Anatomy Of The Abdominal Viscera- Midgut And Hindgut

3/22/10 11:00 AM
Created Mar 25, 2010
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What are the organs of the foregut?
Abdominal part of the esophagusStomachDuodenum (proximal to the point of entry of the pancreatic...
What are the organs that are created from the embryonic midgut?
Duodenum (distal to the point of entry of the bile and pancreatic ducts)JejunumIleumCecumAppendixAscending...
What are the organs that are created from the embryonic hindgut?
Distal 1/3 of transverse colonDescending colonSigmoid colonRectumAnal canal
What is the fxn of the small intestine?
Secretion of digestive enzymes, absorption of most of the food
Most bowel sounds are produced by _______
Peristaltic activity in the ileum and jejunum
T/F.  The jejunum and the ileum are retroperitoneal, and are therefore the most immobile...
FALSE.  They are peritoneal, so they are the most mobile parts of the digestive tract.
The jejunum and ileum are suspended to the posterior abdominal wall by _____
Mesentery (fold of peritoneum that is fan-shaped)
T/F.  There is a sharp demarcation b/t the jejunum and the ileum.
FALSE.  No sharp demarcation.
What are the 4 characteristic features of the jejunum?
1. Circular folds are numerous2. Only a few arterial arcades3. Less fat is present in the mesentery4....
What are the 4 characteristic features of the ileum?
1. Circular folds are few or absent2. Numerous arterial arcades3. More fat is presnet in the...
What is the main role of the large intestine?
Formation, transport, and evacuation of feces (through absorption of water and secretion of...
What are 4 features of the large intestine that distinguish it from the small intestine?
1. Teniae coli (ribbon-like bands of outer coat of longitudinal muscle)2. Haustra (sacculations...
Large intestine consists of ______
Appendix, cecum, ascending colon, R colic (hepatic) flexure, transverse colon, L colic (splenic)...
Which is more superior- right or left colic flexure?
Left colic flexure
Which structures of the large intestine are retroperitoneal?
Ascending colon and descending colon and upper portion of the rectum, so no a mesentery(and...
Which structures of the large intestine are peritoneal?
Appendix - MesoappendixCecum - no mesenteryTransverse colon - transverse mesocolonSigmoid colon...
Gutters of the abdomen
1. R paracolic gutter (right of the ascending colon)2. L paracolic gutter (left of the descending...
Subphrenic spaces of the abdomen
L and R subphrenic spaces, below the diaphragm and on either side of the falciform ligament...
T/F.  Abdominal gutters are important because they all communicate with the pelvis.
FALSE.  All but the gutter to the right of the attachment of the mesentery communicate...
Why are abdominal gutters important?
Sites of potential accumulation of infected peritoneal fluid or tumor cells.
What are the teniae coli?
3 longitudinal muscles that the run along the large intestine,beginning at the base of the...
The teniae coli are named for ______
Their relationship with peritoneal attachments on the transverse colon
What are the 3 teniae coli?
1. Omental teniae (attachment to greater omentum)2. Free teniae (no peritoneal attachment)3....
What is the cecum?
A sac-like structure which lies below the opening of the ileum into the large intestine; it...
What is the appendix?
Outpocketing of the inferior portion of the cecum; opens into the cecum ~1 inch below the ileal...
What is the ileal orifice?
The opening of the ileum into the cecum
What is unique about the ileal orifice?
It sometimes has a labial form, in which superior and inferior lips meet on both sides to form...
What are the 2 forms of the ileal orifice?
Labial formPapillary form
Which is the most commonly seen form of the ileal orifice?
Postmortem = labial formIn vivo = papillary form
What is intussusception?
Invagination of one area of the intestine into the lumen of an adjoining segment; most commonly...
Why is the ileocolic form of intussusception the most common?
Because of the larger size of hte large intestine/colon to the small intestine/ileum
Why is intussusception dangerous?
When it occurs, there is a grave risk of cutting off the blood supply to the gut an developing...
Intussusception is more common in children.  Why?
Because of the relatively larger size of the large intestine as compared to the small intestine,...
Where is the position of the appendix?
Generally in the RLQ, but position can be variable.  However, position of the base attachment...
What is a common place for the appendix to be located?
Behind the cecum (retrocecal appendix)
Appendix is retroperitoneal/peritoneal.
Peritoneal, connected to the ileum by mesoappendix (which contains the appendicular artery).
What is diverticulosis?
Outpocketings (diverticula) of the mucosal lining of the intestine, typically on the sigmoid...
Diverticulosis usually occurs in what group of people, and what prevents it?
Usually occurs in middle-aged or elderly peopleDiet high in fiber is said to prevent diverticulosis
What is the cause of diverticulosis?
Weak spots in the mucosal lining of the wall of the colon, usually along the lines where the...
What is a colonoscopy?
Procedure in which a flexible instrument (colonscope) is inserted through the anal canal and...
Removal of a portion/entire colon (may be necessary in severe inflammation/ulceration of the...
What is the pelvic diaphragm?
Composed of 2 muscles (2 on each side), makes up the floor of the pelvic cavity and separates...
What is the most important muscle of the pelvic diaphragm?
Levator ani muscle.
What structures pass through the pelvis?
The rectum passes through the pelvic cavity, but as it passes through the pelvic diaphragm...
Describe the anatomy of the rectum.
Rectum is about 5 inches long, begins at the rectosigmoid junction (at the 3rd piece of the...
The junction of the rectum with the anal canal is marked by a _________
Sharp 80-degree bend, so rectum looks S-shaped from lateral view.
T/F.  The entire rectum is covered by peritoneum.
FALSE.  The lower 1/3 of the rectum is not covered by peritoneum, it's subperitoneal and...
What structures are posterior to the rectum?
Sacrum & coccyx
What structures are anterior to the rectum?
Rectovesical pouch (may contain portions of sigmoid colon and ileum) --> upper 2/3 of rectumLower...
What is the clinical significance of these relationships?
1) When the rectum has to be removed, it can be done without damaging prostate or urethra due...
Palpation of the prostate gland
Insert finger into anal canal, palpate the prostate through the anterior wall of the rectum....
What structures are posterior to the rectum in the female?
Sacrum and Coccyx
What structures are anterior to the rectum in the female?
Rectouterine pouch (superior 2/3 of rectum), may contain portions of the sigmoid colon and...
Structure of the rectum
There are 3 transverse rectal folds (superior transverse rectal fold, middle transverse rectal...
What is the ischioanal fossa?
Wedge-shaped space lying on either side of the anal canal (and below the levator ani mm) filled...
What happens when an abscess in the ischioanal canal forms?
An abscess (collection of pus) can form in the ischioanal canal when hardened feces (due to...
T/F.  An abscess in the ischioanal fossa is limited to only one side.
FALSE.  Can spread to other ischioanal fossa through the postanal space that connects...
Describe the structure of the anal canal.
Begins at the point where the rectum passes b/t the levator ani mm., and ends at the anus....
Internal anal sphincter
Thickening of the circular smooth muscle of the GI tract.  It is an INVOLUNTARY sphincter....
External anal sphincter
VOLUNTARY sphincter.  Innervated by inferior rectal nerve and perineal branch of S4.  Maintains...
What is the pectinate line?
An irregular line (resembles teeth of a comb) that marks a change in the lining of the anal...
Mucosa above the pectinate line is thrown into ____________
Vertical folds called anal columns.
What are anal valves?
Unite the lower ends of anal columns with folds of mucosa.  Tearing of anal valves is...
What are anal sinuses?
Superior to the anal valves, secrete mucus to help with evacuation of feces.
What nerve(s) innervate the external anal sphincter?
1) Inferior rectal (anal) nerve2) Perineal branch of S4
What supplies the external anal sphincter?
Inferior rectal artery

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