Anatomy Lab Practical Four- The Heart


The Heart- Location, Layers, Blood Circulation, Conduction System, And Baroreceptors.
  
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The heart is located...
 
in the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity.

(between the sternum, lungs and thoracic vertebrae)
The serous membrane of the heart is...
 
the pericardium.

Outer Parietal
 
attaches heart to mediastinum.
has fibrous tissue so heart doesn't over expand.
Visceral Layer
 
called epicardium. lines the surface of the heart.
Pericardial Cavity
 
space between parietal and visceral layer. filled with fluid to reduce friction. Both layers have mesothelium that secrete serous fluid.
Myocardium
 
muscle of the heart.
uninucleated cardiac muscle cells.
Endocardium
 
line the heart chambers. inner layer of the heart. endothelial cells.
auto-rhythmic
 
regulates its own relaxation and contraction phases without nerve stimulation.
can be affected by nerve stimulation.
Sinu-Atrial Node (SA Node)
 
action potential originates here.
atrivoventricular node (AV node)
 
pass slowly through atrium wall so atria can contract.
atrioventricular bundle
 
signal passes through here to divide into left and right bundles to the ventricles.
purkinje fibers
 
begin at apex of ventricles. stimulate ventricle walls simultaneously to elicit stronger contraction.
Baroreceptors
 
located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch respond to increase in blood pressure. this stretches the carotid arteries and aorta. increase action potential generation.
Medulla Oblongatta
 
receives information from the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves from the heart to increase parasympathetic stimulation.
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
 
deliver blood to right atrium.
tricuspid (AV) valve
 
connects right atrium and ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve
 
empties blood into the pulmonary arteries.
bicuspid AV Valve
 
empties blood from left atrium into the left ventricle
systemic semilunar valve
 
empties blood from left ventricle to the aorta.
coronary sinus
 
all coronary veins merge here
located in coronary sulcus
empties deoxygenated blood to right atrium
coronary veins
 
great c.v., small c.v., middle c.v., posterior c.v.
chordae tendineae
 
hold valves shut

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