Abnormal Psych Test 1

The History, Axes, Etc.
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define abnormal psychology
the scientific and objective approach that describes, explains, predicts, and treats abnormal patterns of functioning

abnormal functioning/mental disorders are often characterized by? (4 d's)
Deviant, Distressing, Dysfunctional, Danger
Explain Deviant behavior
breaking off the morns of psychological functioning
What are the words used to describe bad stress?
good stress?

describe someone who is experiencing distess
they have bad stress, which is often triggered by a mental illness in which the bad stress is out of their control
describe dysfunctional
the inability to deal with everyday functioning
list some ancient beliefs of mental illness
trephining, demonology, exorcism,
describe Greco-Roman beliefs of mental illness
looked for naturalistic explanations. Hippocrates began writing (father of modern medicine) believed mental illness was caused by brain pathology (disease), also considered heredity and evironment
middle ages response to mental illness?
return to supernatural explanations because it was a time of great stress; began to blame the devil for their problems
what is mass madness?
a large group of people sharing the same absurd beliefs and symptoms
define tarantism-
define lycanthropy-
"dance mania" people dancing like crazy for days or weeks in the street-
belief that one is possessed by werewolfs-

what is the significance of Pope Innocent VIII
ordered all clergymen to find and exterminate the witches in a book titled "the Witches Hammel"
During the Renaissance what changes were made towards mental illness?
the idea of witchcraft was challenged by johaun weyer, the promotion of mental patients being taking care of, the building of asylums
Describe the Reform movement and important figures
-moral treatment movement in the 19th century, approach to treat people with mental illnesses with respect and care
Philipe Pind asylums to institutions
Benjamin Rush- physician who sparked interest in mental health
Dorthia Dix- school teacher who taught at prisons as well, realized mentally ill in prisons

Descriptive the Biological Perspective
people have mental illness due to chemical imbalance
list the most common neurotransmitters and their function
1) acetyl choline (ACH): activating muscles, attention and memory
2) seratonin: regulates mood, appetite, memory, relaxation
3)dopamine: controls voluntary movements
4)norephinephrine (noradrenaline): triggers fear
5)ephinephrine (adrenaline): triggers arousal (excitement) of the body, suppresses pain, during anger
disease believed to be caused by an imbalance of ACH
imbalance of seratonin can lead to....
anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders
lack of dopamine can lead to ....
parkinson's, schizophrenia
define endorphins
body's pain killers; in charge of mood, appetite, and perception of pleasure

describe the psychoanalytic approach/perspective
refers to Freud's structure of personality (Id, ego, and superego) and how conflicts between them are responsible for mental illness
the self centered, impulsive, irrational, illogical, immoral aspect of personality
the conscience, moral-based "guilt voice"

the reality based aspect of personality; rational, logical
what are the three forms of anxiety explained through the psychoanalytic model
moral anxiety: fear of one's own conscience
neurotic anxiety" fear of wanting to do something and the possibility of getting punished for it
reality/objective anxiety: fear of tangible desires in the world (natural disaster, speeding cars etc.)
Describe the Sociocultural Perspective and the two perspectives included:
1) Family Perspective
2) social discrimination
emphasizing the ways individuals are influenced by people, social institutions, and social forces in their environment
1) abnormality is caused disturbances in the patterns of interactions and relationships between family members
2) disorders are caused by discrimination in society

Describe the
/behavioral perspective
cognitive: disorders due to faulty/ irrational thinking; can be cured through therapy etc.
behavioral: abnormality is caused by faulty learning of behavior, solved by behavior modification (ex. AA)

Describe the Humanistic Perspective
generated from Maslow's Hierarchy of human needs, focused on growth and adaptability. States that humans have an inherent tendency to strive for self fulfillment (prove oneself and become a better person)
system of diagnosis/classifications used by DSM that requires classifying a patient's behavior is 5 different dimensions
Multiaxial Assessment
Name the five axes
Axis 1: Clinical Disorders
Axis 2: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
Axis 3: General Medical Conditions
Axis 4: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
Axis 5: Global assessment of functioning (GAF) scale
What are some things that would fall under Axis 1: Clinical Disorders?
Anxiety, Eating, Mood, Schizophrenia, Sleep, Substance-related disorders
What are some things that would fall under Axis II: Personality Disorders/Mental Retardation
Antisocial, Obsessive Compulsive, Paranoid, Schizoid, Mental Retardation
What are some things that would fall under Axis III: General Medical conditions?
diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer etc.
What are some things that would fall under Axis IV: Psychosocial/Environmental Problems?
1) problems with primary support group
2) problems related to social environment
3) educational problems
4) occupational problems
5) housing problems
6) economic problems
7)problems with legal system/crime
8)other psychosocial/environmental problems

what would be the normal score range on the GAF scale?
a procedure in which a clinician evaluates the person in terms of the psychological. physical, and social factors that could influence the person's functioning
psychological assessment
series of open ended questions aimed at determining the client's reasons for being in treatment, symptoms, health status, family background, and life history
unstructured interview
what is the difference between personal history and family history?
personal: has to do with self; relationships,school, peers
family: major events in the lives of relatives
standardized series of questions with predetermined wording and order
structered interview ; MC/TF/matching yes/no
standardized series of questions in which the interviewer has the discretion to ask follow up questions that will clarify the person's responses
semi-structured interview
assessing the client's behavior and functioning with particular attention to the symptoms associated with psychological disorders
mental status examination
What to look for in regards to appearance and behavior during a mental status examination
hyperactivity, psycho-motor agitation, psycho-motor retardation, compulsion, catatonia,
what is orientation refer to in a mental status examination?
an individual's awareness of time, place, and identity
under content of thoughts in a mental status examination; unwanted thought, word, phrase, or image that persistently/repeatedly comes into a person's mind and causes distress
false beliefs that are not consistent with client's intelligence or cultural background
client's choice of vocabulary and sentence structure
thinking style/language
an individuals outward expression of emotions
inward experience of emotion
name and describe the 3 types of mood
euthymic: normal, indifferent day to day
dysphoric: extreme sadness/irritability
euphoric: cheefullness/ecstatic/elated

an imaginary sensation that does not exist in the real worlds; visual are the most common
an altered experience of self, such as feeling out of body experience
lacking a clear sense of who one is
identity confusion

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