Admin. Management Final (2)

Final Exam - Chapter 12
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______ is defined as the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior.
a. stimulusb. productivityc. enticementd. motivatione. incented action
A simple model of motivation does NOT include which of the following?
a. unfulfilled needb. behaviorsc. reactionsd. motivatione. rewards
c. reactions
Jason's team lead has just told the group that if they finish the current project before then, they can have Friday off without taking vacation. The team gets right to work, being motivated by a(n)
a. intrinsic rewardb. physiological needc. high need for powerd. extrinsic rewarde. hygiene factor
d. extrinsic reward
Maleah's management professor just told her class that the final exam is optional for students like her that currently have an A. She decides to take the exam anyway, since she likes the subject and wants to master the material. Here, Maleah is motivated to take the exam by a(n)
a. intrinsic rewardb. physiological needc. high need for powerd. extrinsic rewarde. hygiene factor
a. intrinsic reward
Which of the following is a need-based perspective on motivation?
a. expectancy theoryb. Herzberg's two-factor theoryc. job characteristics modeld. goal-setting theorye. equity theory
b. Herzberg's two-factor theory
Maslow's levels of needs, in order from lowest (most basic) to highest level, are
a. self-actualization, esteem, love, safety, and physiologicalb. safety, love, esteem, self-actualization, and physiologicalc. physiological, safety, self-actualization, esteem, and loved. physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualizatione. safety, physiological, esteem, love, and self-actualization
d. physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization
An accounting firm provides employees with educational reimbursements if they complete job-related coursework with a B or better, which helps them meet which of Maslow's levels of needs?
a. self-actualizationb. esteemc. loved. safetye. physiological
a. self-actualization
The need for status, reputation, and recognition are part of
a. self-actualizationb. esteemc. loved. safetye. physiological
b. esteem
After a series of bus accidents, one of which resulted in a critical injury to a driver, Apex Transportation drivers received additional training and buses were retrofitted with new breaking systems. This helps to satisfy which of Maslow's needs?
a. self-actualizationb. esteemc. loved. safetye. physiological
d. safety
For managers, the importance of Maslow's contribution is that he showed that workers
a. are only interested in compensation that helps them fulfill physiological needs.b. are as complex as their organizationc. have needs that cannot be understood by their employerd. expect an employer to fulfill every level of their hierarchy of needse. have needs beyond that of just earning a paycheck
e. have needs beyond that of just earning paycheck
______ assumes that three basic needs influence behavior and that they may be activated concurrently.
a. Maslow's theoryb. Expectancy theoryc. Alderfer's ERG theoryd. Hertzberg's theorye. Equity theory
C. Alderfer's ERG theory
Which of the following is a need in Alderfer's ERG theory?
a. esteemb. existencec. realizationd. rulinge. generation
b. existence
According to the acquired needs theory, the desire to influence others is part of the need for
a. affiliationb. powerc. self-actualizationd. relatednesse. achievement
b. power
Mina was very aggressive at her job, ad her coworkers complained that she often manipulated them and her boss in order to get ahead. She attempted to direct everything and everyone, regardless of the consequences to others or even the organization itself. Mina is expressing what type of need for power?
a. personalb. destructivec. legitimated. organizationale. compensatory
a. personal
Even when he started his first job, Cyrus was not content to be just one of the employees. His boss noticed that he often directed his coworkers about ways to improve their work, even when it wasn't his job. Cyrus probably has a
a. high need for achievementb. high need for affiliationc. high need for powerd. low need for achievemente. high need for leadership
c. high need for power
Teresa has really blossomed in her sales job. She loves building mutually beneficial relationships and is extremely well liked by her clients. Theresa likely has a
a. low need for affiliationb. low need for powerc. low need for achievementd. high need for affiliatione. high need for achievement
d. high need for affiliation
McClelland's need for achievement corresponds most closely to
a. Herzberg's hygiene factorsb. Maslow's esteem needsc. extrinsic rewardsd. Alderfer's relatedness needse. Maslow's self-actualization needs
e. Maslow's self-actualization needs
According to Herzberg, which of the following is an example of a motivating factor?
a. payb. the work itselfc. working conditionsd. company policye. supervisors
b. the work itself
According to Herzberg, which of the following is an example of a hygiene factor?
a. responsibilityb. advancementc. the work itselfd. supervisorse. recognition
d. supervisors
According to Herzberg's two factor theory, in the zone between the motivating factors and the hygiene factors, employees are
a. dissatisfiedb. satisfiedc. neither satisfied nor dissatisfiedd. unmotivatede. stagnant
c. neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
According to Herzberg's two factor theory, only ______ factors can make employees satisfied with their jobs.
a. motivatingb. self-actualizationc. growthd. hygienee. achievement
a. motivating
Which of the following is a higher-level need based on the four content theory perspectives?
a. esteemb. existencec. hygiened. physiologicale. safety
a. esteem
Pieter is manager for a large freight company. He has noticed low morale lately, perhaps because of the cramped quarters and lack of raises this year among workers on his shift. According to Herzberg, Pieter should first concentrate on
a. needs for achievementb. hygiene factorsc. esteem needsd. motivating factorse. growth needs
b. hygiene factors
According to Herzberg's theory, the first thing managers of employees who dislike their jobs should do is to
a. provide opportunities for achievementb. publicly recognize good performancec. make sure pay levels, policies, and working conditions are reasonabled. create opportunities for personal growth and advancemente. increase employees' responsibilities and opportunity for leadership
c. make sure pay levels, policies, and working conditions are reasonable
Theories that try to understand the thought processes by which people decide how to act are called
a. needs-based perspectivesb. reinforcement perspectivesc. job design perspectivesd. cognitive perspectivese. process perspectives
e. process perspectives
Which of the following is a process perspective on motivation?
a. expectancy theoryb. job characteristics modelc. two-factor theoryd. ERG theorye. acquired needs theory
a. expectancy theory
In equity theory, employees are motivated to
a. work harder all the timeb. resolve feelings of unjusticec. believe they aren't working hard enoughd. blame others when they miss work or fail at taskse. work just hard enough to get what they want
b. resolve feelings of injustice
When workers perceive they are being treated fairly on the job, they are most likely to
a. pass up promotional opportunitiesb. show improved safety practicesc. be a whistleblowerd. cooperate in group settingse. seek additional education
d. cooperate in group settings
Jake went to his boss Nadia to complain that he got the same bonus this quarter as everyone else, despite the longer hours he's been putting in and high higher level of experience and efficiency. If Nadia can't change the bonuses, she should
a. tell Jake "That's just the way bonuses are given."b. suggest that Jake take this up with her bossc. expect that Jake will reduce his hoursd. start documenting Jake's complaints for future disciplinary actione. expect that Jake's performance will improve
c. expect that Jake will reduce his hours
The theory under which people make the choice that promises them the greatest reward if they think they can get it is
a. goal-setting theoryb. expectancy theoryc. reinforcement theoryd. equity theorye. two-factor theory
b. expectancy theory
______ is the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the desired outcome.
a. expectancyb. reinforcementc. valenced. instrumentalitye. effort
d. instrumentality
At his review last year, Mike was promised a big raise if he met his production goals. Raises came out today, and despite that Mike has met all of his goals, he only received a cost-of-living raise. In the future, Mike's ______ will probably be ______.
a. instrumentality; lowb. valence; lowc. expectancy; lowd. instrumentality; highe. expectancy; high
a. instrumentality; low
After struggling with the training, Caroline in unsure whether she can complete tax returns with minimal errors in the time allotted at her new job. In this case, Caroline is low on the ______ element of expectancy theory.
a. valenceb. expectancyc. outcomesd. instrumentalitye. performance
b. expectancy
Shen was interviewing for jobs, and the HR manager at one firm told him that the company pays the total health insurance costs for family of four. As a single man, this benefit did not seem especially important to him right now. Here, Shen is low on the ______ element of the expectancy theory.
a. valenceb. instrumentalityc. outcomesd. expectancye. significance
a. valence
A goal that states "Attend work 80% of the time this quarter" has which of the following problems?
a. it is not specific enoughb. it is not measurablec. it does not have a target dated. it is not challenging enoughe. it is not achievable
d. it is not challenging enough
When using goal-setting theory to motivate employees, managers should
a. set targets that are just out of employees' reachb. help workers understand and accept the goalsc. set general goals that are emotionally appealingd. hold employees responsible for getting their own feedbacke. set goals that are easily achievable
b. help workers understand and accept the goals
According to goal-setting theory, which of the following is necessary for goals to create high motivation and performance?
a. setting general goals that will work for multiple employeesb. predetermining acceptable rewards for meeting goalsc. setting goals that fulfill the self-actualization needsd. reinforcing of desired behaviorse. setting goals linked to an action plan
e. setting goals linked to an action plan
Which of the following is the best statement of a goal?
a. give your very best effortb. get through some of these reports by 9/1c. reduce production errors by ten percent by the end of the quarterd. increase customer retentione. be late to work less often
c. reduce production errors by ten percent by the end of the quarter
______ applies motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance.
a. job enlargementb. job designc. job simplificationd. job developmente. job enrichment
b. job design
The process of increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation is called
a. job enlargementb. job designc. job developmentd. job rotatione. job enrichment
a. job enlargement
Research shows that simplified jobs lead to
a. job satisfactionb. poor mental healthc. a sense of accomplishmentd. a sense of personal growthe. decreased worker productivity
b. poor mental health
Job ______ is the opposite of job
a. rotation; enrichmentb. rotation; enlargementc. loading; enrichmentd. simplification; enrichmente. simplification; enlargement
e. simplification; enlargement
The process of building into a job such motivating factors as recognition and achievement is called
a. MBOb. job designc. job enrichmentd. job enlargemente. horizontal loading
c. job enrichment
Anya's job as an accounting assistant was recently modified to include reconciling of bank accounts and delivering checks to the bank, two tasks previously done by the accounting manager. This increase in responsibility would best be described as
a. job developmentb. job enlargementc. job satisficingd. job designe. vertical loading
e. vertical loading
Of the following which is a core job characteristic?
a. meaningfulnessb. skill specificityc. task significanced. teamworke. task variety
c. task significance
According to the job characteristics model, the core job characteristics of skill variety, task identity, and task significance combine to affect
a. knowledge of resultsb. meaningfulness of workc. autonomy of workd. responsibility for resultse. feedback from others
b. meaningfulness of work
The extent to which job allows an employee to make decisions about scheduling different tasks and deciding how to perform them is called
a. horizontal loadingb. skill varietyc. task identityd. task significancee. autonomy
e. autonomy
Fatima runs gift basket business. She recently made some changes so that one employee answers phones and does paperwork, while another assembles baskets, and a third packages and ships. Previously, each employee was responsible for the order from the phone call through the shipment. Fatima's job redesign has
a. increased task identityb. decreased task identityc. increased task significanced. decreased task significancee. decreased autonomy
b. decreased task identity
Even as an entry-level engineer at NASA, Caleb makes booster rocket calculations, the accuracy of which protects the lives and safety of astronauts. Caleb's job has a high level of
a. autonomyb. task identityc. skill varietyd. task significancee. context satisfactions
d. task significance
Which of the following is a contingency factor in the job characteristics model?
a. autonomyb. knowledge of actual resultsc. high work satisfactiond. knowledgeable and skilled employeese. feedback
d. knowledgeable and skilled employees
The motivating potential score is calculated as part of using
a. reinforcement theoryb. McClelland's acquired needs theoryc. the job characteristics modeld. goal-setting theorye. equity theory
c. the job characteristics model
The theory that attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences teds to be repeated while behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated, is called
a. reinforcement theoryb. equity theoryc. expectancy theoryd. acquired needs theorye. two-factor theory
a. reinforcement theory
The use of desirable consequences to encourage desirable behavior is called
a. constructive feedbackb. extinctionc. intrinsic motivationd. positive reinforcemente. valence
d. positive reinforcement
The removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior is called
a. positive reinforcementb. negative reinforcementc. extinctiond. intrinsic motivatione. punishment
b. negative reinforcement
Carlos tells one of his staff that he is taking her off of probation since she has corrected her tardiness problem. Carlos is using
a. instrumentalityb. negative reinforcementc. punishmentd. intrinsic motivatione. positive reinforcement
b. negative reinforcement
Your boss requires you to give up your company car since you have missed your sales goals for three consecutive quarters. She is using
a. positive reinforcementb. negative reinforcementc. extinctiond. intrinsic motivatione. punishment
e. punishment
The withholding or withdrawal of positive rewrds for a particular behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future, is called
a. extinctionb. intrinsic motivationc. punishmentd. instrumentalitye. negative reinforcement
a. extinction
It has been seven quarters since any employee has received a bonus at R & G Mills, so now the possibility of getting one does not seem to be motivating the workers any longer. In this case, management has inadvertently applied
a. expectancyb. negative reinforcementc. extinctiond. intrinsic motivatione. punishment
c. extinction
In using reinforcement, a manager should
a. avoid using punishmentb. reward both desired and undesired behaviorc. give all subordinates the same rewards to insure fairnessd. save rewards for weekly or monthly celebrationse. clearly communicate the desired behavior
e. clearly communicate the desired behavior
When using punishment, a manager should
a. ignore undesirable behaviorsb. save reprimands until the end of the workday, or preferably before a weekendc. do it in conjunction with positive reinforcementd. make sure that other employees witness the punishmente. punish eve minor infractions, so as to appear consistent
c. do it in conjunction with positive reinforcement
Which of the following is not an advisable criterion for an effective incentive plan?
a. the rewards are believableb. the rewards are linked to performancec. the rewards satisfy individual needsd. the rewards require special performance, and are thus rarely obtainede. the rewards are agreed on by the manager and employees
d. the rewards require special performance, and are thus rarely obtained
A sales commission is an example of a ______ compensation plan.
a. pay for knowledgeb. profit sharingc. pay for performanced. gainsharinge. Scanlon
c. pay for performance
127. (p. 395) Valerie has a summer job hand-dying shirts that will be sold on the boardwalk. She is paid $3.50 per shirt. This is an example of a ______ compensation plan. A. pay for performance
B. pay for knowledge
C. bonus
D. profit sharing
E. gainsharing
a. pay for performance
128. (p. 395) Clarke's employer passes out checks at the end of each quarter, representing an equitable portion of 5% of the company's pretax profits for the previous period. This is known as
A. pay for performance.
B. pay for knowledge.
C. a bonus.
D. profit sharing.
E. gainsharing.
d. profit sharing
p. 396 A Scanlon plan is a type of ______ compensation plan.
a. pay for knowledgeb. gainsharingc. benchmarkingd. pay for performancee. profit sharing
b. gainsharing
130. (p. 396) Tracy's department at Cranston College was nearly $8,000 under budget last year due to a variety of cost-cutting measures. This year, 50% of the savings were returned to the department to spend as desired, as a form of a. pay for performanceb. pay for knowledgec. bonusd. profit sharinge. gainsharing
e. gainsharing
Danielle teaches 4th grade at a local elementary school. Se significantly increased her salary by earning a Master's degree in education. This is an example of
a. pay for performanceb. pay for knowledgec. a bonusd. profit sharinge. gainsharing
b. pay for knowledge
Which of the following is NOT a practice used to create a flexible workplace?
a. job sharingb. telecommutingc. gainsharingd. part-time worke. compressed workweeks
c. gainsharing

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