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American History

American History Timeline Quiz/Final Exam
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Side ASide B
1680
Pueblo Revolts: Somewhat successful (brief) rebellions by Natives against Spanish
1493
Papal Bull: Gave the Spanish rights to all land in exchange for converting the Natives.  A year later, the treaty of Tordesillas gave power to the Portugese over Brazil
1517
Martin Luther lead a Protestant Reformation which caused a series of divisions from the Catholic Church
1530s
The king of England/Henry VIII lead the English away from the Catholic Faith, forming a new Protestant religion, Anglicanism
The Columbian Exchange
Begins the passing of organisms between the Americas and Eurasia
Indentured Servitude
Servants offered their services for a set amount of time (Usually 5-7 years) in exchange for transit to the Americas.  (Took off in the 1660s) Largely replaced slavery
Charter
A grant given by the government to an institution to do a certain thing (coorporation, colony, school).  Prominent system for the British
Viceroyalty
Early 1500s- Common in Spanish colonization.  Administrative unit responsible for governing a colony.  Closely tied to the king, established in the early 1500s.  The...
1754-1763
The French and Indian War (7 years war), resulted in the British hugely in debt, and the removal of the French from all North American mainland
1804
Haitian Revolution: Started out as slave rebellions, and resulted in the removal of the French from Haiti
Enlightenment
A philisophical movement that attempted to put rationality and science in the forefront of government and life.  (Emerged in the 17th and 18th C)
1763
Pontiac's Rebellion.  Indians launched a revolt against British rule
1776
The signing of the Declaration of Independence just after fighting began in the U.S Revolution
1783
Treaty of Paris: Ended the U.S Revolution.  The western boundary set at the Mississippi River, from North of Florida to Maine (Though Maine was not yet a state).  
3 Branches of Government
Legislative Executive Judicial
Legislative Branch
Bicameral (2 houses), Senate (100 members, 2 per state), House of Representatives (435 members, proportional by state population)  Responsible for the passage of laws (both houses...
Executive Branch
Head is the president.  Responsible for enforcing and enacting laws
Judicial Branch
Responsible for determining when laws have been violated, and determining if laws are constitutional 
Veto
President can reject laws, but his veto can be overriden by 2/3 majority of both houses
War Powers
Senate is responsible for declaring war (and making all treaties).  President, as head of the army, executes the war
Supreme Court
Highest court in the land.  Has 9 members
Mestizo
Latin Americans of mixed, native and European heritage (besides Indians)
Creoles
People of European descent who were born in the Americas, leaders in the eventual revolutions
Peninsulares
People of Spanish descent born in Spain (far less numerous than Creoles)
Latin American Revolution
Early 19th century: responded to frustration with 18th C Bourbon reforms, which raised taxes and gave disproportionate power to Peninsulares, relied on the Enlightenment thinking, and...
Rebellion of Tupac Amaru
1780: Failed revolt led by Mestizos, Amaru with a force of Indians, Mestizos, and Slaves 

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