Midterm #2

91 cards

Key Terms


 
  
Created Dec 6, 2006
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1
social stratification
 
the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property,...
2
slavery
 
a form of social stratification in which some people own other people
3
endogamy
 
the practice of marrying within one's own group.
4
class system
 
a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions
5
culture of poverty
 
the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor amke them fundamentally different...
6
social class
 
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power,...
7
wealth
 
property and income
8
income
 
money recieved from a job, business or assets
9
power
 
the ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others.
10
power elites
 
C. Weight Mills' term for the top people in U.S corporations, military, and politics that make...
11
prestige
 
respect or regard
12
status consistency
 
ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class
13
status inconsitency
 
ranking high or low on some dimensions of social class and low on others, also called status...
14
status
 
social ranking; the position that someone occupies in society or a social group
15
anomie
 
Durkheim's erm for a condition of society in which people become detached from the norms that...
16
contradictory class locations
 
Erik Wright's term for a position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests.
17
underclass
 
a group of people for whom poverty persists year after year and across generations
18
intergenerational mobility
 
the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next
19
upward social mobility
 
movement up the social class ladder
20
downward social mobility
 
movement down the social class ladder
21
structural mobility
 
movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society,...
22
exchange mobility
 
about the same numbers of people moving up and down he social class ladder, such that, on balanace,...
23
poverty line
 
the official measure of poverty; calculated to include those incomes that are less than three...
24
the feminization of poverty
 
a trend in the U.S. poverty whereby most poor families are headed by women.
25
culture of poverty
 
the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different...
26
deferred gratification
 
for-going something in the present in the hope of achieving greater gains in the future.
27
horatio alger myth
 
the belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone can get ahead if her or she tries hard...
28
patriarchy
 
a society or group in which men dominate women; authority is vested in males.
29
matriarchy
 
a society in which women as a group dominate men as a group.
30
feminism
 
the philosophy that men and women should be politically, economically, and socially equal;...
31
glass ceiling
 
the mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work
32
glass escalator
 
the mostly invisible accelerators that push men into higher-level positions, more desirable...
33
sexual harassment
 
the abuse of one's position of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone
34
race
 
Physical characteristics that distinguishes one group from one another
35
ethnicity
 
Having distinctive cultural characteristics
36
discrimination
 
An act of infair treatment directed against an individual or a group
37
prejudice
 
An attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way.
38
Population transfer
 
Forcing a minority group to move
39
Ethnic Cleansing
 
A policy of population elimination, including forcible expulsion and genocide.
40
Segregation
 
The policy of keeping racial or ethnic groups apart.
41
Assimilation
 
The process of being absorbed into the mainstream culture.
42
White ethnics
 
White immigrants to the United States whose culture differ from that of WASP's
43
Life Expectancy
 
The number of years that an average person at any age, including newborns, can expect to live.
44
Life Span
 
The maximum length of life of a species; for humans, the longest that a human has ever lived
45
Gerontocracy
 
A society (or some other group) ran by the elderly
46
Ageism
 
Prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age; can...
47
Disengagement Theory
 
The view that society prevents disruption by having the elderly vacate (or disengage from)...
48
Dependency Ratio
 
The number of workers required to support each dependent person -- those 65 and older and those...
49
Hospice
 
A place, or services brought into someone's home, for the purpose of bringing comfort and dignity...
50
Barter
 
The direct exchange of one item for another
51
Capitalism
 
An economic system characterized by the private-ownership of the means of production, the pursuit...
52
Currency
 
Paper Money
53
Oligarchy
 
Rule by the few
54
power
 
the ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others
55
micropolitics
 
the exercise of power in everyday life, such as deciding who is going to do the housework or...
56
macropolitics
 
the exercise of large-scale power, the government being the most common example
57
authority
 
power that people consider legitimate, as rightly called legitimate power.
58
coercion
 
power the people do not accept as rightly exercised over them; also called illegitimate power.
59
state
 
a political entity that claims monopoly on the use of violence in some particular territory;...
60
revolution
 
armed resistance designed to overthrow and replace a government
61
traditional authority
 
authority based on custom
62
rational legal authority
 
authority based on law or written rules and regulations; also called bureaucratic authority
63
charismatic authority
 
authority based on an individual's outstanding traits, which attract followers.
64
routinization of charisma
 
the transfer of authority from a charismatic figure to either a traditional or a rational-legal...
65
city-state
 
an independent city whose power radiates outward brining the adjacent area under it's rule
66
monarchy
 
a form of governemtn headed by a king or a queen
67
democracy
 
a system of government in which authority derives from the people; the term comes from two...
68
direct democracy
 
a form of democracy in which the eligible voters meet together to discuss issues and make their...
69
reprsentative democracy
 
a form of democracy in which voters elect representatives to govern and make decisions on their...
70
citizenship
 
the concept that birth (and residence) in a country impart basic rights
71
universal citizenship
 
the idea that everyone has the same basic rights by virtue of being born in a country (or...
72
dictatorship
 
a form of government in which power has been seized by an individual
73
totalitarianism
 
a form of government that exerts almost total control over people.
74
proportional representative
 
an electoral system in which seats in a legislature are divided according to the proportion...
75
non centrist party
 
a politcal party that represents marginal ideas.
76
centrist party
 
a politcal party that represents the center of political opinion
77
coalition government
 
a government in which a country's largest party aligns itself with one or more smaller parties
78
voter apathy
 
indifference and inaction on the part of individuals or groups with respect to the political...
79
special interest group
 
a group of people who support a particular issue and who can be mobilized for poltical action
80
lobbyist
 
people who influence legislation on behalf of their clients
81
politcal action commitee
 
an orginazation formed by one or more special interest groups to solicit and spend funds for...
82
anarchy
 
a condition of lawlessness of poltical disorder caused by the absence or collapse of governmental...
83
pluralism
 
the diffusion of power among many interest groups that precents and single groups from gaining...
84
checks and balances
 
the serparation of powers among the three branches of U.S. government--legislative, exectutive,...
85
power elite
 
C Wright Mills term for the top people in U.S. corporations, military, and politics, who make...
86
ruling class
 
another term for the power elite
87
war
 
armed conflict between nations or politcally distinct groups
88
dehumanization
 
the act or process of reducing people to objects that do not deserve the treatment accorded...
89
gender stratification
 
males and females unequal access to power, prestige, and property on the basis of their sex
90
sex
 
biological characteristics that distinguish females and males, consisting of primarty and sexondary...
91
gener
 
the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for irs males and females; masculinity...

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