Intro To Sociology Quiz #1

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Intro To Sociology Quiz #1

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the sociological perspective
 
stresses the social contexts in which people live and how it influences their lives... Functionalist Conflict Symbolic Interactionist
society
 
a group of people who share a culture and a territory
social location
 
corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in society
Functionalist
 
interested in how society functions thinks of society as a human body and how everything works together (Macro-study)
Conflict Theorist
 
inequality of any kind is a problem. people are in competition for scarce resources (Macro-study)
Symbolic Interactionist
 
interested in social norms. society is nothing more than the sum of interactions (Micro-study)
positivism
 
idea of applying scientific method to the social world. proposed by Auguste Comte
Auguste Comte
 
proposed positivism. also asked "What creates social order instead of chaos?"
Herbert Spencer
 
believed that societies evolved from lower (barbaric) to higher (civilized) forms 'Survival of the Fittest'
Karl Marx
 
believed engine of human history is class conflict between bourgeoisie and the proletariat classes
Emile Durkheim
 
goal was to get sociology recognized as a separate discipline. believed in social integration
social integration
 
the degree to which people are tied to their social group
Max Weber
 
believed/theorized that religion is central force in social change
rapport
 
a feeling of trust that is essential for honest answers in interviews.
random sample
 
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
reliability
 
the extent to which research produces reliable (consistent or dependable) results
cultural lag
 
Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations. Belief that a group's material culture usually changes first, with the nonmaterial cuture lagging behind
cultural leveling
 
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; especially the process by which U.S. culture is being exported and diffused into other nations
technology
 
tools and the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
cultural diffusion
 
groups of people learning from others and adapting some part of the other's way of life.
pluralistic society
 
a society that is made up of many different groups
value contradiction
 
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other
subculture
 
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
counterculture
 
a group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
culture shock
 
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
cultural relativism
 
not judging a culture, but trying to understand it on its own terms
sanction
 
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
folkways
 
norms that are not strictly enforced
mores
 
norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought to be essential to core values or the well-being of the group
taboo
 
a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
 
Edward Sapir's and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving. Against common sense that objects force themselves on our conciousness, but that language does.
ethnocentrism
 
a tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others
material culture
 
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry
nonmaterial culture
 
also called symbolic culture a group's ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)
total institution
 
a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled by the officials who run the place
agents of socialization
 
people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life
life course
 
the stages of our life as we move from birth to death
resocialization
 
the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
Piaget and the Development of Reasoning
 
1. The sensorimotor stage 2. the preoperational stage 3. the concrete operational stage 4. the formal operational stage
ideal culture
 
refers to values, norms, and goals that a group considers ideal, worth aspiring to
real culture
 
norms and values that people actually follow
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