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Advanced Learning Theory

Advanced Learning Theory
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Side ASide B
Conditional Discrimination Task
P  rocedure in which it is not possible to follow a general rule about sameness.  If red choose horizontal, if green choose vertical. 
Retrospective Coding
  looking backward and remembering what has already happened, the sample was red.
Prospective Coding
looking forward and remembering what response should be made next.
Peak Procedure
  procedure for studying animal timing abilities – peak of the response rate tells us how accurately the animals could time the intervals.
Bias
a subject consistently spends more time on one alternative than predicted by the matching equation.
  Transitive inference
  if a>b and b>c than a>c
Bandura
Social Learning and Personality Development 1963
Generalized Imitation Theory Problems
  does not explain why observers will imitate a reinforced model more readily than a punished model and it does not distinguish between the learning and...
Adam's Two Stage Theory
perceptual trace – memory of what it feels like to do a movement - and motor trace – ability to do the movement.
  Schmidt’s Schema Theory
as people practice a task they acquire general rules abut how to recogniz the correct response and how to produce it.
Battig’s Contextual Interference Theory
  any features of the learning situation that make performing the task more difficult.
  Momentary maximization theory
an organism will select whichever alternative has the highest value at that moment.
  Vaughan’s Alternative molecular theory
  difference choice responses are strengthened to different degrees by their short term consequences.
Ainslie-Rachlin Theory
  theory of self-control choices that explains why an individuals preference can shift from a larger delayed reinforcer to a smaller, more immediate reinforcer.
  Robert Bolles
Empirical principle of equipotentiality – laws of learning apply equally to any type of stimulus and any type of response.  Instrumental conditioning...
William Timberlake
biological behaviorism – overdetermined (rats would run a maze anyways)
  Spandrels
  human brain develops in this theory over thousands of years, structures change.  Some - for example problem solving - that is the “new brain”...
Skinner Quote
Perhaps there is a touch of the primitive in saying that behavior is emitted but, as I have pointed out elsewhere, we speak of the emission of light from...
Ultimate processes
explain why certain social behaviors exist
proximate mechanisms
explain how that logic is enforced.
  Formal properties
involve the topography (form structure) of the verbal response – articulation, prosody, intonation, pitch, emphasis
  Functional properties
  involve the causes of the response
  Phonemes
  individual speech sounds that comprise a word.
Morphemes
  units with an individual piece of meaning.
  Verbal Behavior
  speculative and did not contain experimental data – proposed that language is learned behavior that is acquired, extended, and maintained by the same...
  Mand
asking for reinforcers you want.  Saying shoe because you want a shoe.  Only type of verbal behavior that directly benefits the speaker.
Tact
  naming or identifying objects, actions, events, etc.  Saying shoe because you see a shoe.
Echoic
  repeating what is heard.  Saying shoe after someone else says shoe.
  Intraverbal
answering questions or having conversations in which your words are controlled by other words.  Saying shoe when someone else says, what do you wear on your feet?
Textual
  reading written words.  saying shoe because you see the written word shoe.  Has point to point correspondence but not formal similarity
Transcription
writing and spelling words spoken to you.  Writing shoe because you hear shoe spoken. Has point to point correspondence but not formal similarity
Formal similarity
occurs when the controlling antecedent stimulus ad the response or response product a) share the same sense mode (both are visual, auditory, or tactile) and b) physically resemble...
  Generic extension
  the novel stimulus shares all of the relevant or defining features of the original stimulus – car in the presence of a prius and altima.
Metaphorical extension
  the novel stimulus shares some but not all of the relevant features associated with the original stimulus – Juliet is like the sun.
Metonymical Extensions
verbal responses to novel stimuli that share none of the relvant features of the original stimulus but some irrelevant but related feature has acquired stimulus control.  One...
Solistic extensions
when a stimulus property that is only indirectly related to the tact relation evokes substandard verbal behavior such as malapops – you read good instead of you read well.
  Public accompaniment
occurs when an observable stimulus accompanies a private stimulus – child hits head on table.
Collateral responses
Child holds head and cries
Convergent multiple control
  identify when the occurrence of a single verbal response is afunction of more than one variable.
  Divergent multiple control
  when a single antecedent variable affects the strength of many responses.  A single word will evoke a variety of intraverbal responses from diff...
Thematic verbal operants
  mands, tacts, and itnraverbals and involve diff response topographies controlled by a common variable.  Blue can evoke lake ocean and sky.
Formal verbal operants
  are echoic and textual and transcription and are controlled by a common variable with point to point correspondence – ring can evoke sing wing and spring.
Autoclitic
  identify when a speakers own verbal behavior functions as an Sd or an MO for additional speaker verbal behaviors.  Verbal behavior about a speakers own...

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