Intro To Sociology Quiz #1

41 cards

flashcards for quiz #1


 
  
Created Dec 7, 2006
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1
the sociological perspective
 
stresses the social contexts in which people live and how it influences their lives... Functionalist Conflict Symbolic...
2
society
 
a group of people who share a culture and a territory
3
social location
 
corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in society
4
Functionalist
 
interested in how society functions thinks of society as a human body and how everything works...
5
Conflict Theorist
 
inequality of any kind is a problem. people are in competition for scarce resources (Macro-study)
6
Symbolic Interactionist
 
interested in social norms. society is nothing more than the sum of interactions (Micro-study)
7
positivism
 
idea of applying scientific method to the social world. proposed by Auguste Comte
8
Auguste Comte
 
proposed positivism. also asked "What creates social order instead of chaos?"
9
Herbert Spencer
 
believed that societies evolved from lower (barbaric) to higher (civilized) forms 'Survival...
10
Karl Marx
 
believed engine of human history is class conflict between bourgeoisie and the proletariat...
11
Emile Durkheim
 
goal was to get sociology recognized as a separate discipline. believed in social integration
12
social integration
 
the degree to which people are tied to their social group
13
Max Weber
 
believed/theorized that religion is central force in social change
14
rapport
 
a feeling of trust that is essential for honest answers in interviews.
15
random sample
 
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in...
16
reliability
 
the extent to which research produces reliable (consistent or dependable) results
17
cultural lag
 
Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations. Belief that a...
18
cultural leveling
 
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; especially the process by which...
19
technology
 
tools and the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
20
cultural diffusion
 
groups of people learning from others and adapting some part of the other's way of life.
21
pluralistic society
 
a society that is made up of many different groups
22
value contradiction
 
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the...
23
subculture
 
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture;...
24
counterculture
 
a group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the...
25
culture shock
 
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different...
26
cultural relativism
 
not judging a culture, but trying to understand it on its own terms
27
sanction
 
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
28
folkways
 
norms that are not strictly enforced
29
mores
 
norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought to be essential to core values or...
30
taboo
 
a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated
31
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
 
Edward Sapir's and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving. Against...
32
ethnocentrism
 
a tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others
33
material culture
 
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons,...
34
nonmaterial culture
 
also called symbolic culture a group's ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values,...
35
total institution
 
a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled...
36
agents of socialization
 
people or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations...
37
life course
 
the stages of our life as we move from birth to death
38
resocialization
 
the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors
39
Piaget and the Development of Reasoning
 
1. The sensorimotor stage 2. the preoperational stage 3. the concrete operational stage 4....
40
ideal culture
 
refers to values, norms, and goals that a group considers ideal, worth aspiring to
41
real culture
 
norms and values that people actually follow


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