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Psychology: Stress And Coping

Psychology Exam Study Guide Psychology: Stress And Coping
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Side ASide B
Stress
Any circumstance that threatens or is perceived to threaten one's well being Has both psychological and physiological components
Frustration
When the pursuit of a goal is prevented You try to do something and you can't or it won't work
Conflict
Occur when there are two or more competing and incompatable goals
Approach-approach conflict A choice must be made between two desirable goals
exp:you could travel to europe or you could have an internship with the company of your dream
Avoidance-avoidance conflict A choice must be made between two unattractive goals
Exp: you want to break up with your boyfriend,but if you break up he'll be mad and if you stay together you'll be miserable
Approach-avoidance conflict A choice must be made about a goal that has both positive and negative attributes
exp: you are offered a great job but it would mean that you would miss your daughter's debut in the play
Change
Any notable difference in one's life which requires adaptation Both positive and negative change can be stressful
Holmes and Rahe's Social Readjustment Scale
They created a scale in order to give points to the level of stress associated with an event or happening
Homes and Rahe's Social Readjustment Scale Examples
Death of a spouse 100 pts Marital Reconciliation 45 pts Change in financial status 38 pts
Pressure
Expectations or demands that one behave in a particular manner
General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye)
All types of stressful situations lead to a similar stress response consisting of three stages Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion
Alarm
The body releases adrenal hormones, sympathetic nervous system is activated
Resistance
Body is on "high alert"
Exhaustion
Increased physiological vulnerability to stress
Kanner
Also studied stress in terms of "daily hassles" The sum total of mundane life tasks combine to create significant levels of stress
Kanner continued
He asked people to list things they did during the day and the level of stress associated with them exp: taking kids to daycare,
Coping
What strategies you use to buffer against the stress cycle Active efforts to master, reduce or accept the demands of stress
Coping
Adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies exist
Maladaptive Coping Strategies
Displaced Aggression Catharsis Self-indulgence
Displaced Aggression
Harmful act to someone or something verbally or physically that is not the "true" object of the hostility
Catharsis release of emotional tension Punching a pillow, stomping foot although it is good to
temporary release tension or frustration, it doesn't work long term because the person really needs to put the frustration into words/talk
Self-indulgence
compensate for deprived/frustrated feelings by trying to promote a feeling of satisfaction in another area
Constructive Coping Mechanisms
Healthy efforts to deal with a stressful event making one more resilient to the stressor
Problem focused coping
How to change the situation exp: person says mornings are stressful, so to reduce stress pack lunches the night before, time savers
Emotional focused coping
How to change perceptions/reactions to the situation
Optimism
People with more positive outlooks handle stress better
Social supports Presence of social supports provide adaptive
coping/release from pressures sense of self efficacy/tools to respond to stresors and feelings of being stressed
Personality Traits
Impact response to stressful situation Type A Type B
Type A personality
competitive, impatient, and more prone to aggression
Type B Personality
more relaxed, easy going, and less quick to anger
How to determine which personality you are
To determine which category you fall under look at chart on power point
Stress and personality style interact with health
People with Type A personalities have 2x the risk of disease Stress in general lowers the bodys immune system
How to reduce stress pets and plants have been shown to reduce stress
Therapuetic interventions used to identify and reduce stress prove effective exercise can reduce stress
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (war, car accident, chronic high stress situations-child abuse)
Enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event
Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Replaying or recurrent thoughts of trauma
(if a perso was witness to their friends murder, replay the scene in their head asking what could I have done differently?
Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Phobic avoidane of similar places/situations (were in a car accident, avoid highways) Oversensitivity to sound
Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder increased irritability/aggressiveness
Nervousness Blunted emotion; numbness Sleep disturbance decreased sense of trust cognitive misperceptions
Child Abuse taking a cigarette and burning child book a child called it
Non-accidental physical attack on or injury to children by individuals caring for them verbal abuse
Child Neglect saying "I wish you were never born"
Absence of adequate social, emotional and physical care exp: parent tells child over and over again "I don't love you" or
Child Abuse random facts In 2002, 2.6 million cases of child abuse were reported 1996-3 million cases
Moms are the largest group of perpetrators why? they become frustrated that they aren't good mothers and accidentally kill the baby
Characteristics/Symptoms of Abuse
Bruises, welts in unusual places (back, feet, head) Complaints of maltreatment Frequent early arrival/late stay at school (don't want to go home)
Characteristics/Symptoms of Abuse
Inadequately dressed for the weather Kids seem constantly tired Are hostile and aggressive Are sly, withdrawn, passive Overly compliant


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