Anatomy Exam 2-Ch. 6

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Which of following is a function of the skeletal system?
blood cell production
calcium homeostasis
body support
protection of internal organs
All of the answers are correct.
When a fractured bone heals it leaves a thickened region known as a ____________.
fracture hematoma callus bone scab tuberosity
This cell (osteoclast) functions to _________.
lay down matrix fibers build bone maintain bone break down bone
Spongy bone is filled with ____________.
compact bone red marrow the osteons fatty marrow
A vertebra is an example of a(n) __________ bone.
dense flat irregular short
In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are
diagonal. radial. anterior. proximal. parallel.
A drop in blood calcium levels stimulates the secretion of __________.
parathyroid hormone growth hormone calcitonin thyroid hormone
A bone scan of an older patient revealed the beginnings of osteoporosis. Which of these interventions is notrecommended?
bed rest vitamin D supplements calcium supplements vitamin C supplements
Migration of osteoblasts into the ___________ creates the __________.
epiphysis, secondary ossification center diaphysis, secondary ossification center epiphysis, primary ossification center diaphysis, tertiary ossification center
Where in the body does the production of precursors for the synthesis of calcitriol occur?
small intestine kidneys bone skin liver
Which of these forms by intramembranous bone formation?
mandible carpal bones humerus long bones
Which of these is a primary role of the skeletal system?
leverage calcium homeostasis muscle attachment site All of these are primary roles of the skeletal system.
Which of the following are not components of the skeletal system?
tendons bones cartilage ligaments other tissues that connect bones
Which of the following characteristics applies to the cells known as osteoclasts?
They are stem cells. They are mature bone cells. The cells dissolve matrix. The cells secrete matrix.
Osteoblasts differentiate from __________.
osteomedullary cells
osteoprogenitor cells
Bone is composed of ________ percent cells.
2 15 50 25 10
Through the action of osteoclasts,
osteoid is calcified. new bone is formed. an organic framework is formed. fractured bones regenerate. bony matrix is dissolved.
________ account(s) for almost two-thirds of the weight of bone.
Water Fluoride Calcium phosphate Calcium carbonate Collagen fibers
________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.
Osteoprogenitor Osteoclast Chondroblast Osteocyte Osteoid
The most abundant cell type in bone is
osteoclasts. osteocytes. osteoprogenitor cells. osteolytes. osteoblasts.
The type of bone that forms the diaphysis of a long bone is called __________ bone.
trabecular compact cancellous spongy
The interconnecting tiny arches of bone tissue found in spongy bone are called
trabeculae. interstitial lamellae. concentric lamellae. lacunae. osteons.
Fat is stored within the
metaphysis. medullary cavity. spongy bone. diaphysis. epiphysis.
The trabeculae of spongy bone
are composed mostly of cartilage
.will collapse under stress.
are organized along stress lines.
are concentrated in the cortex of the diaphysis.
are organized parallel to the long axis of the bone.
Migration of blood vessels into the central region of the cartilage bone model, starting bone development, occurs at which site?
secondary ossification center periosteum primary ossification center epiphysis
The cell (osteoblasts) designated by the arrow _________.
differentiates into osteoblasts maintain bone from outside the lacuna requires oxygen and nutrients to function breaks down bone for calcium reabsorption
During endochondral bone formation, the primary ossification center is located in the __________.
distal epiphysis proximal epiphysis diaphysis metaphysis
Intramembranous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells.
osteoprogenitor osteocyte osteoblast osteoclast mesenchymal
When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,
interstitial bone growth begins. appositional bone growth begins. long bones have reached their adult length. puberty begins. the bone becomes more brittle.
Accelerated closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by
too little thyroxine. elevated levels of estrogen. high levels of vitamin D. an excess of growth hormone. too much calcium in the diet.
When production of sex hormones increases at puberty, epiphyseal plates
increase slowly. accelerate rapidly, but mostly in thickness. are hardly affected. get wider. become narrower.
In normal adult bones,
osteoclasts continue to be active long after osteoblast activity ceases. a portion of the protein and mineral content is replaced each year. exercise will have no effect on bone remodeling. there is no turnover of minerals. osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity, once bone has been formed.
Calcitriol is required for __________.
collagen synthesis activating osteoclasts quieting osteoblasts absorbing dietary calcium and phosphate
A lack of exercise could
result in porous and weak bones. cause bones to lose their medullary cavity. cause bones to become longer. cause bones to store more calcium. cause bones to become thicker.
Excessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result in
osteoporosis. giantism. osteopenia. dwarfism. rickets.
Which hormone increases blood calcium upon secretion?
parathyroid hormone (PTH) Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) thyroid hormone growth factor
Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of
sulfate. iron. sodium. potassium. calcium.
Which of the following is formed immediately after a fracture?
hematoma external callus spongy bone internal callus
What is normally found at a fracture hematoma?
blood clot bone fragments dead bone All of these are found at the site of a fracture hematoma.
Why does osteoporosis affect more women than men?
Men exercise more than women and therefore have less osteoporosis. Men do not remodel the skeleton as fast as women. Women have a decrease in sex hormones after menopause whereas men continue to produce male sex hormones throughout adulthood. Women typically do not get enough calcium in their diet. Pregnancy causes deossification of bones in women and will lead to osteoporosis.
Aging has what effect on the skeletal system?
fusion of joints, especially syndesmoses loss of calcium and collagen fibers from matrix progressive loss of processes and tuberosities increase in the number of cranial foramina increase in adipose tissue in epiphyses

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