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the sociological perspective
stresses the social contexts in which people live and how it influences their lives... Functionalist Conflict Symbolic...
a group of people who share a culture and a territory
corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in society
interested in how society functions thinks of society as a human body and how everything works...
inequality of any kind is a problem. people are in competition for scarce resources (Macro-study)
interested in social norms. society is nothing more than the sum of interactions (Micro-study)
idea of applying scientific method to the social world. proposed by Auguste Comte
proposed positivism. also asked "What creates social order instead of chaos?"
believed that societies evolved from lower (barbaric) to higher (civilized) forms 'Survival...
believed engine of human history is class conflict between bourgeoisie and the proletariat...
goal was to get sociology recognized as a separate discipline. believed in social integration
the degree to which people are tied to their social group
believed/theorized that religion is central force in social change
a feeling of trust that is essential for honest answers in interviews.
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in...
the extent to which research produces reliable (consistent or dependable) results
Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations. Belief that a...
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; especially the process by which...
tools and the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
groups of people learning from others and adapting some part of the other's way of life.
a society that is made up of many different groups
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the...
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture;...
a group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the...
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different...
not judging a culture, but trying to understand it on its own terms
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
norms that are not strictly enforced
norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought to be essential to core values or...
a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated
Edward Sapir's and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving. Against...
a tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons,...
also called symbolic culture a group's ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values,...
a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled...
agents of socialization
people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations...
the stages of our life as we move from birth to death
the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
Piaget and the Development of Reasoning
1. The sensorimotor stage 2. the preoperational stage 3. the concrete operational stage 4....
refers to values, norms, and goals that a group considers ideal, worth aspiring to
norms and values that people actually follow