharynx.
Conchae bones
Also called turbinate bones, they create a passageway for the air.
Meatus
The passage created by the conchae where air flows.
Nasopharynx
The nasal portion of the pharynx.
Septum
Partition between the two sides of the nasal cavity.
Ethmoid
Perforated like a sieve, such as the ethmoid bone.
Vomer
Bone of the nasal septum.
Choana(e)
Link from external nares to nasopharynx.
Turbinates
Another name for conchae.
Meatus
Passageway in the body, especially an onpening on the surface.
Epithelium
Lining of small cavities.
Epistaxis
Nosebleed.
Olfaction
Sense of smell.
Olfactory epithelia
Lines the olfactory region of the nasal cavity.
Paranasal sinuses
Air spaces contained by certain bones of the face.
Maxillary sinus
One of the paired paranasal sinuses located in the body of the maxilla.
Frontal sinus
One of the paired irregular shaped paranasal sinuses located in the frontal bone.
Sphenoid sinus
One of the paired paranasal sinuses in the anterior part of the body of the sphenoid bone.
Ethmoidal sinus
One of the paranasal sinuses located withing the ethmoid bone.
Auditory
Pertaining to the sense of hearing
Eustachian
Tube connecting the nasopharynx to the middle ear.
Adenoids
Pharyngeal tonsils.
Laryngopharynx
Where the respiratory and digestive systems diverge.
Thyroid
Gland situated in the lower part of the front of the neck.
Cricoid
Ring-shaped cartilage making up the lower larynx.
Arytenoid
Vocal cord cartilage.
Bifurcates
Divided into two branches.
Bifurcation
Site where a single structure divides into two.
Carina
Cartilaginous plate of the trachea.
Bronchial tree
Another name for pulmonary bronchus.
Tertiary
Third in order.
Bronchioles
One of the subdivisions of the branched bronchial tree.
Alveolar ducts
Small passages connecting the respiratory bronchioles and the alveolar sacs.
Alveoli
Functional units of the respiratory system.
Mediastinal space
Space separating the lungs.
Mediastinum
Mass of tissues and organs seperating the two pleural sacs.
Lobules
Division of lung lobes.
Pleura
Serous membrane of the thoracic cavity.
Visceral
Pleura which is adherent to the outer surface of the lung.
Parietal
Pleura that lines the thoracic wall and diaphragm.
Ventilation
Process of the exchange of air between the lungs and the ambient air.
Inspiration
Drawing air inward to the lungs.
Diaphragm
Partition that separtates the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
Expiration
The relaxation of the chest wall.
Diffusion
Process of becoming widely spread.
Pulmonary alveoli
Small outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs where gas exchange takes place.
Pulmonology
Specialty that deals primarily with problems of the respiratory system.
Incentive spirometry
Measurement of the breathing capacity of the lungs.
Chest pain
Any discomfort in the thoracic cavity.
Clubbing
Enlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes with loss of the nailbed angle. this can be...
Congestion
Excessive or abnormal accumulation of fluid (such as mucus in the sinuses).
Cough
A sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs. This is a reflex to keep the airway free of...
Cyanosis
Bluish discoloration, particularly of the nailbeds and perioral area. Again, this may be seen...
Dyspnea
Difficulty breathing.
Hemoptysis
Coughing up blood or bloodstained sputum, usually due to bleeding somewhere in the respiratory...
Hiccup (hiccough)
An involuntary spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm that occurs on inspiration and results...
Malaise
A vague feeling of bodily discomfort and fatigue, not necessarily related specifically to respiratory...
Sputum
Matter that is ejected from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea through the mouth. The consistency...
Purulent
Containing pus.
Rales
Usually pronounced “rawls” (but sometimes “rails” or “rals”—rhyming with “pals”)....
Rhonchi
Continuous dry rattling sounds in the throat or bronchial tube due to a partial obstruction.
Stridor
A musical sound, heard with a stethoscope on inspiration.
Tachypnea
Shortness of breath. Excessive rapidity of respiration or quick, shallow breathing.
Wheezing
Whistling or wheezing noises associated with breathing; a telltale symptom of asthma.
Abscess
A localized collection of pus buried in tissues, organs, or confined spaces.
Adult respiratory distress syndrome
Chronic respiratory failure associated with various acute pulmonary injuries. It is characterized...
Apnea
Cessation of breathing.
Asphyxia
Suffocation. This can be deliberate and traumatic, occur as a result of some obstruction of...
Asthma
This is a condition that is marked by recurrent attacks of paroxysmal dyspnea and it is manifested...
Paroxysmal
A paroxysm is a sudden recurrence or intensification of symptoms.
Atelectasis
Incomplete expansion of a lung, a shrunken or airless lung. This can be either acute or chronic...
Bronchiectasis
An irreversible chronic dilation of the bronchi that is usually accompanied by infection. It...
Fetid
Having a rank or disagreeable smell.
Expectoration
The act of coughing up and spitting out materials from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea.
Bronchitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the bronchial tubes. Significant contributing...
Bronchopneumonia
An inflammation of the lungs which usually begins in the terminal bronchioles.
Bronchiolitis
Another name for bronchopneumonia.
Bronchoalveolitis
Another name for bronchopneumonia.
Bronchopneumonitis
Another name for bronchopneumonia.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
A generalized term related to persistent airways obstructions. COPD is associated with various...
Coccidioidomycosis
A fungal disease that infects the respiratory system as a result of the inhalation of spores....
Emphysema
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs, especially the lungs. In pulmonary...
Empyema
Accumulation of pus in a cavity of the body. Although there are different types, when the term...
Epiglottitis
Inflammation of the epiglottis.
Epistaxis
Nosebleed (hemorrhage from the nose).
Hemothorax
A collection of blood in the pleural cavity. This often results from a blunt or penetrating...
Hyaline membrane disease
This is a disorder usually affecting premature newborns in which the alveoli are lined by a...
Hyperventilation
A state in which there is an increase in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli,...
Infiltrate
Material deposited in organs or cells which are not normal to it, or in excessive quantities....
Interstitial lung disease
Interstitial is a term that means pertaining to or situated between parts or in the interspaces...
Laryngitis
Inflammation of the larynx. Usually associated with dryness and soreness of the throat, hoarseness,...
Papilloma
A papilloma is a benign tumor. In the respiratory system, these are common in children, starting...
Pertussis
An acute, highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract, most frequently seen in young...
Pleural effusion
Excess fluid in the pleural space. The presence of fluid in the pleural space is usually determined...
Serous
Fluid that is clear and yellow.
Sanguineous
Bloody or blood-tinged fluid.
Serosanguineous
Fluid containing both serum and blood.
Pleurisy
Inflammation of the pleura. It is usually characterized by pain that is worse with breathing...
Pneumoconiosis
A condition characterized by the permanent deposition of substantial amounts of particulate...
Anthracosis
A common type of pneumoconiosis, also called “black lung.”
Asbestosis
A common type of pneumoconiosis due to the inhalation of asbestos fibers.
Berylliosis
A common type of pneumoconiosis due to beryllium dust.
Silicosis
A common type of pneumoconiosis due to sand particles.
Pneumonia
Also called pneumonitis, this is inflammation of the lung resulting in consolidation, which...
Pneumonitis
Another name for pneumonia. (Pneumonia can also be viral or fungal in nature. A few of...
Consolidation
A pathologic process where normally aerated lung tissue is converted into a dense, airless...
Hemophilus influenzae
This is the second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. The most serious strain of...
Klebsiella pneumoniae
This is the most frequent of the gram-negative bacilli and it normally affects already compromised...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
A gram-negative pathogen.
Acinetobacter
A gram-negative pathogen.
Legionella pneumophila
Also known as Legionnaires' disease, this only accounts for 1% to 8% of pneumonias. It can...
Legionaire's disease
Another name for Legionella pneumophila.
Mycoplasma pneumionae
This is the most common pathogen for children and young adults (age 5 to 35 years), but is...
Pneumococcus pneumoniae
Pneumococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause for bacterial pneumonia. It usually begins...
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus accounts for approximately 2% of community-acquired pneumonias. Patients...
Streptococcus pneumoniae
This has become relatively rare since World War I and is usually a complication of influenza,...
Pneumothorax
Free air in the pleural cavity between the visceral and parietal pleurae. It may occur either...
Rhinitis
Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose. Often accompanied by rhinorrhea (a runny...
Rhinorrhea
runny nose
Sarcoidosis
Also called Boeck sarcoid, this is a systemic disease of unknown etiology with the most severe...
Boeck sarcoid
Another name for sarcoidosis.
Granulomatous
Pertaining to any small nodular aggregation of a certain kind of cells.
Sinusitis
Inflammation of a sinus. It is usually designated by the name of the sinus that is inflamed...
Tonsillitis
Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the palatine tonsils.
Tracheitis
Inflammation of the trachea.
Tuberculosis
A chronic, recurrent infection most common in the lungs, although any organ may be affected....
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
The gram-positive bacterium that causes tuberculosis.
Upper respiratory infection (URI)
The common cold. An acute, usually afebrile viral infection of the respiratory tract with inflammation...
Wegener's granulomatous
An uncommon disease that usually begins as a localized granulomatous inflammation of the upper...
Ovaries
Paired organs that produce gametes and the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Fallopian Tubes
Tubes that transport the ovum to the uterus.
Uterus
A hollow muscular organ where the fetus matures.
Vagina
A muscular tube that passes from the cervical opening to the uterus and to the outside of the...
Ampulla
The longest portion of the fallopian tube.
Infundibulum
The funnel-shaped distal end of the fallopian tube.
Cervix
The tapered distal portion of the uterus.
Endometrium
The inner lining of the uterus that undergoes changes based on the menstrual cycle.

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