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Midterm #2

Key Terms
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Side ASide B
social stratification
the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige; it applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society or other...
slavery
a form of social stratification in which some people own other people
endogamy
the practice of marrying within one's own group.
class system
a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions
culture of poverty
the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor amke them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that...
social class
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production...
wealth
property and income
income
money recieved from a job, business or assets
power
the ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others.
power elites
C. Weight Mills' term for the top people in U.S corporations, military, and politics that make the nation's major decision.
prestige
respect or regard
status consistency
ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class
status inconsitency
ranking high or low on some dimensions of social class and low on others, also called status discrepancy
status
social ranking; the position that someone occupies in society or a social group
anomie
Durkheim's erm for a condition of society in which people become detached from the norms that usually guide their behavior
contradictory class locations
Erik Wright's term for a position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests.
underclass
a group of people for whom poverty persists year after year and across generations
intergenerational mobility
the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next
upward social mobility
movement up the social class ladder
downward social mobility
movement down the social class ladder
structural mobility
movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society, not to individual efforts.
exchange mobility
about the same numbers of people moving up and down he social class ladder, such that, on balanace, the social class system shows little change.
poverty line
the official measure of poverty; calculated to include those incomes that are less than three times a low-cost food budget.
the feminization of poverty
a trend in the U.S. poverty whereby most poor families are headed by women.
culture of poverty
the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that...
deferred gratification
for-going something in the present in the hope of achieving greater gains in the future.
horatio alger myth
the belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone can get ahead if her or she tries hard enough.
patriarchy
a society or group in which men dominate women; authority is vested in males.
matriarchy
a society in which women as a group dominate men as a group.
feminism
the philosophy that men and women should be politically, economically, and socially equal; organized activities on behalf of this principle.
glass ceiling
the mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work
glass escalator
the mostly invisible accelerators that push men into higher-level positions, more desirable work assignements, and higher salaries.
sexual harassment
the abuse of one's position of authority to force unwanted sexual demands on someone
race
Physical characteristics that distinguishes one group from one another
ethnicity
Having distinctive cultural characteristics
discrimination
An act of infair treatment directed against an individual or a group
prejudice
An attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way.
Population transfer
Forcing a minority group to move
Ethnic Cleansing
A policy of population elimination, including forcible expulsion and genocide.
Segregation
The policy of keeping racial or ethnic groups apart.
Assimilation
The process of being absorbed into the mainstream culture.
White ethnics
White immigrants to the United States whose culture differ from that of WASP's
Life Expectancy
The number of years that an average person at any age, including newborns, can expect to live.
Life Span
The maximum length of life of a species; for humans, the longest that a human has ever lived
Gerontocracy
A society (or some other group) ran by the elderly
Ageism
Prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age; can be directed against any group, including youth.
Disengagement Theory
The view that society prevents disruption by having the elderly vacate (or disengage from) their positions of responsibility so the younger generation can step into their shoes.
Dependency Ratio
The number of workers required to support each dependent person -- those 65 and older and those 15 and under.
Hospice
A place, or services brought into someone's home, for the purpose of bringing comfort and dignity to a dying person.
Barter
The direct exchange of one item for another
Capitalism
An economic system characterized by the private-ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of profit, and the market competition
Currency
Paper Money
Oligarchy
Rule by the few
power
the ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others
micropolitics
the exercise of power in everyday life, such as deciding who is going to do the housework or control the remote.
macropolitics
the exercise of large-scale power, the government being the most common example
authority
power that people consider legitimate, as rightly called legitimate power.
coercion
power the people do not accept as rightly exercised over them; also called illegitimate power.
state
a political entity that claims monopoly on the use of violence in some particular territory; commonly known as a country
revolution
armed resistance designed to overthrow and replace a government
traditional authority
authority based on custom
rational legal authority
authority based on law or written rules and regulations; also called bureaucratic authority
charismatic authority
authority based on an individual's outstanding traits, which attract followers.
routinization of charisma
the transfer of authority from a charismatic figure to either a traditional or a rational-legal form of authority
city-state
an independent city whose power radiates outward brining the adjacent area under it's rule
monarchy
a form of governemtn headed by a king or a queen
democracy
a system of government in which authority derives from the people; the term comes from two Greek words that translate literally as "power to the people"
direct democracy
a form of democracy in which the eligible voters meet together to discuss issues and make their decisions.
reprsentative democracy
a form of democracy in which voters elect representatives to govern and make decisions on their behalf.
citizenship
the concept that birth (and residence) in a country impart basic rights
universal citizenship
the idea that everyone has the same basic rights by virtue of being born in a country (or by immigrating and becoming a naturalized citizen
dictatorship
a form of government in which power has been seized by an individual
totalitarianism
a form of government that exerts almost total control over people.
proportional representative
an electoral system in which seats in a legislature are divided according to the proportion of votes each political party recieves.
non centrist party
a politcal party that represents marginal ideas.
centrist party
a politcal party that represents the center of political opinion
coalition government
a government in which a country's largest party aligns itself with one or more smaller parties
voter apathy
indifference and inaction on the part of individuals or groups with respect to the political parties
special interest group
a group of people who support a particular issue and who can be mobilized for poltical action
lobbyist
people who influence legislation on behalf of their clients
politcal action commitee
an orginazation formed by one or more special interest groups to solicit and spend funds for the purpose of influencing legislation.
anarchy
a condition of lawlessness of poltical disorder caused by the absence or collapse of governmental authority
pluralism
the diffusion of power among many interest groups that precents and single groups from gaining control of the government.
checks and balances
the serparation of powers among the three branches of U.S. government--legislative, exectutive, and judicial-- so thatt each is able to nullify the actions of the other two, thus preventing...
power elite
C Wright Mills term for the top people in U.S. corporations, military, and politics, who make the nation's major decisions.
ruling class
another term for the power elite
war
armed conflict between nations or politcally distinct groups
dehumanization
the act or process of reducing people to objects that do not deserve the treatment accorded humans
gender stratification
males and females unequal access to power, prestige, and property on the basis of their sex
sex
biological characteristics that distinguish females and males, consisting of primarty and sexondary sex characteristics.
gener
the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for irs males and females; masculinity or femininity.


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