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An affect with both psychological and physiological aspects. Generally, an unpleasant emotional state accompanied by physiological arousal and the cognitive elements of apprehension,...
Formerly called neurosis or neurotic disorders. Characterized by some form of anxiety as the most prominent symptons. Includes panic disorders, phobic disorders, obsessive-compulsive...
Generalized Anxiety Disorders
Persistent anxiety that lasts at least one month and include several of the following: motor tension, autonomic hyperactivity, apprehensive expectation, vigilance, and scanning. The...
A rapidly rising surge of intense anxiety that occurs suddenly, either with or without clear cues, in an unpredictable fashion.
excessive or inapprorriate fear of some particular object or situation that is not in fact dangerous.
Type of anxiety disorder mainly chracterized by irrational and highly specific fears (for example, of dirt, water, high places, etc.)
Persistent irrational fears associated with a particular type of object (for instance, spiders or dogs) or situation (for instance, being in a closed area or high places).
Type of irrational fear of those situations inwhich a person will be exposed to the scrutiny of others. Most common types are fear of blushing, public speaking, eating in public, writing...
Pathological fear of open spaces.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Characterized by recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions, often accompanied by depression or anxiety.
Characterized by preoccupation with a particular type of thought that keeps ocuring repetitively.
Behavior characterized by an indivdual's need to repeat a series of acts again and again, even though he or she perceives them as senseless and/or interfering with desirable activities.
Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome
Development of symptons in response to events of such severity that most people would be stressed by them. Symptons often include a feeling of numbness in response, or psycholigcal...
The significant overlap or co-occurrence of symptons and conditions in different disorders. The common finding of comorbidity in depression and anxiety, for instance, makes it important...
Defense mechanism by which inconsistent or contradictory attitudes and feelings are walled off from each other in consciousness. Similar to repression, except that in isolation the...
Defense mechanism aimed at negating or atoning for some disapproved impulse or act.
Defense mechanism that enables the individual to expess an unacceptable impulse by transforming it into its opposite.
Includes several techniques of behavior modification based on laboratory-derived principles of learning and conditioning. Behavior therapies focus on moifying overt behaviors, with...
Requiring the client to participate in anxiety-provoking situations under supportive supervision until the anxiety response is extinguished. Based on the classical conditioning approach.
Learning theory based therapeutic technique in which a client is first trained in muscle relaxation, and then imagines a series of increasingly anxiety-provoking situations, until he...
Behavior thereapy technique based on the principle of extinction. Client is repeatedly presented with strong anxiety-provoking stimuli until he or she no longer reacts in an anxious...
In vivio exposure therapy
A technique used in cognitive therapy or desensitization, in which the indivdual practices adaptive cognitions or relaxation behavior in the actual presences of the anxiety-producing...
Behavioral therapeutic technique used particulary in the treatment of phobias. Treatment consists of exposing the client to the feared stimulus unti lthe fear response has been extinguished.
behavior learned or modified as a result of obsvering the behavior of others. Learner does not have to make the observed response him or herself, or be reinforced for making it, to...
A herapeutic approach that integrates methods from cogntive and behavioral therapies. It includes structured training sessions and prescribed excercises, to help clients change maladaptive...
A technique used by Albert Ellis and other cogntive therapists, in which the client is made aware of a connection between unrealistic thoughts and the maladaptive behavior that these...
A cogntive technique that uses a specific command as a distraction to end a period of obsessive thinking.
Procedure in which a client learns to mentally rehearse ways to handle problem situtaions. Such rehearsal makes it easier for the client to behave effectively in the actual situations.
A form of psychotherapy that is focused on changing cognitions that lead to maladaptive behavior, by restructing thinking so that maladaptive thoughts ar replaced with thoughts that...
A small structure deep inside the brain that may be abnormally activiated in anxiety disorder.
One of two ridges along the lateral ventricles of the brain. Involved with the experience of emotion.
Group of drugs, such as Librium and Valium, used primarily to treat anxiety.