Anatomy Chapter 13: Neural Tissue

  
Created Dec 1, 2012
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Side ASide B
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
componenets of CNS and PNS  that are concerned with the control of visceral functions
Nucleus
a CNS center with discrete anatomical boundaries
Center
a group of neuron cell bodies in the CNS that share a common function
Tract
a bundle of axons within the CNS that share a common origin, destination, and function
Column
a group of tracts found within a specific region of the spinal cord
Pathways
Centers and tracts that connect the brain with other organs and systems in the body
Ganglia
an anatomically distinct collection of sensory and motor neuron cell bodies within the PNS
Nerve
a bundle of axons in the PNS
gray matter
nerual tissue dominated by neuron cell bodies
white matter
neural tissue dominated by myelinated axons
neurol cortex
a layer of gray matter at the surface of the brain
neuron
the basic functional unit of the nervous system; a highly specialized cell; a nerve cell
sensory neuron
a neuron whose axon carries sensory info form the PNS toward the CNS
motor neuron
a neuron whose axon carries motor commands from the CNS toward effectors in the PNS
soma
the cell body of a neuron
dendrites
neruonal processes that are specialized to respond to specific stimuli in the extracellular...
axon
a long, slender cytoplasmic process of a neuron; capable of conducting nerve impulses (action...
myelin
a membranous wrapping, produced by glial cells, that coats axons and increases the speed of...
neuroglia or glial cells
supporting cells that interact with neruons and regulate the extracellular environment, provide...
effector
a muscle, gland, or other specialized cell or organ that responds to neural stimulation by...
receptor
a specialized cell, dendrite, or organ that responds to specific stimuli in the extracellular...
reflex
a rapid, stereotyped response to a specific stimulus
somatic
pertaining to the control of skeletal muscle acitivity (somatic motor) or sensory info from...
visceral
pertaining to the control of functions, such as digestion, circulation, etc (visceral motor)...
subconscious
pertaining to centers in the brain that operate outside a person's conscious awareness
action potential
sudden, transient changes in the membrane potential that are propagated along the surface of...
Neuroglia in PNS satellite cells
-surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia -regualte O2, CO2, nutrient, and neurotransmitter levels...
Neuroglia in PNS schwann cells
-surround all axons in PNS -responsible for myelination of peripheral axons -participate in...
Neuroglia in CNS Oligodendrocytes
-myelinated CNS axons -provide structural framework
Neuroglia in CNS Astrocytes
-maintain blood-brain barrier -provide structural support -regulate ion, nutrient, and dissolved-gas...
Neuroglia in CNS microglia
-remove cell debris, wastes, and pathogens by phagocytosis
Neuroglia in CNS ependymal cells
-line ventricles (brain) and central canal (spinal cord) -assist in producing, circulating,...
afferent division
brings sensory info to CNS
efferent division
carries motor commands to muscles and glands
Anaxonic neruons
-small, can't distinguish between axons and dendrites -found only in CNS  and special...
Bipolar neruons
-one long dendrite that branches at the end and normal axons -rare but important in relaying...
Pseudounipolar neurons
-cell body situated on one side - sensory neurons, axons may be myelinated
Multipolar neurons
-have several dendrites off cell body, and one axons that may have branches (what you think...
somatic sensory neruons
transmit info about the outside world and our position within it -receptors: exteroceptors...
visceral sensory neursons
transmit info about internal conditions and the status of other organ systems -receptors: interoceptors
exteroceptors
(outside) -provide info about external environment in the form of touch, temp, and pressure
proprioceptors
(one's own) -monitor position and movement of skeletal muscles and joints
interoceptors
(inside) -moniter organ systems and provide sensations of deep pressure, pain, and taste
excitability
the ability of a plasmalemma to conduct electrical impulses
action potential
-an electrical impulse -develops after the plasmalemma is stimulated to a level known as the...
rate of impulse depends on: 2
1. presence or absense of myelin sheath - myelinated faster 2. the diameter of the axon - larger...
vesicular synapses
-AKA chemical synapses -occurs in one direction only - presnaptic to postsynaptic -involves...
nonvesicular synapses
-AKA electrical synapses, rare -can occur in either direction -communication junctions permitting...
divergence
-spread of info from one neuron to several neurons -permits the broad distribution of a specific...
convergence
several neurons synapse on the same postsynaptic neuron
serial processing
info is relayed in a stepwise sequence, from one neruon to another
parallel processing
-several neurons are processing the same info at one time -many different responses occur simultaneously
reverberation
-collateral axons extend back toward the source of an impulse and further stimulate the presynaptic...


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