LIN200 Exam Review

LIN200 Exam Review LIN200 Exam Review
  
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Name the 7 Properities of Language
 
Communication, Cultural Transmission, Discreteness, Duality, Displacement Arbitrariness Productivity
State the 4 Manners of Articulation
 
Stops, Fricatives, Affricates, Nasals
What is the difference between allophones and phonemes?
 
Alophones do no occur in the same enviornment, they occur in comoplementary distribution. If they do not cause a meaning disction between the members of a minimal pair, they can be allophones. Phonemes CAUSE the meaning of a word to change, and have a minimal pair that consists of 2 words that are only distinct in 1 sound in the SAME position
Syllable Structures: The nucleus and coda form a ______ Open Syllables have no __________
 
rime, coda
Derivational Affixes may change the grammatical cateogry of a word: Name some for PREFIXES that attach to: Nouns :_______ Adj :_________ Verbs: ___________
 
Nouns: anti- mis- Adj: in- un- Verbs: de- dis- un- mis- re-
Derivational Affixes may change the grammatical cateogry of a word: Name some suffixes that change: N->Adj N-> V
 
N->Adj : -al, -ful -ic -y N-> V : -ize
Derivational Affixes may change the grammatical cateogry of a word: Name some suffixes that change: Adj->N Adj->V
 
A->N : -ness -ity A->V : -ate
Derivational Affixes may change the grammatical cateogry of a word: Name some suffixes that change: V->Adj V->Noun
 
V->Adj : -ive -able V->Noun : -ant -ion -er -ment -ance
Name the 9 english inflectional affixes
 
1. -ing 2. Plural s 3. Possessive s 4. objective /m/ (the, a) 5. paste tense ed 6. 3rd person singular s 7. Past Participle -en (auxillary be) 8. Comparative: higher, faster 9. Superlative: loudest, bravest
1. Is -en part of the ALLOMORPHE of the morpheme plural for oxen?
 
1. No it is not, because affixes but be productive (occurs more than once)
go-went is an example of what kind of allmorph? child-ren : the -ren can be described can also be descirbed as this type of allmoprh from child
 
suppletion -ren from children is suppleted and also an inflectional morpheme
Name the 9 english inflectional affixes
 
1. -ing 2. Plural s 3. Possessive s 4. objective /m/ (the, a) 5. paste tense ed 6. 3rd person singular s 7. Past Participle -en (auxillary be) 8. Comparative: higher, faster 9. Superlative: loudest, bravest
What type of word-formation process does thid describe: Wolkenkrtzer('cloud scraper') which translates into the Englihsh skyscraper. Or the spanish perros calientes (literally 'dogs hot') for hot dogs
 
Load-translation or calque which is a form of BORROWING
What type of word-formation process does thid describe: aspiritn, nylon, zipper, kleenex, teflon, zerox, sandwich
 
Coinage
What type of word-formation process does thid describe: Ottwa, Toronto from Algonquian. Algebra from Arabic via Spanish
 
Borrowing (NOT loan translation)
What type of word-formation process does thid describe: binary/digit = bit breakfast/lunch = brunch motel = motor/hotel
 
Blending
What type of word-formation process does thid describe: television (from televise) donate (forom donation) enthuase (from enthuasiam) liaise (from liaison) babysit (from babysitter)
 
Backformation
What type of word-formation process does thid describe: doubt, daily, knife, cripple, warm, butter, bottle, vacation, can
 
Conversion
What type of word-formation process does thid describe: ad, prof, bike
 
Clipping
Name all the WORD-FORMTION processes involved in the word: car-phone
 
clipping (telephone to phone) and Compounding
Free lexical morphemes BELONG to what kind of class of morphemes? Name some:
 
Free lexical morphemes belong to an OPEN CLASS of morpehemes includes ADJ, Verbs, Adverbs, nouns
Functional morphemes BELONG to what kind of class of morphemes? Name some:
 
Closed class of morphemes: Prepositions: under, of , above, in Conjuctions: and, but while: pronouns: he, her they us, Articles: the, a
Name the type of transitivity involved in each of the verbs: He ARRIVED ________ He KISSED the girl ___________ He GAVE us a book
 
Intransitive Transitive Distransitive
Adjectives that are at an end of a sentence are known to be in __________ use. While they can be in front of nouns (modieirs_ and are known to be in ________ use
 
Predicative use :The apple is RED Attributieve use: My GREEN house
Name some Speech varieites (varieities of sytle)
 
Registers, : defined according to prestige, membership to a social group Jargon, - defined in terms of membership to a group Sociolects, - varieites described by ling factors tied to social variables Dialects, variety described by ling factors, tied to geographical variables Standard - superimposed variety, ideal, described by 'correct' ling features
What is the difference between Pidgin and Creoles?
 
A Pidgin is a contact language developed between traders (mix), so it has NO native speakers, but Creoles are descendeants of Pidgins, so are restricted in usage and have no native speakers because when a pidign survives, the generation born acquiares the lang as a first language.
WHen does Decreolization happen?
 
Decreolization happens when a language that may have contributed to the Creole (former Pidgin) receives higher prestige and becomes dominant. IN extreme cases, Creoles disappear or become high-presitige variants.
Name the 5 stages of Language Planning
 
1. Selection 2. Codification 3. Elaboration 4. Promotion and Implementation 5. ACCEPTANCE
Name the 5 stages of Language Planning
 
1. Selection 2. Codification 3. Elaboration 4. Promotion and Implementation 5. ACCEPTANCE
The following features describe what kind of English: 1. deletion of /r/ between a vowel 2. Consonant cluster simplicfication 3. Doulbe negatives 4. Deletion of verb be (also found in some Newfoundland dialects)
 
ANswer: African American English AAE
What is the difference between Accents and Dialects?
 
Accents only refer to PRONUNICATION. Dialects in contrast refer to gelgraphical areas with respect to GRAMMAR< PRONUNICATIOn , and VOCABULARY
List the 6 possible rules we have studied about Phonetical Plaussibility (DISCAP)
 
Deletion Intervocalic Voicing Stops become fricatives Consonants voicless at end of words Assimilation of Place of Articulation Palatalization
In Diachronic analysis(the predicatble and syematic changes), we can study changes in 5 ways (according to the notes) what are they, and give one example?
 
1. Phological changes - Great Vowel Shift/ Metathesis/ephethesis/porthesis 2. Morphophological changes - case markers 3. Syntactic changes - flexibility in order of words in OE. 4. Lexical Changes - Borrowings and Loss such as words like beseem :to be suitable 5. Sematnic change: Broadening and Narrowing/Meaning shifts
What are the 4 parts of the brain, and briefly what are they responsible for?
 
1. Broca's area - articuation, inflectional and functional morphemes. 2. Wernicke's area - compreh & sel of words 3. Arcuate Fasiculus - connects Broac and Wernicke's area. 4. Angular Gyrus - between Wernicke and visual cortext. Converts visual stimul into audiotyr stimuli allowing us to match spoken form of a word with the object it descirbes
What is Dichotic listening?
 
What is experienced on the right side of the body is processed in the left hemisphere
What are the charactieristcs of the right hemisphere?
 
Right Hemisphere: non-linguistic processing, holistic; advantages for melodies, enviornmental sounds
What connects the left and right hemisphere?
 
Corupus Caoosum
List the 5 symptoms of Wernicke's aphasia
 
1. Fluent Speech 2. Difficult to comprehend 3. Repeated Tip of the Toung Phen 4. Paraphrasing 5. No or little compr that something is wrong.
List the syptoms of Broca's Aphasia.
 
1. Distorted Articulation 2. Slow, effortful speech 3. Frequent omission of function words 4. Inflectional Markers are missing Difficulty interpreting PASSIVE sentences
List the symtpoms of Conduction Aphasia.
 
1. No Articulation Problems 2. Distorted rhthym (pauses, hestitation) 3. Good comprehension of spoken word, difficult to repeat previous heard words
Name 5 characteristics of caretaker speech (motherese)
 
simple sentence structure, repetion, few incomplete sentences, short sentences, imperatives and Q's, higher pitch, exaggerated intonation and stress, longer pauses, restricted voca, concrete reference to here and now, few utterances per conversational turn.
List the 5 Stages of Language Aquisition (Mean Lenght of Utterance vs age)
 
1. Cooing and Babbling 2. Phonological development - stopping. 3. Syntactic Deveopment - one word etc. 4. Morphotical development (overgeneralizations etc) 5. Semantic Development (Overextension)
IN the one word stage, what are the 3 general tendencies in pronunication?
 
1. Vowels are generally acquired consonants. 2. Stops before other consonants 3. Regarding place of art: labials before alveolars, velars and alveopalatals, interdentals are acquired last.
What are the stages of Syntactic development? (Hint: there are 5 stages)
 
1. One Word Stage 2. Two Word Stage 3. Telegraphic Speech 4. Questions 5. Negation
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the folloing pair of words: suite, sweet
 
Homophony
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the folloing pair of words: Mature, ripe
 
Synonymy
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the folloing pair of words: Shallow, deep
 
Antonymy
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the folloing pair of words: move run
 
hyponymy
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the following pair of words: table, furniture
 
hyponymy
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the following pair of words: as GRADABLE or NON-GRADABLE antonyms : big-small
 
gradable
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the following pair of words: as GRADABLE or NON-GRADABLE antonyms : old-young
 
non-gradable
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the following pair of words: as GRADABLE or NON-GRADABLE antonyms : absent- present
 
non-gradable
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the following pair of words: as GRADABLE or NON-GRADABLE antonyms : fail pass
 
non-gradable
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the following pair of words: as GRADABLE or NON-GRADABLE antonyms : fair, unfair
 
gradable
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the following words: king-crown; The President - the White house. car-wheels, house-roof
 
Metonymy - when a word is used in place of another word or expression to convey the same meaning
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the following words: head of your body, glass of bear, dept store. foot(of person, of bed) run(water, colors do) chips(computers,eating)
 
Polysemy - one word has several related meanings:
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the following words: club (blunt weapon) and club (social organization) Same spelling and Same pronunication, different meaning.
 
Homonym (written and spoken) Same spelling and Same pronunication, different meaning.
What is the basicl LEXICAL relation ship between the following words: lead(noun) , lead (verb)
 
Homograph: Same spelling only (not necessarily pronunication - would make it a Homonymy)
Identify the sematnic role of the CAPTILALIZED NOUN PHRASE.(Agent , theme etc.) Fred whacked the BALL from the WOODS to the GRASSY AREA near THE RIVER
 
Theme, Source, Goal, Location, Experiencer.
Give an example in each of the 5 stages of 1st Language Acquisition
 
1. Cooing and Babbling - pbm are frequently found consonants 2. Phonological development: liquids pronounced as glides - glidding 3. Syntactic development - in one word stage, vowels are genearlly acqired beforec consonants 4. MOrphological development - overgeneralization 5. Semantic Development - underextension
List the 5 changes that occur in diachornic analysis
 
1. phonological - vowel shift 2.morphological - OE case system 3. syntactic - OE flexibility of order 4. Lexical - borrowing/loss 5. sematnic - broadening/narrowing
To a speaker of the 17th centuray meat mean food and flesh meant meat. Is this an example of narrowing or broadening?
 
Narrowing
Middle english dogge was only a certain breed of dog . Is this an example of broadening or narrowing?
 
roadening
This term describes virtual lines that are drawn between dialects for certain linguistic properities.
 
Isoglosses
This term describes what happens when a language that may have contributed to a Creole receives higher prestige and becomes the dominant variety.
 
Decreolization

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