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Side ASide B
Where specifically was Asser from?
St Davids, in the kingdom of Dyfed
What gifts did Asser receive from Alfred?
2 monasteries, a silk cloak, incense weighing as much as a stout man, and later Exeter
In which text is the story of Alfred and the burning cakes found?
Vita S. Neoti
What about Asser's text indicates that is was created for a Welsh audience?
1) his use of Welsh place-names and explanation of English geography 2) his categorisation of Vikings as "pagans" and English as "Christians"
Who argued that Asser's Life of King Alfred was a forgery?
Who disproved the theory that Asser's text was a forgery?
When was the Cotton Manuscript containing Asser's text written?
What term, first used in charters but also used by Asser, was used to describe Alfred?
"King of the Angles and the Saxons"
What features of Asser's text are common in hagiography?
-It contains stories about Alfred's childhood that seem invented/embellished -Piles were seen as a form of pious suffering
How does Asser describe Alfred's popularity among his subjects?
He became king "with the approval of divine will and according to the unanimous wish of all the inhabitants of the kingdom"
How does Asser unintentionally hint at a flaw of Alfred's?
Asser mentions that Alfred had to force obedience through harsh punishment of those who did not obey fortification orders
What were the years of Alfred's lifetime?
In what year does the Anglo-Saxon chronicle place more emphasis on cattle plague than Viking raids?
Which members of society are known to have had problems with Alfred?
Sources written by clergymen disapproved of Alfred's payments to the Vikings
What did Alfred believe was the primary job of a king?
to correct his people
How does the Anglo-Saxon chronicle favour Alfred?
It makes his family's rise to power seem inevitable, showing their descent from biblical figures
What misdeed did Alfred perform against the Church?
He took land from the Church to reward his nobles
This quote from Alfred concerns how a king should inspire learning in his kingdom
a ruler should "moisten the dried-up hearts with the flowing waves of his instruction."
When do written sources from within Wales become useful/trustworthy?
during the eleventh century
Describe Offa's Dyke
It was longer than both Roman walls combines, and was built to keep the Welsh out of England
When/why did pre-1066 Wales accept English overlordship?
During the Viking invasions of the tenth century
What were the Welsh kingdoms in 1066?
Gwynnedd, Powys, Deheubarth, Morgannwg, and Gwent (dominated by England)
What was the basic unit of social and political organisation in Wales?
Which three Marcher earldoms did William I create?
Hereford, Chester, and Shrewsbury
What was the name of the Welsh district Henry I created by killing the local population and filling it with Flemings?
In what year did Henry I die?
What were the 3 ruling dynasties that came to great power during Stephen's reign?
Aberffraw, Dinefwr, and Mathrafal
What was particularly great/impressive about the 3 Welsh kingdoms?
1) they began to build Norman-style castles 2) they inspired Monmouth's story of King Arthur
In what year did Henry II come to power?
Which Dinefwr ruler was granted justiciarship of South Wales by Henry II in 1171?
Rhys ap Gryffudd
Who reunited Gwynedd from 1194-1201, married John's illegitimate daughter, and was the first person recognised as Prince of Wales by England?
Llewelyn ap Iorwerth
What was the general English policy on Wales?
There could not be a stable country between England and Ireland
What strange reason did Gerald give for the Welsh loss of Britain and Troy?
What did Gerald say about Harold's 1063 campaign in Wales?
He "left not one that pisseth against a wall"
What did Gerald suggest should be done with a conquered Wales?
1) A complete colonisation 2) It should be turned into an unpopulated game preserve
When did the Welsh (and Scots) begin to form a new national identity, calling themselves Welsh instead of Britons?
the thirteenth century
How did English overlordship over Wales change during the reign of Henry III?
By this time a king couldn't be a symbolic overlord - he had to make his titles into territorial realities or abandon them
During which decades did Henry III assert his authority over the Welsh princes and Marcher lords?
the 1240's and 1250's
Who was the pope during and after the Becket controversy?
During which years was Becket in self-imposed exile?
Which historian believes that Becket wanted simply to profit from the fines of criminous clerks?
George Lord Lyttelton (eighteenth-century)
What were the personal consequences of Becket's actions during his lifetime?
1) he had to repay Henry II for his many grants during their friendship 2) his entire family was banished
This Becket quote explains his view that Henry was encroaching on Church power
"secular might is stretching forth its hand to Christ's own inheritance"
What rumour circulated about Henry II after Becket's death?
He was descended from a demon countess of Anjou
Who used Becket's death as an excuse to support the revolt of Henry the Young King?
Louis VII and Theobold Count of Blois
Who was chosen to fill Becket's see, despite allegations of simony, illegitimate birth, and secular loyalty to the king?
Richard of Dover
Why does Clanchy believe the Magna Carta became so famous?
an increasing propensity towards documentation caused it to be more permanent than it would have been in previous generations
Who argued that the rise of the lawyer/cleric classes had provided kings with unstable loyalty?
How did Stubbs describe the Magna Carta (quote)?
"the first great public act of the nation"
the system of fundamental principles by which a nation is governed
In what year did the Glorious Revolution take place?
What were the major issues covered in Magna Carta?
freedom of the Church, inheritance, marriage, debt, free customs, standardisation of punishments/weights and measures, hostages, and removal of foreigners from office
What does "general consent" of the kingdom mean in regard to scutage?
determination by the bishops, abbots, earls, barons, and sheriffs
What does the security clause say?
The 25 barons may seize John's possessions if he does not abide by the charter