Abnormal Psychology Study Guide 3

Test 3 Study Guide
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Dissociative Disorder

A disorder characterized by disruption, or dissociation, of identity, memory, or consciousnes.
Dissociative Identity Disoder (DID)
Dissociative Amnesia
Dissociative Fugue
Depersonalizatin Disoder
Dissociative Amnesia

A dissociative disorder in which a person experiences memory loss without any identifiable organic cause.
5 Distinct types:
Localized Selective
Generalized Continous
Localized Amnesia

Under Dissociative Amnesia
Most cases or more common
In which evebts occuring during a specific time period are lost to memory.
Example: A person cannot recall events for a number of hours or days after a stressful or traumatic incident, such as a battle or a car accident.
Generalized Amnesia

Under Dissociative Amnesia
A person forgets his/her entire life - who they do, where they live, who they live with.
Very rare
Cannot recall persoal information.
Example: You would not forget how to read but you would not remember your teachers.
Continuous Amnesia

Under Dissociative Amnesia
A person forgets everything that occurred from a particular point in time up to and including the present.
Dissociative Fugue

A Dissociative Disorder
In which one suddenly flee's from one's life situation, travels to a new location, assumes a new identity, and has amnesia for personal material.
Formerly called "psychogenic fugue."
Relatively rare
Difficult to distinguish from malingering.
Depersonalization Disorder

Characterized by persistent or recurrent episodes of depersonalization.
Feelings of detachment from one's self or one's body. Feelings that are unrealistic.
Somatoform Disorder

Disorder characterized by complaints of physical problems or symptoms that cannot be explained by physical causes.
Not concious, no gain.
Symptoms interfer with the person's life.
Several distinct types.
Not the same as malingering, factitious disorders.
Conversion Hypochadriasis
Somatization Pain
Body Dysmorphic

A purposeful fabrication of symptoms for obvious gain (such as avoiding work).
Faking an illness to avoid work.
Not a psychological disorder.
Motivated by external incentives.
Not a Somatoform Disorder.
Munchausen Syndrome

A type of factitious disorder characterized by the fabrication of medical symptoms.
Can make oneself ill (by ingesting toxic substances)
The deliberate fabrication of seemingly plausiable physical complaints for no obvious gain.
Not a Somatoform Disorder.
Munchausen by proxy

A form of child abuse in which a parent induces real or apparent symptoms of a disease in a child.
The symptoms improve at the hospital but reappear at home.
Some examples are: blood added to the child's stool or urine, falsifying fevers, etc.
Conversion Disorder

A Somatoform disorder.
Characterized by loss of impairment of physical function in the absence of any apparent organic cause.
Not the same as malingering.
Symptoms are not intentionally produced.
More common during stressful situations.
A psychological connection.
Has to been linked to childhood trauma.

A somatoform disorder characterized by misinterpretation of physical symptoms as signs of underlying serious disease.
Preoccupation or fear that one's physical symptoms are due to a serious, illness such as cancer.
Not consciously faking their physical symptoms. This is done unconciously.
They experience physical discomfort, assortment of aches & pains.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)

A somatoform disorder characterized by preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated physical defect in appearance.
Feeling that they are ugly or even disfigured.
Continious examination of their skin and appearance.
Extreme or unessary plastic surgery.
Koro Syndrome

A culture-based disorder, found primarily in China.
People fear that their genitals are shrinking and retreating into their bodies.
Identified mainly in young men.
Tends to be short-lived.
Involves episodes of acute anxiety.
Tends to believe that this will cause death.
Dhat Syndrome
A culture-based disorder, found primarily among Asian Indian males, characterized by excessive fears over the loss of seminal fluid.
Major Depression Disorder

A severe mood disorder characterized by major depressive episodes.
1. Changes in emotional states
2. Changes in motivation
3. Changes in functioning and motor behavior
4. Cognitive changes
Seasonal Affect Disorder (SAD)

Affect = emotions or emotional state.
Not in the DSM-IV TR
Mood based on weather (lack of sunshine)
Treatment: Phototherapy (artificial light therapy)
Postpartum Depression (PPD)

Not in the DSM-IV TR
Persistent and severe mood changes that occur after childbirth.
Problem if persists for months or years.
Less severe than Major Depressive Disorders.
Dysthymic Disorder

Mild but chronic type of depression.
Symptoms not a severe (appear as whiners)
**Continue to function with distress.
Bipolar Disorder

A Major Depression disoder.
A psychological disorder characterized by mood swings between states of extreme elation and depression.
Use to be known as "Manic Depression."
Bipolar I - (clear manic episode)
Bipolar II - (less severe manic and more depression)
Manic Episode

A state of unusual elation, energy, and anxiety.
Extreme restlessness, activity.
Disorganized behavior.
Impaired judgement.
Pressured speech.
Delusions of grandeur.
Learned Helplessness

A behavior pattern characterized by passivity and perceptions of lack of control.
Even though good things happen the person's blames self.
Example, a good grade on a test, the teacher must have given me easy questions, I am still a failure or poor student.
Rational Suicide

When a person rationalizes that suicide is the best alternative to living with a terminal illness.
Example, when someone who has terminal cancer does not want to live anylonger with the illness, pain and discomfort.
A DNR as part of a living will.
Substance Induced Disorders

Disorders such as intoxication, that can be induced by using psychoactive substances.
Intoxication - a state of drunkeness or of being "high."
Withdrawl symptoms, sleep disorders, anxiety disorders, etc.
Substance Use Disorders
Are patterns of continual use of substances despite the negative consequences. Includes Substance Abuse and Substance Dependence.
The continued use of a psychoactive drug despite the knowledge that it is causing social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems.

Sometimes called "downers." Psychoactive substances that decrease activity to the CNS and Cardiovascular systems. Can cause a relaxed, down feeling plus an euphoric effect on the brain.
Some depressants are: alcohol, and barbituates.

Sometimes called "uppers."
Psychoactive substances that increase activity to the CNS and the cardovascular systems. Hightened energy, rapid heart beat and raised BP. Causes an euphoric effect on the brain.
Some stimulants are: nicotine, caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, etc.

Psychodelic drugs or substances that cause a person to hallucinate with an euphoric effect.
Some hallucinogens or psychodelic substances are: LSD, Acid, Mushrooms, THC (marijuana), etc.
Pain Killers

An opiode drug or substance that reduces or eliminates physical pain very effectively. A numbing agent.
First choice in pain management.
Opiodes have a side effect of euphoria.
Some pain killers are: Morphine, oxycodine, herion.

Feelings of unreality or detachment from one's self or one's body.
Temporary loss or change in the usual sense of our own reality.
They feel detached from themselves and their surroundings.
It may feel like you are walking through a dream or observing the enviornment or oneself from outside one's body.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

A dissociative disorder in which a person has 2 or more distinct, or alter, personalities.
Must have the following:
1. At least 2 distinct personalities exist within the person, with each having a realtively enduring and distinct pattern of perceiving, thinking about, and realting to the enviornment and the self.
2. Two or more of these personalities repeatedly take comple control of the individual's behavior.
3. There is a failue to recal important personal information too substantial to be accounted for by oridinary forgetfulness.
4. The disorder cannot be accounted for by the effects of psychoactive substance or a general medical condition.
Pain Disorders

A MAJOR FORM OF somatoform disorder in which pshychological factors are presumed to play a significant role in the development, severity, or cause of chronic pain.
Such as stressful events in life.
May interfere with the person's daily functioning.
Both medical conditions and psychiatric pain can play important roles in the disorder.
Can become a major focus in the person's life.
Mood Disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by unusually severe or prolonged disturbances of mood.
Depressive Disorders
- Major Depression
- Dysthymic Disoder
Bipolar Disorders
- Bipolar Disorder
- Cyclothymic Disorder
A state of unusual elation, energy, and anxiety.
A relatively mild state of mania.
Be able to define dissociative identity disorder and identify four features that need to be present for this disorder to occur.
Be able to explain how suicide relates to major depression and identify five myths commonly thought about regarding suicide. Be sure to explain the correct perspective regarding each myth.
Be able to explain five cognitive distortions, related to depression, according to Beck.
Be able to identify and explain the pathways to drug dependence.
Be able to describe hw the following perspectives would treat a substance disorder: Biological, Behavioral, and Nonprofessional support groups. (Be specific)
Be able to describe how the following perspectives would treat a mood disorder: Biological, Behavioral, and Psychodynamic. (Be specific)

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