Psychology 251

Chapter 1-3
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Social Influence
The effect that words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior
Social Psychology
The scientific study of the way in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people.
The way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world
Individual Differences
The aspects of people's personalities that make them different from other people
A school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment
Gestalt Psychology
A school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people's minds, rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object--the whole is different from the sum of its parts
Social Cognition
How people think about themselves and the social world. How people select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgments and decisions
Hindsight Bias
The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they ould have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occured
Observational Method
The technique whereby a researcher obseves people and systematically recores measurements or impressions of their behavior
Participant Observation
A form of observational method in which the observer interacts with the people being observed but tries not to alter the situation in any way
Inerjudge Reliability
The levelof agreement between two or more people who independently abserve and code a set of data
Archival Analysis
A form of the observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated document or archies of a culture
Correlational Method
The technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them is assessed
Correlation Coefficient
A statistical technique that assesses how well you can predict one variable from another
Experimental Method
The method in which the researcher randomly assigns participlants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable
Internal Validity
Making sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable, this is accomplished by controlling all extraneous variables
External Validity
The exten to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people
External Validity
The exten to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people
Mundane Realism
the extent to which an experiment is similar to real-life situations
Psychological Realism
The extent to which the psychological processes are triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life
A stat. technique that averages that results of two or more studies to see if the effct of an independent variable is reliable
Basic Research
Studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do and that are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity
Applied Research
Studies designed to solve a particular problem
Mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember
The extent to which schemas and concept are at the forefront of peole's minds and are therefore likely to be used when we are making judgments about the social world
The process by which recent experiences increase the acessibility of a schema, trait or concept
Perserverance Effect
The finding that people's beliefs about themselves and the social world persist even after the evidence supporting these beliefs is discredited
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
People have an expectation about what abother person is like, influences how they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with people's original expectations, making the expectations come true
Judgmental Heuristic
Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently
Availability Heuristic
A mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind
Representative Heuristic
A mental shortcut whereby people classigy something accoriding to how similiar it is to a typical case
Base rate information
Information about the frequency of member of different categories in the population
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic
Shortcut where people use a number or value as a starting poin and then adjust insufficiently from this anchor
Controlled Thinking
Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, or effortful
Counterfactual Thinking
Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
Overconfidence Barrier
The fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments

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