Nutrition Ch. 7

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Metabolism


 
  
Created Dec 7, 2006
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1
Metabolism
 
The sum total of all the chemcial reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism...
2
Energy metabolism
 
All of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from...
3
Anabolism
 
Small compounds joined together to make largers ones; energy must be used in order to do this Ana...
4
Catabolism
 
Larger compounds BROKEN down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED kata = down
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Coupled reactions
 
Energy released from the breakdown of a large compounds is used to drive other reactions
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ATP
 
Adenosine triphosphate; energy currency of the body -- produced when large compounds are broken...
7
Ribosomes
 
Cellular machinery used to make proteins
8
Mitochondria
 
Where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain
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Coenzyme
 
Complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many...
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Cofactor
 
The general term for substances that facilitate enzyme action is cofactors; they include both...
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Enzymes
 
Protein catalysts - proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the...
12
Metalloenzyme
 
Enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their structure
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BREAKING DOWN NUTRIENTS FOR ENERGY CHO (Carbohydrate)
 
CHO - glucose (6 carbons)
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BREAKING DOWN NUTRIENTS FOR ENERGY Fat
 
TG's - glycerol (3 carbons) + fatty acid (typically 18 carbons)
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BREAKING DOWN NUTRIENTS FOR ENERGY Protein
 
Protein - amino acids 2C-N, 3C-N, or 5C-N
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BREAKING DOWN NUTRIENTS FOR ENERGY New Compounds
 
Pyruvate (3 carbons) Acetyl CoA (2 carbons)
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GLUCOSE BREAKDOWN
 
CHO - glucose (6 carbons) - pyruvate (3 carbons)
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GLUCOSE BREAKDOWN With oxygen present = aerobic
 
Glucose (6C) - pyruvate (3C) - acetyl CoA (2C) - TCA cycle
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GLUCOSE BREAKDOWN With inadequate oxygen present = anaerobid (during strenous exercise)
 
Glucose (6C) - Pyruvate (3C) - Lactic acid
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GETTING RID OF LACTIC ACID Cory Cycle (liver repackages lactic acid as glucose)
 
Glucose (6C) - Pyruvate (3C) - Lactic acid - liver - glucose - back to blood - muscles (stored...
21
FAT BREAKDOWN Trigycerides
 
TG's - 3 fatty acids + glycerol
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FAT BREAKDOWN TG's - 3 fatty acids + glycerol Glycerol may be convered to
 
glucose or pyruvate depending on the cells needs; glucose is made if the blood glucose is...
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FAT BREAKDOWN TG's - 3 fatty acids + glycerol Fatty acids may be converted to
 
acetyl CoA and proceeds through TCA cycle; requires oxygen to do this (an aerobic process)
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FAT BREAKDOWN TG's - 3 fatty acids + glycerol Can you make glucose from fatty acids?
 
NO!!!!!
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PROTEIN BREAKDOWN Use of protein depends upon
 
cells needs and availablity of glucose Note: before amino acids maybe used, they must be...
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PROTEIN BREAKDOWN If glucose is needed....
 
Protein - amino acid (deaminated) - glucose (Glucose is used by the brain, red blood cells)
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PROTEIN BREAKDOWN If energy is needed and glucose level is adequate....
 
Protein - amino acid (deaminated) - glucose - pyruvate - aceytl CoA - TCA cycle Note: Some...
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PROTEIN BREAKDOWN Deamination
 
amino acic - keto acid (NH3) keto acid - non-essential amino acid (NH3)
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PROTEIN BREAKDOWN Transamination
 
A method for making non-essential amino acids; B6 needed for this process amino acid A +...
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GETTING RID OF AMMONIA PRODUCED FROM DEAMINATION Urea cycle
 
Ammonia is toxic; must be converted to nontoxic compound immediately; liver packages ammonia...
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ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (an aerobic process, requires oxygen) Process?
 
1. Once acetyl CoA (2 carbon) enters the TCA cycle it quickly combines with a 4 carbon compound...
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FEASTING What happens to excess CHO's?
 
1. CHO's used first to replenish glycogen stores 2. Extra is converted to fat CHO -...
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FEASTING What happens to excess Fat?
 
Triglycerides stored directly into fat tissues, no breakdown required (except for chylomicron...
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FEASTING What happens to excess protein?
 
1. Dispose of Nitrogen group first via deamination 2. keto acid (amino acid minus nitrogen...
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FASTING What happens if you fast less than 24 hours?
 
Will use up glycogen stores in liver and muscle tissue
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FASTING What happens if you fast LONGER than 24 hours, but less than 3-4 days?
 
Will begin gluconeogenesis using muscle tissue protein to generate new glucose (about 90% of...
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FASTING What happens if you fast LONGER THAN 3-4 DAYS?
 
Body shifts to KETOSIS to preserve muscle tissue; ketone bodies are 2 acetyl CoA' stuck together;...
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FAD DIETS Fad diets which promote eating only protein and fat will result in...
 
KETOSIS after 24 hours of diet
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ALCOHOL AND NUTRITION Historical findings show humans have used alcohol for over...
 
5000 years
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ALCOHOL AND NUTRITION; Biochemisty ethanol
 
alcohol in fermented beverages
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Fuel
 
Compounds that cells can use for energy. The major fuels include glucose, fatty acids, and...
42
Photosynthesis
 
The process by which green plants use the sun's energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide...
43
Name one of the body's high-energy molecules, and describe how it is used.
 
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a common high-energy compound composed of a purine (adenine),...
44
What are the coenzymes, and what service do they provide in metabolism?
 
MEtabolic reactions almost always require enzymes to facilitate their action. In many cases,...
45
Name the four basic units, derived from foods, that are used by the body in metabolic transformations. How...
 
Glucose - 6 carbons Glycerol - 3 carbons Fatty acid - even number of carbons (commonly...
46
Define aerobic and nonaerobic metabolism. How does insufficient oxygen influence metabolism?
 
aerobic - requiring oxygen anaerobic - not requiring oxygen an = not Anaerobic pathway...
47
How does the body dispose of excess nitrogen?
 
The liver continuously produces small amounts of ammonia in deamination reactions (removing...
48
Summarize the main steps in the metabolism of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids and amino acids.
 
The digestion of carbohydrates yields glucose (and other momosaccharides): some is stored as...
49
Describe how a surplus of the three energy nutrients contributes to body fat stores.
 
ALL EXCESS NUTRIENTS STORED AS FAT!!! Carbohydrate - broken down to glucose - used for liver...
50
What adaptations does the body make during a fast?
 
*Increasing the breakdown of fat to provide energy for most of the cells *Using glycerol...
51
What are ketone bodies?
 
Ketone bodies are compounds produced during the imcomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is...
52
Define ketosis
 
An undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and urine. Ketosis is...
53
Distinguish between a loss of fat and a loss of weight, and describe how each might happen.
 
Weight loss can be caused by shrinkage in the mass of organ tissues and wasting of muscles...
54
Hydrolysis is an example of: a) coupled reaction b) anabolic reaction c) catabolic reaction d)...
 
b) catabolic (breaking)
55
During metabolism, released energy is captured and transferred by: a) enzymes b) pyruvate c)...
 
d) adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
56
Glycolysis: a) requires oxygen b) generates abundant energy c) converts glucose to pyruvate d)...
 
c) converts glucose to pyruvate
57
The pathway from pyruvate to acetyl CoA: a) produces lactic acid b) is known as gluconeogenesis c)...
 
c) is metabolically irreversible
58
For complete oxidation, acetyl CoA enters: a) glycolysis b) the TCA cycle c) the Cori...
 
b) the TCA cycle
59
Deamination of an amino acid produces: a) vitamin B and energy b) pyruvate and acetyl CoA c)...
 
c) ammonia and a keto acid
60
Before entering the TCA cycle, each of the energy-yielding nutrients is broken down to: a)...
 
d) acetyl CoA
61
The body stores energy for future use in: a) proteins b) acetl CoA c) triglycerides d)...
 
c) triglycerides
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During a fast, when glycogen stores have been depleted, the body begins to synthesize glucose...
 
b) amino acids
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metabolism **
 
all of the chemical reactions which take place in the body
64
energy metabolism **
 
all of the chemical reactions through which the human body acquires and spends energy from...
65
anabolism **
 
small compounds joined together to make larger ones; energy must be USED in order to do this
66
catabolism **
 
larger compounds broken down into smaller ones; energy is RELEASED
67
coupled reaction **
 
energy released from the breakdown of large compounds used to drive other reactions
68
ATP **
 
adenosine triphosphate - the body's energy currency; produced when large compounds are broken...
69
ribosomes **
 
cellular machinery used to make proteins
70
mitochondria **
 
where energy is derived from fat, CHO, protein via TCA cycle, electron transport chain
71
Breaking down nutrients for energy CHO's Fats Protein What do they break down to and...
 
CHO - glucose (6c) TG's - glycerol (3c) + fatty acid (typically 18c) Protein - amino acids...
72
Breaking down nutrients for energy New compounds; number of carbons
 
Pyruvate (3c) acetyl CoA (2c)
73
Glucose Breakdown CHO (glucose 6c) - pyruvate (3c) With oxygen present.....
 
aerobic glucose (6c) - pyruvate (2c) - Acetyl CoA (2c) - TCA cycle
74
Glucose Breakdown CHO (glucose 6c) - pyruvate (3c) Without oxygen present.....
 
withinadequate oxygen = anaerobic (during strenuous exercize for 1-3 minutes) glucose (6c)...
75
Getting rid of Lactic Acid: Cori Cycle (liver repackages lactic acid as glucose)
 
glucose (6c) - pyruvate (3c) - lactic acid - liver - glucose - back to blood - muscles (stored...
76
Fat breakdown: TG's 3 fatty acids + glycerol
 
A) GLYCEROL may be converted to glucose OR pyruvate depending upon cells needs, glucose is...
77
Can you make glucose from fatty acids?
 
NOOOOOO!!!!! Only the glycerol portion of TG's can be coverted to glucose.
78
Protein breakdown: Use of protein depends on cells needs, availability of glucose. Note:...
 
1) protein - amino acid (deaminated - glucose; glucose used by brain, red blood cells 2)...
79
Getting rid of ammonia produced from deamination
 
A) urea cycle (ammonia is toxic; must be converted to nontoxic compound immediately; liver...


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