Advanced Learning Theory

Advanced Learning Theory
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Conditional Discrimination Task
P  rocedure in which it is not possible to follow a general rule about sameness. If red choose horizontal, if green choose vertical.
Retrospective Coding
looking backward and remembering what has already happened, the sample was red.
Prospective Coding
looking forward and remembering what response should be made next.
Peak Procedure
procedure for studying animal timing abilities – peak of the response rate tells us how accurately the animals could time the intervals.
a subject consistently spends more time on one alternative than predicted by the matching equation.
Transitive inference
if a>b and b>c than a>c
Social Learning and Personality Development 1963
Generalized Imitation Theory Problems
does not explain why observers will imitate a reinforced model more readily than a punished model and it does not distinguish between the learning and performance of an imitative behavior.
Adam's Two Stage Theory
perceptual trace – memory of what it feels like to do a movement - and motor trace – ability to do the movement.
Schmidt’s Schema Theory
as people practice a task they acquire general rules abut how to recogniz the correct response and how to produce it.
Battig’s Contextual Interference Theory
any features of the learning situation that make performing the task more difficult.
Momentary maximization theory
an organism will select whichever alternative has the highest value at that moment.
Vaughan’s Alternative molecular theory
difference choice responses are strengthened to different degrees by their short term consequences.
Ainslie-Rachlin Theory
theory of self-control choices that explains why an individuals preference can shift from a larger delayed reinforcer to a smaller, more immediate reinforcer.
Robert Bolles
Empirical principle of equipotentiality – laws of learning apply equally to any type of stimulus and any type of response. Instrumental conditioning –- rat maze - reinforce whatever the first choice is by giving them whatever they’ve been deprived of (food or water). Easier to get the thirsty rats to go to the same place repeatedly because water is usually in the same place but food moves around. Alternating maze, thirsty rats were slower Learning involves expectancies - in order for learning or adaptation to occur we don’t need reinforcement, we just need classical conditioning
William Timberlake
biological behaviorism – overdetermined (rats would run a maze anyways)
human brain develops in this theory over thousands of years, structures change. Some - for example problem solving - that is the “new brain” - other side effects or things that don’t seem really relevant to survival for example - art, music
Skinner Quote
Perhaps there is a touch of the primitive in saying that behavior is emitted but, as I have pointed out elsewhere, we speak of the emission of light from a hot filament although the light is not in the filament. The reinforcement that strengthens a response does not put the response into the organism; it simply changes the organism so that it is more likely to respond in that way. A sentence is not the expression of a thought, it is the thought.
Ultimate processes
explain why certain social behaviors exist
proximate mechanisms
explain how that logic is enforced.
Formal properties
involve the topography (form structure) of the verbal response – articulation, prosody, intonation, pitch, emphasis
Functional properties
involve the causes of the response
individual speech sounds that comprise a word.
units with an individual piece of meaning.
Verbal Behavior
speculative and did not contain experimental data – proposed that language is learned behavior that is acquired, extended, and maintained by the same types of environmental variables and principles that control nonlanguage behavior.
asking for reinforcers you want. Saying shoe because you want a shoe. Only type of verbal behavior that directly benefits the speaker.
naming or identifying objects, actions, events, etc. Saying shoe because you see a shoe.
repeating what is heard. Saying shoe after someone else says shoe.
answering questions or having conversations in which your words are controlled by other words. Saying shoe when someone else says, what do you wear on your feet?
reading written words. saying shoe because you see the written word shoe. Has point to point correspondence but not formal similarity
writing and spelling words spoken to you. Writing shoe because you hear shoe spoken. Has point to point correspondence but not formal similarity
Formal similarity
occurs when the controlling antecedent stimulus ad the response or response product a) share the same sense mode (both are visual, auditory, or tactile) and b) physically resemble each other.
Generic extension
the novel stimulus shares all of the relevant or defining features of the original stimulus – car in the presence of a prius and altima.
Metaphorical extension
the novel stimulus shares some but not all of the relevant features associated with the original stimulus – Juliet is like the sun.
Metonymical Extensions
verbal responses to novel stimuli that share none of the relvant features of the original stimulus but some irrelevant but related feature has acquired stimulus control. One word substitutes for another - car when show a garage.
Solistic extensions
when a stimulus property that is only indirectly related to the tact relation evokes substandard verbal behavior such as malapops – you read good instead of you read well.
Public accompaniment
occurs when an observable stimulus accompanies a private stimulus – child hits head on table.
Collateral responses
Child holds head and cries
Convergent multiple control
identify when the occurrence of a single verbal response is afunction of more than one variable.
Divergent multiple control
when a single antecedent variable affects the strength of many responses. A single word will evoke a variety of intraverbal responses from diff people and from the same person at diff times.
Thematic verbal operants
mands, tacts, and itnraverbals and involve diff response topographies controlled by a common variable. Blue can evoke lake ocean and sky.
Formal verbal operants
  are echoic and textual and transcription and are controlled by a common variable with point to point correspondence – ring can evoke sing wing and spring.
  identify when a speakers own verbal behavior functions as an Sd or an MO for additional speaker verbal behaviors.  Verbal behavior about a speakers own verbal behavior.
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