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Hole's Human Anatomy And Physiology Chapter 4 (Cell Metabolism)

Chapter 4 Cel Lular Me
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What do enzymes do?
Enzymes control/promote metabolic reactions.
What is an anabolic reaction?
An anabolic reaction is when larger molecules are made from smaller ones (building) and they require an input of energy.
What happens in a catabolic reaction of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins?
In catabolic reactions of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, a water molecule is needed to break them apart and is called hydrolysis.
What is a catabolic reaction?
Catabolic reactions are when molecules are broken down into smaller molecules and  these reactions release energy. The energy is stored in bonds.
What happens in an anabolic reaction of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins?
In anabolic reactions of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, a water molecule is 'split' out (is part of the products reaction) and is called a dehydration synthesis.
Fill in the blank: Energy required to get a reaction started is called                  .
Energy required to get a reaction started is called activation energy.
How do enzymes serve to lower the activation energy of a reaction?
Enzymes serve to lower the activation energy of a reaction by weakening the bonds of the substrate molecule.
What are substrates?
Substrates are the substances that enzymes act on and the active site of the enzyme is where the substrate binds. (lock and key analogy)
Fill in the blank:         are specific.
Enzymes are specific. For example enzyme 'x' helps substrate 'a' become product 'b'. it will not help any other reaction.
What do cofactors do?
Cofactors serve to activate the enzyme (the helper's helper) and they are either minerals or coenzymes.
What can alter enzymes?
Heat, radiation, electricity, chemicals, and extreme pH values can alter enzymes.
What is the goal of cellular respiration?
The goal of cellular respiration is to release the energy stored in the bonds of molecules (from the food we consume) in the form of ATP.
What are the phases of cellular respiration?
The phases of cellular respiration are: glycolysis, processing of pyruvic acid, citric acid cycle, and the electron transport system.
What is the form of energy used by our cells?
The form of energy used by our cells is ATP (adenosine triphosphate); the bonds between the phosphate molecules contain HUGE amounts of energy.
What is the definition of energy?
Energy: the capacity to change matter or to move something.
How do we realese the energy in ATP?
We release energy in ATP by breaking off a phosphate (making it ADP).
How do we recycle molecules?
To 'recycle' molecules, we can add a phosphate back on to ADP to turn it back into ATP.
What happens in glycolysis?
In glycolysis, ONE glucose molecule eventually makes 2 pyruvic acids.
Where does glycolysis occur?
Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and does not require oxygen (therefore it is considered ANAEROBIC)
What are the products of glycolysis?
The products of glycolysis: 2 ATP, 2 pyruvic acid, and 2 NADH + H+.
What happens if oxygen is not present after pyruvic acid is formed?
If oxygen is not present after pyruvic acid is formed, pyruvic acid will form lactic acid through anaerobic respiration.
What happens if there is oxygen present?
If there is oxygen present, the pyruvic acid will go through the Krebs cycle.
What does pryuvic acid turn into after the process?
The processing of pyruvic acid means it is turned into acetyl co enzyme A (acetyl CoA for short).
What is the products of 'pyruvic processing'?
The products of 'pyruvic processing' is 2 acetyl co A, 2 Co2, and 2 NADH+H+.
Where does the citric acid cycle occur?
The citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondria.
In the citric acid cycle, what is the start molecule (citric acid) made from?
In the citric acid cycle, the start molecule (citric acid) is made from oxalocetic acid and acetyl coA.
What is produce from each citric acid molecule?
For each citric acid molecule, there are ONE ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2 produced.
What is the net gain in the citric acid cycle?
REMEMBER: that from glycolysis, we produced 2 pyruvic acids, so the NET GAIN in the citric acid cycle is DOUBLING, 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 4 CO2.
Fill in the blank: The molecules that go to the electron transport chain are          and       .
The molecules that go to the electron transport chain are NADH+H+ and FADH 2.
Throughout these processes, how do we produce ATP?
Throughout these processes we produce ATP in two ways: 1. Directly: from reactions in glycolysis or citric acid cycle. 2. Indirectly: by creating molecules, NADH and FADH2, that...
Fill in the blank: For every NADH+H+       are produced.
For every NADH+H+ 3 ATP are produced.
Fill in the blank: For every FADH2       are produced.
For every FADH2 2 ATP are produced.
What is the enzyme used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP?
In the electron transport center, ATP synthase is the enzyme that is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP.
Fill in the blank:         is the molecule that accepts the final electrons from the ETC.
Oxygen is the molecule that accepts the final electrons from the ETC.
What is the net gain of ATP for anaerobic respiration (glycolysis)?
The net gain of ATP for anaerobic respiration (glycolysis) is 2 ATP.
What is the net gain for aerobic respiration (citric acid+ETC)?
The net gain for aerobic respiration (citric acid+ETC) is 36 ATP.
What is the total ATP produced from ONE glucose molecule?
The total ATP produced from ONE glucose molecule (in most cells) is 38 ATP.
What is the idea of rate limiting step?
The idea of rate limiting step is if we are producing too much product, it tends to stop the 'pathway' from producing more by inhibiting an early step.
What is the rate limiting step an example of?
The rate limiting step is an example of negative feedback.
If we produce too much ATP what will our glucose molecules be stored as?
If we are producing too much ATP our glucose molecules will be stored as GLYCOGEN or FAT!(when we need these again, we can 'pull them out of storage').
Can proteins be used as energy?
Proteins CAN be used as energy, but first, they must be broken into amino acids, then 'deaminated' in the liver, then they enter the citric acid cycle.
Can fats be used as energy?
Fats CAN be used as energy, but first must be seperated (hydolyzed) into 'the glycerol backbone and fatty acid chain'.
How much ATP does one fat molecule produce?
One Fat molecule produces 144 ATP, much more than one glucose!
Fill in the blank:             is common to all three pathways (proteins, fats, and carbs).
Acetly co A is common to all three pathways (proteins, fats, and carbs).


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