Sociology

Midterm Review
Created Dec 7, 2006
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Side ASide B
Reasons for Grouping
Positive - Power Security Social Bond Negative - Loss of Freedom Individualism Loss...
Manifest Function Latent Function
intended to accomplish unintended or hidden Robert Merton
Theories of Social Structure (How Society holds together?)
1. Divine will – obedience/ revelation 2. Structural Function theory – held together by common...
Transitive Triads
where two people have same relationship with the third
Intransitive Triads
where one tries to be friends with two who dislike each other
Assimilation
process of exchanging one culture for another
Exchange Theory
a micro sociological theoretical perspective having as its central concern to explain and reveal...
Two approaches to Micro Sociology
Symbolic Interaction Theory Exchange Theory
4 principle of recruitment
Open Minded Principle Network Recruitment Principle Cosmopolitan Growth Principle Principle...
Rational Choice Theory
People are choosers We tend to do what is rewarding, although it might not be immediately...
C.H. Cooley
The Looking Glass Self - how we view ourselves, how others feel and react
George Homans – Exchanging Rewards – the four principles of frequency
The law of liking – if you engage with equal ranks than more than likely you will like them The...
Differences between cool - burning communes
Unexpected results with cool and burning communes, cool ones lasted longer
5 basic social institutions
Family Economy Religion Political Order Education
3 major theories about social systems
Functionalism Social Evolution Conflict
Functional Societies
sub-groups within the commune tend to divide the commune at some point
Functionalism
social structures have functions, what is the structure there for
Social Evolution Theory
survival and adaptability
Conflict Theory
power and how does it affect social structure
Genetic Relationships
Mark Schuckits’s study on alcoholism presents evidence for genetic response
Humans have been growing more and taller which suggest genetics
The rebuttal is that a better diet and health conditions are the reason, and the question should...
People in society can be described as?
Can be described as plastic – people can shift environmental behavior
Environmental Suppressors
environment factors that hinder human growth
Feral children
children who are literally untamed, or born with severe disabilities
Stimulus Response (S-R)
a simple model of learning in which humans play only a passive role
Cognitive structures
general rules that govern reason (Jean Piaget) o Sensorimotor – begins at birth until about...
Pidgin
is a jargon of made-up nouns and verbs, often including some borrowed from the language of...
Creole
the development of Pidgin into a real language very different from any other
Differential socialization
how roles in a society shape people
Melvin Kohn – 1965 study
he did a study on the upbringings of children from different social classes and the main values...
Erving Goffman 1961 impression management
the conscious manipulation of scenery, props, costumes and our behavior to convey a particular...
Offender versatility
offenders usually commit many crimes ranging from different types, with no strong inclination...
Walter Grove produced 3 facts about crime
o The variables most associated with crime are age and gender o Athletic body types are more...
Subculture deviance
is the result of subcultures disagreeing with the norms of society but now having the influence...
structural strain
frustration caused by a person’s position in the social structure, especially the stratification...
4 types of Bonds in society
o Attachments – how much one cares for others and its reciprocal o Investments – we are tied...
Anomie
a condition of normalness
Folkways Mores
morally accepted sentiments stringent morally accepted sentiments
Differential Theory
who you hang out with, 2 factors how long and how intimate
Deviance Process – John Lofland
o Threat – Physical, Psychological o Encapsulation – Facilitating Hardware, Facilitating Others,...
Degree of Social Control
o Principle of Dependence – the more dependent members are on a group, the more they conform...
Deterrence Theory
the more rapid, the more certain, and the more severe the punishment for a crime, the lower...
Recidivism rate
the proportion of persons who commit a new crime after having served a prior sentence in jail...
Marx's view on classes
• Marx saw four classes in Roman society: patricians, knights, plebians and slaves; while he...
Lumpenproletariat
people who were marginal to the economy: vagrants, migrant workers, beggars, criminals, Gypsies
Max Weber suggested that three factors defined society
o Property – the control of property o Prestige – fame as important as money and can gain...
Status inconsistency
a person could be rich but have lower prestige and little power
Cultural Capital
classes tend to develop and maintain distinctive cultures typically consisting of styles of...
Ralf Dahrendorf had the most penetrating analysis of Marx’s classless society
o Everyone would be in one class but they would not have equally power and prestige, or even...
Gaeteno Mosca The Ruling Class a three step proof
o Human societies cannot exist without political organization o Whenever there is political...
Conflict Theory of Stratification
how persons at the top will take advantage of others and how the political system can be used...


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