Cognitive Psychology

115 cards

Vocabulary Words (Introduction, Perceptual Processes, Working Memory, Long Term Memory)


 
  
Created Dec 7, 2006
by
guest

 

 
Table View
 
Download
 
Print

Flashcard Set Preview

  Side A   Side B
1
Cognition
 
A term for the mental activities involving the acquisition, storage, transformation, and use...
2
Cognitive approach
 
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes people's knowledge and their mental processes.
3
Emperical evidence
 
scientific evidence obtained by careful observation and experimentation
4
introspection
 
the process of systematically analyzing one's own sensations and reporting them as objectively...
5
replications
 
experiments in which a phenomenon is tested under a variety of conditions
6
recency effect
 
observation that our recall is especially accurate for the final items in a series of stimuli
7
behaviorist approach
 
a perspective in which psychology must focus only on objective, observable reactions; behaviorism...
8
operational definition
 
a precise definition that specifies exactly how a concept is to be measured
9
Gestalt psychology
 
psychology that emphasizes that humans have basic tendencies to organize what they see and...
10
object permanence
 
the knowledge that an object exists, even when it is temporarily out of sight
11
information-processing approach
 
An approach in cognitive psychology that argues: (1) a mental process can best be understood...
12
Atkinson-Shiffrin model
 
a model which proposed that memory can be understood as a sequence of discrete steps, in which...
13
sensory memory
 
large-capacity storage system that records information from each of the senses with reasonable...
14
short-term memory
 
(working memory) containts only the small amount of information we are actively using. Memories...
15
long-term memory
 
has an enormous capacity because it contains memories that are decades old, in addition to...
16
ecological validity
 
studies have this if the conditions in which the research is conducted are similar to the natural...
17
cognitive neuroscience
 
combines the research techniques of cognitive psychology with various methods for assessing...
18
brain lesions
 
the destruction of tissue, most often by strokes, tumors, or accidents
19
positron emission tomography (PET scan)
 
researchers measure blood flow by injecting the participant with a radioactive chemical just...
20
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
 
-measure the blood flow in various brain areas -based on the principle that oxygen-rich blood...
21
event-related potential (ERP) technique
 
records the tiny fluctuations in the brain's electrical activity, in response to a stimulus
22
single-cell recording technique
 
rearchers study characteristics of an animal's brain and nervous system by inserting a thin...
23
Artificial intelligence (AI)
 
a branch of computer science which seeks to explore human cognitive processes by creating computer...
24
computer metaphor
 
our cognitive processes work like a computer, that is, a complex, multipurpose machine that...
25
pure AI
 
approach that seeks to accomplish a task as efficiently as possible
26
computer simulation
 
attempts to take human limitations into account. Goal is to design a system that resembles...
27
parallel distributed processing (PDP)
 
(connectionism) (neural networks) an approach that argues that cognitive processes can be...
28
cerebral cortex
 
the outer layer of the brain that is responsible for cognitive processes
29
serial processing
 
processing in which only one item is handled at a given time, and one step must be completed...
30
parallel processing
 
the idea that cognitive activities use a process with many signals handled at the same time...
31
node
 
a pintpoint-sized location of neural activity which are inter-connected in a complex fashion...
32
cognitive science
 
a broader, contemporary field than cognitive psych which tries to answer questions about the...
33
perception
 
uses previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli registered by the senses
34
object/pattern recognition
 
process of identifying a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli. When you recognize an object,...
35
distal stimulus
 
the actual object that is "out there" in the environment--for example, the telephone sitting...
36
proximal stimulus
 
the information registered in your sensory receptors--for example, the image on your retina...
37
iconic memory
 
(visual sensory memory) allows an image of a visual stimulus to persist for about 200-400...
38
primary visual cortex
 
located in the occipital lobe of the brain; it is the portion of your cerebral cortex that...
39
illusory contours
 
(subjective contours) we see edges even though they are not physically present in the stimulus
40
template-matching theory
 
you compare a stimulus with a set of templates---after comparing the stimulus to a number of...
41
templates
 
specific patterns that you have stored in memory
42
feature-analysis theories
 
propose that a visual stimulus is composed of a small number of characteristics or components
43
distinctive feature
 
characteristics and components which make up a visual stimulus
44
recognition-by-components theory
 
(structural theory) basic assumption is that a given view of an object can be represented...
45
geons
 
simple 3-D shapes
46
viewer-centered approach
 
proposes that we store a small number of views of 3-D objects, rather than just one view
47
bottom-up processing
 
emphasizesthe importance of the stimulus in object recognition. Specifically, the physical...
48
top-down processing
 
emphasizes how a person's concepts and higher-level mental processes influence object recognition....
49
word-superiority effect
 
we can identify a single letter more accurately and more rapidly than when it appears alone...
50
change blindness
 
inability to detect changes in an object or scene
51
inattentional blindness
 
failure to notice that a new object has appeared in a scene
52
holistic
 
overall shape and structure
53
prosopagnosia
 
a condition in which people cannot recognize human faces visually, though they perceive other...
54
attention
 
a concentration of mental activity
55
divided-attention task
 
try to pay attention to two or more simultaneous messages, responding to each as needed
56
selective-attention task
 
people are instructed to respond selectively to certain kinds of information, while ignoring...
57
dichotic listening
 
each ear is presented with a different message in a set of earphones
58
Stroop effect
 
people have trouble naming the ink color when that color is used in prining an incongruent...
59
cross-modal task
 
a task which uses two different perceptual systems
60
attentional blink
 
a series of stimuli is presented rapidly, and the system becomes overloaded; viewers can accurately...
61
saccadic eye movement
 
very rapid movement of the eyes from one sport to the next
62
fovea
 
center of the retina
63
fixations
 
occur during the period between saccadic movements; during each fixation the visual system...
64
perceptual span
 
the number of letters and spaces that you receive during a fixation
65
regressions
 
moving backward to earlier material in the sentence
66
posterior attention network
 
responsible for the kind of attention required for visual search, in which you must shift your...
67
unilateral neglect
 
a spaital deficit for one half of the visual field
68
anterior attention network
 
area in the frontal lobe of the cortex responsible for attention tasks that focus on word meaning....
69
bottleneck theories
 
propose a narrow passageway in human information processing which limits the quantity of info...
70
automatic processing
 
parallel processing easy tasks that use highly familiar items---handle two or more at same...
71
controlled processing
 
serial processing difficult, unfamiliar tasks---can handle only one at a time
72
feature-integration theory
 
sometimes look at a scene using distributed attention, with all parts of the scene processed...
73
distributed attention
 
allows you to register features automatically, using parallel processing across the field
74
focused attention
 
requires serial processing and you identify one object at a time
75
illusory conjunction
 
an inappropriate combination of features, perhaps combining one object's shape with a nearby...
76
binding problem
 
the important features of an object are not represented as a unified whole by your visual system
77
consciousness
 
the awareness people have of the outside world and of their perceptions, images, thoughts,...
78
ironic effects of mental control
 
how our efforts can backfire when we attempt to control the contents of our consciousness
79
blindsight
 
an unusual kind of vision without awareness
80
chunk
 
a memory unit that consists of several components that are strongly associated with one another
81
rehearsal
 
repeating the items silently
82
primacy effect
 
tendency to have better recall for items at the beginning of the list, presumably because early...
83
control processes
 
strategies (such as rehearsal) that people use to improve their memory
84
proactive interference (PI)
 
people have trouble learning new material because previously learned material keeps interfering...
85
working-memory approach
 
our immediate memory is a multipart system that temporarily holds and manipulates information...
86
phonological loop
 
stores a limited number of sounds for a short period of time
87
visuospatial sketchpad
 
stores visual and spatial information--and also stores visual info that has been encoded from...
88
central executive
 
integrates information from the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the episodic...
89
episodic buffer
 
temporary storehouse where we can gather and combine info from the phono loop, the VS sketchpad,...
90
long-term working memory
 
a set of acquired strategies that allow memory experts to expand their memory performance for...
91
episodic memory
 
focuses on your memories for events that happened to you; allows you to travel backward in...
92
semantic memory
 
organized knowledge about the world, including your knowledge about words and other factual...
93
procedural memory
 
knowledge about how to do something
94
encoding
 
refers to your initial acquisition of information; during encoding, information enters your...
95
retrieval
 
locating info in storage and accessing that info
96
levels-of-processing approach
 
(depth-of-processing approach) argues that deep meaningful kinds of info processing lead...
97
distinctiveness
 
means that a stimulus is different from all other memory traces
98
elaboration
 
requires rich processing in terms of meaning and interconnected concepts
99
self-reference effect
 
you will remember more info if you try to relate that info to yourself---encourage especially...
100
meta-analysis technique
 
provides a statistical method for synthesizing numerous studies on one single topic
101
encoding specificity principle
 
(context-dependent memory) (transfer-appropriate processing) recall is better if the retrieval...
102
recall
 
the participants must reproduce the items they've learned earlier
103
recognition
 
the participants must identify which items had been presented at an earlier time
104
emotion
 
reaction to a specific stimulus
105
mood
 
more general, long-lasting experience
106
Pollyanna Principle
 
states that the pleasant items are usually processed more efficiently and more accurately than...
107
mood congruence
 
means that memory is better when the material to be remembered is congruent with a person's...
108
mood-dependent memory
 
you are more likely to remember material if your mood at the time of retrieval matches the...
109
explicit memory task
 
participants are conscious that their memory is being tested and the test requires intentional...
110
implicit memory task
 
people see the material; later, during the test phase, people are instructed to complete a...
111
repetition priming task
 
recent exposure to a word increases the likelihood that this word will later come to mind,...
112
dissociation
 
occurs when a variable has large effects on Test A, but little or no effects on Test B; also...
113
retrograde amnesia
 
loss of memory for events that occurred prior to brain damage
114
anterograde amnesia
 
loss of memory for events that have occurred after brain damage
115
expertise
 
consistently superior performance on a set of tasks relevant for a specific skill or topic...


Upgrade and get a lot more done!
Upgrade    Cancel