Anatomy Chapter 13: Neural Tissue

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Created Dec 1, 2012
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sara8213

 

 
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1
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
 
componenets of CNS and PNS  that are concerned with the control of visceral functions
2
Nucleus
 
a CNS center with discrete anatomical boundaries
3
Center
 
a group of neuron cell bodies in the CNS that share a common function
4
Tract
 
a bundle of axons within the CNS that share a common origin, destination, and function
5
Column
 
a group of tracts found within a specific region of the spinal cord
6
Pathways
 
Centers and tracts that connect the brain with other organs and systems in the body
7
Ganglia
 
an anatomically distinct collection of sensory and motor neuron cell bodies within the PNS
8
Nerve
 
a bundle of axons in the PNS
9
gray matter
 
nerual tissue dominated by neuron cell bodies
10
white matter
 
neural tissue dominated by myelinated axons
11
neurol cortex
 
a layer of gray matter at the surface of the brain
12
neuron
 
the basic functional unit of the nervous system; a highly specialized cell; a nerve cell
13
sensory neuron
 
a neuron whose axon carries sensory info form the PNS toward the CNS
14
motor neuron
 
a neuron whose axon carries motor commands from the CNS toward effectors in the PNS
15
soma
 
the cell body of a neuron
16
dendrites
 
neruonal processes that are specialized to respond to specific stimuli in the extracellular...
17
axon
 
a long, slender cytoplasmic process of a neuron; capable of conducting nerve impulses (action...
18
myelin
 
a membranous wrapping, produced by glial cells, that coats axons and increases the speed of...
19
neuroglia or glial cells
 
supporting cells that interact with neruons and regulate the extracellular environment, provide...
20
effector
 
a muscle, gland, or other specialized cell or organ that responds to neural stimulation by...
21
receptor
 
a specialized cell, dendrite, or organ that responds to specific stimuli in the extracellular...
22
reflex
 
a rapid, stereotyped response to a specific stimulus
23
somatic
 
pertaining to the control of skeletal muscle acitivity (somatic motor) or sensory info from...
24
visceral
 
pertaining to the control of functions, such as digestion, circulation, etc (visceral motor)...
25
subconscious
 
pertaining to centers in the brain that operate outside a person's conscious awareness
26
action potential
 
sudden, transient changes in the membrane potential that are propagated along the surface of...
27
Neuroglia in PNS
satellite cells
 
-surround neuron cell bodies in ganglia
-regualte O2, CO2, nutrient, and neurotransmitter...
28
Neuroglia in PNS
schwann cells
 
-surround all axons in PNS
-responsible for myelination of peripheral axons
-participate...
29
Neuroglia in CNS
Oligodendrocytes
 
-myelinated CNS axons
-provide structural framework
30
Neuroglia in CNS
Astrocytes
 
-maintain blood-brain barrier
-provide structural support
-regulate ion, nutrient,...
31
Neuroglia in CNS
microglia
 
-remove cell debris, wastes, and pathogens by phagocytosis
32
Neuroglia in CNS
ependymal cells
 
-line ventricles (brain) and central canal (spinal cord)
-assist in producing, circulating,...
33
afferent division
 
brings sensory info to CNS
34
efferent division
 
carries motor commands to muscles and glands
35
Anaxonic neruons
 
-small, can't distinguish between axons and dendrites
-found only in CNS  and...
36
Bipolar neruons
 
-one long dendrite that branches at the end and normal axons
-rare but important in relaying...
37
Pseudounipolar neurons
 
-cell body situated on one side
- sensory neurons, axons may be myelinated
38
Multipolar neurons
 
-have several dendrites off cell body, and one axons that may have branches (what you think...
39
somatic sensory neruons
 
transmit info about the outside world and our position within it
-receptors: exteroceptors...
40
visceral sensory neursons
 
transmit info about internal conditions and the status of other organ systems
-receptors:...
41
exteroceptors
 
(outside)
-provide info about external environment in the form of touch, temp, and pressure
42
proprioceptors
 
(one's own)
-monitor position and movement of skeletal muscles and joints
43
interoceptors
 
(inside)
-moniter organ systems and provide sensations of deep pressure, pain, and taste
44
excitability
 
the ability of a plasmalemma to conduct electrical impulses
45
action potential
 
-an electrical impulse
-develops after the plasmalemma is stimulated to a level known...
46
rate of impulse depends on:
2
 
1. presence or absense of myelin sheath - myelinated faster
2. the diameter of the axon...
47
vesicular synapses
 
-AKA chemical synapses
-occurs in one direction only - presnaptic to postsynaptic
48
nonvesicular synapses
 
-AKA electrical synapses, rare
-can occur in either direction
-communication junctions...
49
divergence
 
-spread of info from one neuron to several neurons
-permits the broad distribution of...
50
convergence
 
several neurons synapse on the same postsynaptic neuron
51
serial processing
 
info is relayed in a stepwise sequence, from one neruon to another
52
parallel processing
 
-several neurons are processing the same info at one time
-many different responses occur...
53
reverberation
 
-collateral axons extend back toward the source of an impulse and further stimulate the presynaptic...


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