ACED Quiz # 4 Study Guide Part 1: COGNITIVE THERAPY

1st Of 4 Parts For ACES QUIZ # 4: THEORIES On COUNSELING Class

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A form of brief therapy, developed by Aaron Beck, based on the concept that the way we process information is important for human survival. Focus is on the here and now, and the treatment sessions are structured according to a plan, with the goal of actively engaging the client in the therapeutic process. It also focuses on empirical investigation of client’s assumptions and thinking.
The three concepts Beck developed to explain depression are:
1. Cognitive Triad Client’s view of self Client’s view of the future Client’s view of own world experiences

2. Increase in idiosyncratic schema A schema is a pattern of thinking consisting of the individual’s fundamental beliefs and assumptions. “Overly active” schema unique to an individual may disrupt stable schema and lead to loss of voluntary control of thoughts and inability to choose more appropriate schema.

3. Faculty information processing “Less effective” thinking supports a client’s belief that only negative things happen in her life, despite contradictory evidence.

DEFINE: Systematic Bias
A tendency toward a particular way of processing information that leads to disturbances in thinking.
Four Categories of Cognitive Therapy Techniques:
1. Reducing Anxiety 2. Drawing out assumptions and beliefs 3. Testing assumptions and beliefs 4. Modifying assumptions and beliefs (to demonstrate cognitive shift)
Eight Techniques for Reducing Anxiety
1. Warmth, empathy, genuineness: counselor is nonjudgmental, listens openly and actively, and does not hide behind a professional mask, but is willing to reveal appropriate emotion. 2. Decatastrophize: using “what if” questions to show the client that she may have overblown the problem in her mind (What if you fail the class? Can’t you take it again, or try another class?). 3. Reattribute cause: suggest that the problem has causes other than the one the client may focus on (Did your children really move away to spite you, or could they simply have been looking for better jobs and a different climate? Are you really a bad mother, or have you just not found a good way to relax after a long day at work?) 4. Redefine the problem: Empower the client by putting the problem in words that show what cam be done about it. Diminishes sense of doom. (Next time you feel intimidated by this guy at work, try going straight to your supervisor.) 5. Decentering: Persuade client that she is not the focus of everyone’s attention 6. Diversion: Any form of distraction that will break an emotion or thought pattern for a sad or anxious client (e.g., suggesting a walk, asking about a piece of jewelry) 7. Reframing: when a client sees a situation in either-or terms, try to have her place it in a different light. E.g., firing herself if she does a bad job, because she sees herself as a failure. 8. Building a continuum: Generate middle-ground options for a person who engages in dichotomous thinking (either/or, black/white).
Five Techniques for drawing out beliefs and assumptions
1. Self-monitoring: monitoring and recording thoughts before, during, after a problem behavior. 2. Depression inventory: a 21-part questionnaire used to gauge extent and depth of client’s depressive mood. 3. Imagery: use of metaphors and pictures to get clearer picture of client’s automatic thoughts (e.g., jumpy like a jackrabbit is, to avoid being shot) 4. Role Play: acting the part of oneself or another, as if in conversation, to connect with automatic thoughts. 5. Exploration of meaning: To find out what meaning words have in a client’s mind.
Two Techniques for testing beliefs and assumptions

1. Socratic dialogue: a thoughtful set of questions that leads client to logical personal conclusion. 2. Behavioral Experiment: designed to test a client’s faulty hypothesis (e.g., client says she’d like to try something, is afraid everyone will laugh at her; counselor then shows that she did not laugh, demonstrating that client is not an idiot and idea may have merit).
DEFINE: Guided Discovery:
Begins with behavioral experiment and helps client design new experiences that lead to development of new skills and attitudes.
DEFINE: Collaborative Empiricism:
The non-confrontational joint testing, by counselor and client, of the client’s assumptions and beliefs with the goal of modifying dysfunctional interpretations.

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