Anatomy And Physiology: Muscle

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Skeletal muscle:
Identify and give examples of where it is found

Multiple nuclei, striated, voluntary and involuntary (reflexes) control.
Location: attached to bones
Function: body movement
Smooth muscle:
Identify and give examples of where it is found

Spindle shaped, single nucleus that is centrally located.
Location: walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, eyes, glands, and skin
Function: Food movement through digestive tract ect.
Cardiac muscle:
Identify and give examples of where it is found

Striated, single centrally located nucleus.
Function: pumps blood
Location: Heart
Orbicularis Oculi

closes eye
Orbicularis Oris
Compresses and purses lips
Zygomaticus Major

Retracts and elevates corners of the mouth

Tenses skin of neck, depresses mandible

Raises eyebrows, wrinkles scalp

Tenses and retracts scalp

Compresses cheeks

Elevates mandible

Elevates mandible
Medial Pterygoid

Moves mandible side to side
Lateral Pterygoid

Moves mandible side to side

Depresses tongue

Depresses tongue

Retracts tongue

Both together: flexion of neck, one: laterally bends neck to opposite side
Origin: Sternum and Clavicle
Insertion: Mastoid process
Splenius Capitis

Both together: extension of the neck, one: rotate and laterally flex neck to same side
Erector Spinae Group: Iliocostalis, Longissimus, and Spinalis

Extend Vertebral Column
Quadratus Lumborum

Depress ribs or laterally flex spine
Psoas Major

Hip flexion
O: vertebra T12-L5
I: lesser trochanter femur

Hip flexion
O: Iliac fossa of ilium
I: Lesser trochanter femur

Expands thoracic cavity and compresses abdominopelvic cavity
Rectus Abdominis

Flexes trunk, compress abdomen
External Oblique

Flex trunk, rotates trunk to opposite side, compresses abdomen
Transverse Abdominis

Stabilizes spine, compress abdomen
Internal Oblique

Flex trunk, rotates trunk to same side, compresses abdomen
Levator Scapulae

Elevate scapula
O: Cervical vertebra
I: Scapula
Pectoralis Minor

Stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferior
Rhomboid Major and Rhomboid Minor

Adducts scapula.
O: vertebra (C7-T4)
I: scapula
Serratus Anterior

Protracts scapula

Upper fibers elevate scapula, middle fibers retract scapula, lower fibers depress scapula
O: Vertebra (C and T), occipital bone
I: Scapula

Abduction of shoulder (anterior fibers-flexion, posterior fibers- extension)
O: Scapula and clavicle
I: Deltoid tuberosity

Adduction and flexion of shoulder
O: Coracoid process of scapula
I: Humerus
Pectoralis major

adduction, flexion, medial rotation shoulder
O: ribs, sternum, and clavicle
I: humerus
Latissimus dorsi

Adduction, extension, medial rotation shoulder
O: Spinal column and ilium
I: anterior humerus

Abduction shoulder.
O: supraspinous fossa
I: humerus

Lateral rotation shoulder
O: infraspinous fossa
I: humerus
Teres Minor

Lateral rotation shoulder
O: scapula
I: Humerus

Medial rotation shoulder
O: subscapular fossa
I: humerus
Teres major

Adduction, extension, medial rotation shoulder
O: scapula
I: humerus
Not part of rotator cuff
Biceps brachii

Flexion and supination elbow, long head flexion shoulder also
Long head
O: scapula
I: radius
Short head
O: coracoid process
I: radial tuberosity

Flexion elbow
O: humerus
I: ulna

Flexion elbow
Triceps Brachii

Extension elbow, long head extension shoulder also
Long head
O: scapula
Medial and Lateral head
O: Humerus
All I: olecranon process
Pronator Teres

Pronation forearm
Flexor Carpi Radialis

Flexion wrist
Palmaris Longus

Flexion wrist
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

Flexion wrist
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

Flexion wrist and proximal interphalangeal joints
Flexor Digitorum Profundus

Flexion wrist and distal interphalangeal joints
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Extension wrist
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

Extension wrist
Extensor Digitorum

Extension wrist and fingers
Extensor Digiti minimi

Extension finger 5
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

Extension wrist
Abductor Pollicis Longus

Abduction thumb
Extensor Pollicis Brevis

Extension thumb
Extensor Pollicis Longus

Extension thumb

Supinate forearm
Gluteus Maximus

Extension, lateral rotation hip
O: Iliac crest and sacrum
I: Iliotibial tract
Gluteus Medius

Abduction, medial rotation hip
O: Ilium
I: Greater Trochanter
Gluteus Minimus

Abduction, medial rotation hip

Lateral rotation hip
Tensor Fasciae Latae

Flexion, medial rotation hip, stabilizes hip and knee
O: Ilium
I: Iliotibial tract
Iliotibial tract

Not a muscle
Adductor Magnus

Adduction hip
Adductor Longus

Adduction hip

Adduction hip, flexion knee
O: pubis
I: tibia
Biceps Femoris

Flexion knee, extension hip
Long head-
O: Ischial tuberosity
I: lateral tibia
Short head-
O: Femur
I: Tibia

Flexion knee, extension hip
O: Ishial tuberosity
I: medial tibia

Flexion knee, extension hip
O: Ishial Tuberosity
I: Tibia

Flexion knee, flexion hip
O: Anterior superior iliac spine
I: medial tibia
Rectus Femoris

Extension knee, flexion hip
O: Iliac spine
I: Patella
Vastus Intermeius
Vastus Medialis
Vastus Lateralis

Extension Knee
O: Femur
I: Patella

plantarflexion ankle
O: condyles of femur
I: Achilles tendon

plantarflexion ankle
O: Tibia and fibula
I: Achilles tendon
Achilles tendon

Not a muscle
Flexor digitorum longus

Flex toes 2-5
Tibialis posterior

Plantarflexion ankle
Flexor hallucis longus

Flexion great toe (Hallux)

flexion at knee
Fibularis Longus
Fibularis Brevis

Eversion ankle/foot
Tibialis anterior

dorsiflexion ankle
O: tibia
I: 1st metatarsal and cuneiform
Extensor Digitorum Longus

extension toes 2-5
Extensor Hallucis Longus

Extension great toe (hallux)