Intro To Sociology Quiz #1

Flashcards For Quiz #1
Created Dec 7, 2006
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the sociological perspective
stresses the social contexts in which people live and how it influences their lives... Functionalist Conflict Symbolic...
society
a group of people who share a culture and a territory
social location
corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in society
Functionalist
interested in how society functions thinks of society as a human body and how everything works...
Conflict Theorist
inequality of any kind is a problem. people are in competition for scarce resources (Macro-study)
Symbolic Interactionist
interested in social norms. society is nothing more than the sum of interactions (Micro-study)
positivism
idea of applying scientific method to the social world. proposed by Auguste Comte
Auguste Comte
proposed positivism. also asked "What creates social order instead of chaos?"
Herbert Spencer
believed that societies evolved from lower (barbaric) to higher (civilized) forms 'Survival...
Karl Marx
believed engine of human history is class conflict between bourgeoisie and the proletariat...
Emile Durkheim
goal was to get sociology recognized as a separate discipline. believed in social integration
social integration
the degree to which people are tied to their social group
Max Weber
believed/theorized that religion is central force in social change
rapport
a feeling of trust that is essential for honest answers in interviews.
random sample
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in...
reliability
the extent to which research produces reliable (consistent or dependable) results
cultural lag
Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations. Belief that a...
cultural leveling
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; especially the process by which...
technology
tools and the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
cultural diffusion
groups of people learning from others and adapting some part of the other's way of life.
pluralistic society
a society that is made up of many different groups
value contradiction
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the...
subculture
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture;...
counterculture
a group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the...
culture shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different...
cultural relativism
not judging a culture, but trying to understand it on its own terms
sanction
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced
mores
norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought to be essential to core values or...
taboo
a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Edward Sapir's and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving. Against...
ethnocentrism
a tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others
material culture
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons,...
nonmaterial culture
also called symbolic culture a group's ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values,...
total institution
a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled...
agents of socialization
people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations...
life course
the stages of our life as we move from birth to death
resocialization
the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
Piaget and the Development of Reasoning
1. The sensorimotor stage 2. the preoperational stage 3. the concrete operational stage 4....
ideal culture
refers to values, norms, and goals that a group considers ideal, worth aspiring to
real culture
norms and values that people actually follow


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