Rote For PA02

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A moment of a force (or torque)
 
A moment of a force (or torque) is the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance of the line of action of the force from the axis
couple
 
The torque due to a couple is the product of one of forces and the separation between them.
The centre of gravity
 
The centre of gravity of a body is the point through which its weight acts. Were it to be supported at that point there would be no net gravitational moment acting on the body.
centre of mass
 
The centre of mass of a body is the point through which its mass acts. In the absence of a pivot a body acts as if it were pivoted at its centre of mass.
Absolute zero
 
Is the temperature at which the pressure and volume of an ideal gas would be zero. All vibrational motion of the particles would cease. It is 0K (-273oC)
principle of moments
 
The principle of moments states that for a body to be in equilibrium, the sum of the clockwise moments about any axis is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise moments about that same axis.
Newton’s First Law of Motion
 
Every body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external force.
Newton’s Second Law of Motion
 
The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the force acting upon it and takes place in the direction of the force.
Newton’s Third Law of Motion
 
Whenever a body A exerts a force on a body B, body B exerts a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on body A.
Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum
 
The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum states that the total linear momentum of a system of interacting bodies, on which no external forces are acting, remains constant.
Specific heat capacity
 
Specific heat capacity of a substance is the heat energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of that substance by one degree Kelvin.
specific latent heat of fusion
 
The specific latent heat of fusion of a substance is the energy required to change the state of one kilogram of the substance in its solid state to the liquid state without raising its temperature above its melting point.
specific latent heat of vaporization
 
The specific latent heat of vaporization of a substance is the energy required to change the state of one kilogram of the substance in its liquid state to the gaseous state without raising its temperature above its boiling point.
What is the equation of state?
 
pV = nRT

where:
p = pressure
V = volume
n = number of moles
R = molar gas constant
T = absolute temperature (measured in Kelvin – make sure you can convert from Celsius to Kelvin and vice versa!))
What is the equation for kinetic energy?
 
EK = ½ mv2
What is the equation for change in gravitational potential energy?
 
delta Ep = mg delta h
What conditions must be met for you to apply Newton’s equations of motion to a body?
 
The body must be under constant acceleration conditions (e.g. falling under gravity).
What is the equation for momentum?
 
p = mv

where:
p = momentum (Ns)
m = mass (kg)
v = velocity (m/s)

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