Graphic Design Test 3 Review List:

 
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Tschichold Designed the elementare typographie that was a 24 page insert. He was impressed with the first Bauhaus exhibition and rapidly assimilated the new design concepts of Bauhaus and the Russian constructivists into his work. He became a practitioner of the new typography. Declared the aim of typographic work was delivery of message in shortest, most efficient manner.
"elementare typographie" Was a 24 page insert designed by Tschichold. It explained and demonstrated asymmetrical typography to printers, typesetters and designers. Printed in red and black and featured avantgarde work with Tschichold's lucid commentary. Was a revelation and generated much enthusiasm for the new approach. When publicized in America caused excitement and turmoil. Was attacked but a small number of designers saw the vitality and functionalism of the new ideas.
William Addison Dwiggins Book designer whose work spanned a range from classical tradition to the new typography of Tschichold. Experimented with uncommon arrangements. 18 typeface designs.
Lester Beall Primarily self-taught. After gaining experience as a graphic designer whose work broke with traditional American advertising layout he moved to NY. During depression era, he developed storng, direct and exciting visual forms. Often flat planes of color and elementary signs were combined w/ photography. Posters for the Rural electrification Administration, a federal agency charged w/ bringing electricity to the less populated areas of America reduced pro-electrification messages to elemental signs. Was increasingly involved in the emerging corporate design movement.
Erte (born Romain de Tirtoff) Russian born and French educated he helped bring European modernism to American graphic design. Became prominent Paris illustrator and set designer working in art-deco manner. Designed covers and illustrations for Harper's Bazaar magazine. Became proponent of the art-deco sensibility. His work combined the stylized drawing of synthetic cubism, persian complexity and high fashion.
Dr. Mehemed Fehmy Agha Russian born and French educated he helped bring European modernism to American graphic design. Was the first art director trained in modern design to guide destiny a major american periodical. Studied art in Kiev and Paris. Then moved to America as Vouge's art director. Took over design at Vanity fair and House & Garden. Introduced bleed photography, machine set sans-serif type, white space, and asymmetrical layouts.
Alexey Brodovitch Russian born and French educated he helped bring European modernism to American graphic design. Established himself as a leading contemporary artist in Paris and then headed to the US. Was invited to become art director of Haper's Bazaar. Passion for white space and a love of razor-sharp type on clear, open pages, he rethought the approach to editorial design. Sought a "musical feeling" in the flow of text and pictures. Taught designers how to use photography.
Joseph Binder Recieved wide acclaim when he immigrated to America b/c of the strong pictorial quality of his designs. Used airbrush to achieve highly finished forms. His strong cubist influence yielded to a stylized realism. Designed poster for New York World's fair also did a poster for iced coffee. He constructed images from planes; now the subject matter became dominant and design qualities were subordinated to pictorial imagery.
WPA Works Progress Administration Poster Project. Created by President Franklin D. roosevelt as part of the New Deal. Money for unemployed was replaced with work opportunities. Artists could continue their professional careers. A strong aesthetic approach to typography used as both compositional element and message communicator developed.
Will Burtin European graphic designer who came to America and made significan contributions to design. Recognized as one of Germany's outstanding designers fled in 1938 after Nazi regime pressed him to work for it. His work combined graphic clairty and directness with a lucid presentation of the subject matter. Brings together structural form and symbolic information in a cohesive whole. Designed a cover for the Architectural forum. Worked for three years as the art director of Fortune magazine and then left to be a consultant making a major contribution to the visual interpretation of graphic information.
Moholy- Nagy Sponsored by the Association of arts and industries, he arrived in Chicago and established the New Bauhaus. Closed due to financial support but he opened the School of Design that was backed financially largely from himself and other teachers.
Walter P. Paepcke A Chicago industrialist who founded the Container Corporation of America (CCA). Paepcke pioneered the manufacture of paperboard and corrugated- fiber containers. CCA became a national company and the nation's largest prodcuer of packaging mateirals. Paepckce recognized that design could serve both pragmatic business function and become a cultural thrust by the corportaion. Was an advocate and patron of design. Interest in the Bauhaus and provided moral and financial support of the Institute of Design.
CCA Container Corporation of America (CCA). Walter Paepcke pioneered the manufacture of paperboard and corrugated- fiber containers. CCA became a national company and the nation's largest prodcuer of packaging mateirals. Visual signature (and implementation) was based on 2 ingrediants: vision of the designer and a supportive client.
Egbert Jacobson Was selected as the first director of CCA's new department of design. He had an extensive background as a color expert and transformed interiors with drab industrial grays and browns into bright colors.
A.M. Cassandre WAs commissioned to design a series of CCA advertisements that defied American advertising conventions. The traditional headline and body copy were replaced by a dominant visual that extended a simple statement about CCA. Also commissioned to design covers \fo Harper's Bazaar. He turned conventions upside down and seperated CCA from other advertisers. After he went back to Paris other artists were commissioned such as: Fernand Leger, Man Ray, Herbert Matter, and Jean Carlu.
Jean Carlu Was commissioned to work for CCA. He was commissioned to create the famous America's answer! Production poster. Carlu was recognized with a top award by the NY art director's club exhibition.
Herbert Bayer Produced posters during and after WWII that were suprisingly illustrative compared to his ardent insistence on constructivism during his Dessau Bauhaus period. Oriented toward communications problem solving, he painted illustrations with a simplified realism and combined these with the hierarchy of information and strong underlying comoposition. CCA Great ideas of Western culture Herbert Bayer joined in portrayed ideas such as liberty justice, human rights. Ads gave artists free reign to do their own style. Idea was that a company that would align themselves with these artists would be positive, social, good solid company. Strong visuals were used with two or three lines of typography, often placed diagonally to lines from illustration.
Herbert Matter Continued the design experimentation of earlier institutional ads in his "paperboard goes to war" advertising campaign. Joined in CCA goes to war advertisement.
"great ideas" advertisements CCA Great ideas of Western culture Herbert Bayer and Ben Shahn joined in portrayed ideas such as liberty justice, human rights. Ads gave artists free reign to do their own style. Idea was that a company that would align themselves with these artists would be positive, social, good solid company. Strong visuals were used with two or three lines of typography, often placed diagonally to lines from illustration.
International Typographic Style The international typographic style- Also called swiss design b/c emerged from Switzerland and germany in the 1950s. Still in use today and very influential. Characteristics: unity of design. Asymmetrical organization of space and mathematically constructed grid, objective photography and presentation of info in a clear and concise manner. There are no exaggerated claims it is very scientific. Sans serif typography that is flush-left and ragged-right margins. Bright pure hues of color, focus on order and clarity of information. Type losses its purpose if it loses its legibility. Ties into corporate communications.
International Typographic style grew from? The swiss design movement has roots from de Stijl, the Bauhaus, and the new typography of the 1920s and 30s. Theo Ballmer and Max Bill are principal links b/w earlier constructivist graphic design and the new movement that formed after WWII.
Hermann Zapf Major German typeface designer. Designed over 50 typefaces. Doesnt truly fit in any style. Used text from Edward Johnson and teaches himself calligraphy. He developed an extraordinary sensitivity to letterforms in his activities as a calligrapher. Believed typography was one of the most expressive things. Designed palantino, Melior, and Optima.
Eduard Hoffman and Max Miedinger Collaborated together in Switzerland to come up with Helvetica. This wasa a sans serif font with an even larger x-height than Univers's. Helvetica is the traditional latin name for Switzerland.
Helvetica Designed by Eduard Hoffman and Max Miedinger in 1961. The traditional Latin name for Switzerland is Helvetica. Helvetica's well-defined forms and excellent rhythm of postivie and negative shapes made it the most specified typeface internationally during the 1960s and 70s. However, b/c helvetica's various weights, italics, and widths were developed by different designers in several countries, the orgiinal Helvetica family lacked the cohesiveness of Univers.As digital type setting became more prevalent in the 80s, versions of the Helvetica family were developed.
Armin Hofmann Taught design at the Basel school of design as well as opened studio of his own in 1947. Had a deep sense of aesthetic values and understanding of form to both teaching and designing. Evolved design philosophy based on the elemental graphic-form language of point, line, and plane, replacing traditional pictorial ideas with modernist aesthetic. Contrasting elements breath life in visual design. Works with posters, advertising, and logo design. Published Graphic Design Manual which was a book that presented his application of elemental design principles to graphic design.
Josef Muller- Brockmann Emerged as a leading theorist and practitioner of the Swiss movement. Sought absolute and universal graphic expression through an objective and impersonal presentation. communicate message with remarkablel intensity and clarity. Photographic posters treat image as an objective symbol with impact thorugh scale and camera angle.
Max bill Swiss born German artist. Product of Bauhaus. He was a sculpture artist, painter, graphic designer, and writer. Develops style and called for a universal art of absolute clarity with order and grid. Mathmatical proportion, geometric special devision. Possible to develop art on mathematical thinking. Order and balance. Asymmetrical. Also did paintings. In his fine art work, he was still tied to idea of order and balance.
Anton Stankowski German born and worked as a graphic designer in Zurich. Was particularly innovative in photography, photomontage, and darkroom manipulation of images. His major contribution is creation of visual elements that communicate things that cannot be seen. Into science graphics: heat waves etc. Tried to translate the processes. Also does graphic work for the Berlin government.
Adrian Frutiger He was inspired by Akzidenz Grotesk fonts Swiss designer that was working in Paris he developed Universe which was a family of 21 san serif fonts
Univers 21 fonts form uniform whole. Texture and tone is more even than most typefaces. The palette of typographic variations limited to regular, italic, and bold was expanded sevenfold. conventional nomenclature was replaced by numbers. All 21 fonts have the same x-heigh and ascender and descender lengths, they form a uniform whole that can be used together with ccomplete harmony. The size and weight of the capitals are close to the size and weight of the lowercase characters; therefore the texture and tone of a univers text setting is more uniform than that of most earlier typefaces.
MIT Design Services Office The international Typographic Style was rapidly embraced in corporate and institutional graphics during the 1960s and remained a prominent aaspect of American design for over 2 decades. A good example was found in the graphic-design office at the Massacheusetts Institute of Technology. (MIT) were a sustanined level of quality and imagination was achieved. In the early 1950s MIT established a graphic-design program enabling all members of the university community to benefit from free, professional design assistance on their publications and publicity material. MIT based its graphic-design program on a commitment to the grid and sans-serif typography. The staff was innovative in the use of designed letterforms and manipulated words as vehicles to express content. Produced publications and posters announcing concerts, speakers, semeinars, exhibitions and frequently used solid-color backgrounds.
Paul Rand Initiated the American approach to modern design. His magazine covers broke with the traditions of American publication design. Influenced with modern movement, particularly the works of Klee, Kandinsky, and the cubists. Became widely influential because of his ability to manipulate visual form and skillful analysis of communications content, reducing it to a symbolic essence without being sterile or dull. He was a major player in corporate communications, ibm, westin house, ups, abc etc Turned dry information reports as tool for communication Identity systems. Also art directed a number of publications. Direction (publication) had a hand written text contrasts with the sharply mechanical stencil lettering of the logo. He seized upon collage and montage as a means to bring concepts, images, textures and even objects into a cohesive whole. Design should be intelligent. Started corporate packaging.
Saul Bass Carried the sensibilites of the NY school to Los Angeles. Opened his own studio and was inspired by Paul Rand but Bass frequently reduced his graphic designs to a single dominant image, often centered in the space. Stripped visual complexity from American graphic design and reduced messages to simple pictographic images. The images lack the exactitude of measurement or construction that could make them rigid because there are chunky forms cut from paper with scissors or drawn with a brush. Created graphics for Exodus. He also created numerous corporate identity programs.
Herb Lubalin a
Alvin Lustig - influential designers seen as precurser to chip kidd. Paved way to new type of design -born in denver. Introduced to modern art and begins doing posters for his magic show. Interested in design. At 21 becomes free lance printer and typographer. Used collage. Symbolic of something in plot rather than literal representation 1944 moves to ny interested in design and explores both industrial and interior design. Wants to be involved in entire image including office and print materials. 1953 designs print materials for girl scouts of America. Swiss style and international style but most has personal organic touch to it. Vision gets weaker and weaker and by 54 completely blind b/c he is diabetic. Clients still kept him on and his wife or clients would complete it. Able to direct them. By 1955 died at age 40 . Best known for covers of new classics.
Alexander Steinweiss Was named art director of Columbia Records in 1940. Applied the modern design sensibilites to record-album design. He revolutionizes packaging for music company. He was the first to suggest designing album covers. Also started the new sleeves they came in. Had a particular scrawl approached space informally.
Bradbury Thompson Emerged as one of the most influential graphic designers in postwar America. Won the type directors club medal in 1986 for the most thorough reassessment of the printed bible format since Gutenberg. Printed in 1979 and wins award in 86. Used a lot of layering and overlapping. Washburn college bible. Postage stamps for USA. Monoalphabet alphabet 26. Instead of upper and lower only has one character set.
Westvaco Inspirations Was designed by Bradbury Thompson during 1939-1961. They were four-color publication demonstrating printing papers. Thompson had a thorough knowledge of printing and typesetting and experimented which allowed him to expand the range of design possibilties. Westvaco used letterpress plates of art and illustration borrowed from advertising agencies and museums.
Washburn College Bible Designed by Bradbury Thompson. on the type directors club medal in 1986 for the most thorough reassessment of the printed bible format since Gutenberg. Printed in 1979 and wins award in 86. Used a lot of layering and overlapping.
Robert Brownjohn Cofounded Brownjohn, Chermayeff and Geismar (a NY firm). Studied painting under moholy nogy and architecture at Chicago. Left Brownjohn, Chermayeff, & Geismar and Moves to England where he is best known for inventive film titles. Hangs out with rolling stones. Film titles, gold finger projects gold slides on moving bodys. Teaches at pratt instititue. Significant contribution to British graphic design especially in film titles.
Brownjohn, Chermayeff, and Geismar New York design firm that was founded by three youthful designers in 1957. Called themselves a design office rather than art studioseen as profession Strong aesthetic background and understanding of major ideas of European modern art Communicative immediacy, strong sense of form, vitality/freshness characterized their work.
Ivan Chermayeff Helped found the New York firm of Brownjohn, Chermayeff and Geismar in 1957. Had worked as a record-album designer
Thomas Geismar Helped found the New York firm of Brownjohn, Chermayeff and Geismar in 1957. He had served two years with the US army as an exhibition designer and then freelanced.
Cipe Pineles 1st female art director 1st female member of the New York Art Directors Club Worked for Glamour, Seventeen, Charm, Mademoiselle Commissioned fine art and modern art illustrations resulting in pages that broke conventional imagery. Lyrical appreciation of color, pattern and form. She helped to define the modern woman Won every award an art director could win influenced a new role for women as career women in a positive light
William Bernbach Copywriter, creative force behind Doyle Dane Bernbach ad agency. Influenced by Paul Rand
Doyle Dane Bernbach Was an advertising agency. Opened in 1949 in NY city. Talked intelligently to consumers. Used white space effectively to focus the reader's attention toward the headline and image on crowded newspaper pages. Creative philosophy was basic: Usually incorporate a dominating image. Revolutionized soft sell advertising. Conversational and witty Ohrbachsbudget department store, client VWclient. Combined words and images in a new wayfused them together so they were interdependent, leading to a new creative team relationship between copywriters and art directors.
George Louis Born in budhapest in 1924 raised in berlin. Emigrates to Us in 1941 and in 42 enlists in army. His sergeant was commercial artist in ad agency. After army he becomes interested in commercial art. Ny school of fine and industrial art funded from gi bill. Attends pratt institute. In school studying to get degree in gd. Six weeks short of graduation takes a job and leaves school. After he leaves goes on to work as a packaging designer. Bored with his job connected to school of visual arts. Opens his own office. Also designs postage stamps for postal service. Known for annual reports posters ads. Strong conceptual designer. focused on simplicity and effectiveness of design. Clean and graphic works. Sole proprieter of his own studio in ny. Became "enfant terrible" of American mass communications.
shape reputation (quality & reliability) project cohesive image After WWII productive capacity turned to consumer goods. "Good design is good business" became a rallying cry in the graphic-design community during the 1950s. Design was seen as a major way to shape a reputation for quality and reliablity. The value of a trademark for visual indentification increased but the national scope of many corporations made it dificult to maintain a cohesive image, but by unifying all communications from a given organization into a consisten design system, one could be projected to accomplish identifiable goals.
Container Corporation of America Established by Walter Papecke in 1926. Pioneered the manufacture of paperboard and corrugated-fiber containers. Became a national company and the nations largest packaging producer. Known for its advertising and great ideas Design could serve both a business function and become a major cultural thrust by a corporation.
Egbert Jacobson In 1936 was selected as the first director of CCA's new department of design. Had an extensive background as a color expert, and this knowledge was put to use as factory interiors were transformed from drab to bright colors. 1st corporate design director in America (for CCA). Design program and new identity based on the vision of the designer and a supportive client
A. M. Cassandres involvement w/ CCA Among several artists hired by Charles Coiner (art director for CCAs ad agency) to design a series of ads for CCA that defied American advertising conventions. He replaced the traditional headline and body copy with a dominant visual, separating CCA ads from others.
Paperboard Goes to War Ad campaign During WWII CCA innovated uses for paperboard packaging, which freed metals and other strategic materials for the war effor. The advertising campagin continued the design experimentation of the tearlier institutional ads. Before the war there was still a degree of public concern about the strength of paperboard; this ccampaign prepared the way for its extensive use after the war. Each advertisement showed a specific use of a CCA product in the war effort.
Great Ideas of Western Culture Ad Campaign Herbert Bayer and Ben Shahn each artist portrayed idea such as liberty justice, human rights. Ads gave artists free reign to do their own style. Idea was that a company that would align themselves with these artists would be positive, social, good solid company. CCA
Colombia Broadcasting System William Golden was the art director at CBS for almost 2 decades. The effectiveness of the CBS corporate identity did not depend on a regimented design program or application of specific graphic elements rather, the quality of each succesive design solution enabled CBS to establish an ongoing and successful corporate identity. Golden designed one of the most successful trademarks of the 20th century for CBS. Pictographic CBS eye. Golden suggested that they abandon the eye but Stanton disagreed and the eye remained.
William Golden Designed the logo for CBS. (the pictographic eye). He was also the art director at CBS for almost 2 decades. His television ads often used unusual spatial relations.
Lou Dorfsman William golden dies and Lou Dorfsman takes over at CBS in 1946. By 1966 new CBS headquarters was designed by Lou for all typographic information (even down to the numerals on the wall clocks and elevator buttons). The CBS approach to coporate image was not dependent on a system but rather on the management policy toward design and the creative abilities of its design personal. Strength because they can shift to needs of company and evolving sensibility; the danger is the lack of a fallback position if management or design authority move into less insightful hands.
CIBA (Society for Chemical Industry in Basel) Early effort toward a corporate identity system. Global manufacture of pharmaceuticals go global in early 50s. James K. Fogleman was hired as design director. Works with three type faces. All printed pieces were square. Popularized corporate identity concept through lecturing. Each communication has two functions: media communicative need to promote product to identitfy, and promote firms reputation of image.
James K. Fogleman Was hired as design director at CIBA. Spoke of the "need for integrated design..." Popularized the corporate image concept through frequent lectures and writing. Urged his audiences to see each communication as having two funcions: immediate communicative need, and the development of the firm's reputaion and image.
Paul Rand Major player in corporate communications, ibm, westin house, ups, abc etc. Turned dry information reports as tool for communication Identity systems. Also art directed a number of publications. Direction liked hand written text. Design should be intelligent. Started corporate packaging.
Identity program for Chase Manhattan Bank Chermayeff & Geismar Associates moved to the forefront of the corporate identity movement in 1960 witha comprehensive visual image program for the Chase Manhatten Bank of NY. The new logo was composed of four geometric wedges rotating around a central square to form an external octagon. It was an abstract form, free from alphabetic , pictographic, or figurative connotations. Although it had overtones of security or protection because four elements confine the square, it proved a completely abstract form could successfully function as a large organization's visual identifier. Sans-sefir typeface used with logo.
`Lester Beall - corporate identity manual Lester Beall helped launch the modern movement in American design during the late 20s and early 30s. Created pioneering corporate identity programs for many corporations including Connecticut General Life insurance, and International Paper Company. He also contributed to the development of thecorporate identity manual, a firm's book of guidelines and standards for implementing its program. Beall's manuals specifically prescribed the permissible uses and forbidden abuses of the trademark.
Chermayeff & Geismar Associates Developed Chase Manhatten Bank logo, Mobil oil, NBC, rockefeller center, as well as produced over one hundred coporate design programs. The design firm has developed innovative exhibition techniques. They continue to accept a steady stream of smaller projects, such as posters.
Saul Bass His mastery of elemental form was applied to visual identification probelms under the firm Saul Bass and Associates.Produced iconic and often widely imitated trademarks. Believed a trademark must be readily understood yet possess elements of metaphor and ambiguity that will attract the viewer again and again. AT&T, continental airlines, girl scouts, united and others were some of the trademarks he designed.
Unimark (& their Corporate Identity Philosophy) Founded in Chicago in 1965 by Massimo Vignelli, he later sets up Vignelli associates and Ralph Eckerstrom, and James fogleman. Rejected individualistic design. Thought design could be a system. Set up rules and regulations and then inhouse design of company would follow standards so they would have a cohesive look. Basic system: grid. Helvetica preferred typeface. Expand company and have offices all over as well as other countries. Unimark founded by partners. Unigrid system was developed by Vignelli after unimark shut down.
Massimo Vignelli Helped found Unimark. Was Unimark's director of design and head of the NY office. Set up Knoll program. When the NY office closed, Vignelli associates was founded in 1971. Their typographic range expanded beyond helvetica to include Bodoni, Century, Garamond, and Times roman, but the rational order of grid systems and emphasis on lucid and objective communication remained constant. Vignelli continues to put his imprint on the evolution of information design.
Ralph Eckerstrom Created corporate logo for CCA in te 1960s. The corporate initials were packaged in a rectangle with two corners shaved at a forty-five degree angle to imply an isometric box. He also helped found Unimark.
James Fogelman Helped set up Unimark.
Unigrid system Unigrid system was developed by Vignelli after unimark shut down. Developed for national park service. Unified hundreds of informational folders used at about 350 national park locations.
1974 US Dept. of Transportations Symbols (& goals) In 1974, The US Department of Transportation commissioned the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA) to create a master set of 34 pedestrian and passenger oriented symbols for use in transportation facilities. They wanted to bridge language barriers and simplify basic messages, and they did this with a set of consistent and interrelated symbols used worldwide in transportation facilities. Thomas Geismar was the head of the committee of five graphic designers who served as project advisors. Roger Cook and Don Shanosky, of Cook and Shanosky Associates in New Jersey, designed and drew the final set of symbols. The main goal in the execution of this project was clarity of image, which they achieved by combining overall harmony with a visual consistency of shape, line, weight, and form.
1968 Olympics in Mexico City A design system was needed for the Olympic Games because of the large numbers of multilingual people from all around the world who would come to watch the games. The information system that was developed for the Olympic Games had to cover things such as environmental directions, visual identification, and publicity. Some of the designers who were involved: Lance Wyman, Peter Murdoch, Eduardo Terrazas, and Manuel Villazon The streets on the official Olympic map were even color coded to correspond with colors painted on the curbs of real streets, making it almost impossible for anyone to become lost. The design for these graphics was influenced greatly by the cultural heritage of Mexico, so the designers studied Mexican folk art and ancient Aztec artifacts that included the use of repeated multiple lines that formed patterns and bright pure hues.
2 references that inspired the design system for mexico olympic games Design systems: they serve two main functions Mexican folk art and ancient Aztec artifacts 1. Manage information flow and visual identity 2. Express nature of the organization/event
Lance Wyman He was the director of graphic design for the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. He also collaborated with Peter Murdoch, a British designer, on the development of a complete system of modular functional components with interchangeable parts that combined directional and identification signage with mailboxes, telephones, and water fountains
Seymour Chwast From the New York School style which featured a more conceptual approach to illustration. Chwast and some of his friends/classmates, Milton Glaser, Reynolds Ruffins, and Edward Sorel, grouped together and shared a loft studio. Also, formed Push Pin Studios with this same group of guys in 1954. Some of Chwasts work involves reformulating earlier art and graphics to express new concepts in new contexts. Today, he remains the director of what is now known as The Pushpin Group
Milton Glaser He was also a part of the New York School. He graduated from Cooper Union in 1951 and received a Fulbright scholarship, allowing him to study etching under Giorgio Morandi in Italy. The Push Pin studio was formed upon Glasers return from Europe in 1954. Glaser eventually left Push Pin to pursue interests in magazine and environmental design. Glaser can be remembered for his famous concert posters that combined his personal vision with the essence of the posters content. One of his most famous works is the poster of Bob Dylan that he did in 1967. It features Dylans silhouette with brightly colored patterns for his hair that were inspired by Islamic design.
Push Pin Studios and style Push Pin Studios was formed in 1954 by a group of four designers/friends: Seymour Chwast, Milton Glaser, Reynolds Ruffins, and Edward Sorel. The studio became famous worldwide and it even started to have its own kind of style, commonly referred to as the Push Pin Style. It was a term used to describe the studios work and influence. Other designers and illustrators had been added on to the original Push Pin team, and these younger illustrators extended the boundaries of the Push Pin aesthetic. The Push Pin style is more about of an attitude about visual communications, and an openness about trying new forms and techniques as well as reinterpreting the work from earlier times, and an ability to combine word and image into a conceptual and decorative whole. Since the Push Pin style was more about conceptual images, it was an alternative to the narrative illustration of the past. Designs from the Push Pin studios show vitality and lush color and unashamed allusions to other art.
inspiration for conceptual images from art movements Inspiration came from the advances of twentieth-century art movements: the spatial configurations of cubism; the juxtapositions, dislocations, and scale changes of surrealism; the pure color loosened from natural reference by expressionism and fauvism; and the recycling of mass-media images by pop art. With the invention of the conceptual image, the traditional boundaries between the fine arts and public visual communications became blurred.
Armando Testa Italian graphic designer. He was an abstract painter until after the war, when he established a graphic design studio in Turin. Hes most famous for his Pirelli tire campaigns of the 50s, which greatly impacted graphic design thinking on an international level. He used surrealism strategies in combining the image of a tire with immediately recognizable symbols, such as the as with a tire/elephant. In his work, the image is the strongest means of communication.
Polish School of Poster Art In post-war Poland, the clients of graphic designers were state-controlled institutions and industries. Graphic designers joined with other artists, such as filmmakers, writers, and fine artists to form the Polish Union of Artists, which established standards and set fees. One could only enter the union after completion of the educational program at either the Warsaw or the Krakow academies of art. The number of graduates was carefully controlled to equal the need for design.
Tadeusz Trepkowski - the earliest Polish poster artist to emerge after the war. In the first decade after the war, he expressed tragic memories and aspirations for the future that were deeply set into the national psyche. He reduced the imagery and words in his work until the content was distilled into its simplest statement.
Woody Pirtle a designer from Texas who worked for Stan Richards (Richards Group) during the formative years of the Richards Group. He epitomizes the originality of Texas graphics. He did the Knoll hot seat poster with the hot pepper as a chair. This work ironically combines the clean Helvetica typeface and the white space of modernism with a regional iconography. He moved on to join the Manhattan office of the British design studio Pentagram n 1988.
postermania Contrasted the postwar Polish posters. Postermania was a poster craze in the US during the 1960s. It was a grassroots affair fostered by a climate of social activism. This was around the time of the civil-rights movement, the vast public protest against the Vietnam War, the early stirrings of the womens liberation movement, and a search for alternative lifestyles. The posters of this time period were seen more often on the walls of apartments rather than on the streets for all of the public to see. They didnt advertise commercial messages, they were only about social viewpoints. The first big wave of this poster culture came from the late 60s Hippie subculture centered in the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco. Because the media and general public related these posters to antiestablishment values, rock music, and psychedelic drugs, they were called psychedelic posters.
Psychedelic Posters Robert Wes Wilson 60s grass roots posters, social activism tied to war. Erupts into a craze and there is a lot of music as part of movement hippy subculture. Posters tied to movement and are considered anti establishment. If you cant read its ok supposed to look trippy and psychedelic drugs. Appealed to the younger generation. Pick up flowing curves of art nouveau, intense optical vibration of pop art, modern art unreadable typeography Innovator of style incorporating swirling lines and movement Kelly mouse studio and victor moscoso also in this movement (big five). Peter Max
Robert Weseley "Wes" Wilson Designed poster that evidences the art- nouveau influence of swirling lines and letterfomrs., which are variants of Alfred Roller's art- noueveau alphabets. Was the innovator of the psychedelic-poster style and created many of its stronger images.
Kelly/Mouse Studios Part of the psychedelic poster movement.
Victor Moscoso Part of the psychedelic poster style movement. The only major artist of the movement with formal training.
Peter Max Used some aspects of the psychedelic-poster movement in his wildly popular art. In his series of posters during the late 60s, the art-nouveau aspects of psychedelic art were combined with more accessible images and softer colors. Love graphic combined fluid organic line of art nouveau with bold contour of comic bookk, pop art.
Gunter Rambow From Frankfurt Germany and used collage in many of his pieces. In his graphic designs, the medium of photogreaphy is manipulated, montaged and airbrushed to convert the ordinary into the extraordinary. Everyday images are combined or dislocated, then printed as straightforward, documentary black and white images. Often imbues straightforward photographs with a sense of magic or mystery. Uses collage as a means of creating a new graphic reality.
Robert Massin (work & his influences) French designer.He apprenticed in sculpture, engraving and letter cutting under his father. But learned graphic design under typographic designer. No formal training. Futurist and Dadaist typography are some influences but his unity of literary content and visual form is unique and not as rigid as Dada. The drama of The Bald Soprano is enacted through high-contrast photgraphs (by Henry Cohen). Have characters with words of text and each character is assigned a typeface for their voice.
Cuban Poster Design The emerging nations of latin America, asia, Africa have been called the third world. For different social and political struggles, the poster became a major vehicle for spreading ideas: To demonstrate solidarity, convince people to alter views, challenge authority, or express dissent. Cuba becomes a major design. Castro didnt impose strict style but rather content. Address two constituencies" In their native lands, they speak about political and social issues and motivate people toward one side of a struggle; secondary audience exists in the industrial democracies, where distributors make posters available to Westerners who feel strongly about international issues. Cuba became major center for poster design. Castro defeated regime of President Batista Castro assured artist can find a place to work but everything that was not within the revolutionary point of view was nothing. Popular art forms were ncouraged and traditional painting was seen as inefficeient. Cuban designers specifically used a number of references. Mix of many styles. Conclusion: conceptual images develop in response to a number of things. Conceptual design prior to this point but high concentration. Ideas and forms from modern art filter into popular culture. More expressive and symbolic role. Complexitiy of policitical social needed way to communicate and felt symbolism rather than literal was more useful.
influences on Cuban designers Lacking artistic traditions, Cuban designers assimilated a variety of resources. American sources (pop art, psychedelic poster and push pin studio) and the polish poster are important inspirations. The romanticized realism that was prevelant in former soviet Union and china was avoided. Instead the icon and symbolism were seen as being far more effective.
Che Guevara Unified myth and reality in a powerful graphic symbol was based on his image. Leader of the Cuban revolution. Left Cuba to lead guerrillas and was gunned down in 67. His image was converted into a symbolic icon and was one of the most reproduced images of the late twentieth century. Converted into the mythic hero who sacrificed his life so others might live.
Importance of conceptual images - developed in response to: - (looking for 3 main/general factors) The importance of conceptual images in the second half of the twentieth century developed in response to many factors. Ideas and forms from modern art have filtered into popular culture. Photography and video repositioned graphic illustration in a more expressive and symbolic role. Complexity of the political, social and cultural ideas and emotions graphic artists need to communicate can frequently be presented more effectively by iconic and symbolic rather than narrative images.
Yusako Kamekura Apprenticed to an architect and worked as art director for Japanese cultural magazines. Emerged as an influential design leaderduring postwar recovery period. Under his leadership other designers dispelled the belief that visual communications must be hand-drawn. Olympics in 64 came to Japan. The designs he created recieved international acclaim. Works are modern yet evoke traditions of Japanese art. Logo is rising sun over rings (red circle) Poster after Hiroshima- butterflies falling from sky poetic and beautiful but you realize they are falling and burning. Language of light clean graphics.
Ikko Tanaka Japanese designer who uses plane and shape as the nucleus for his work.Over the 1950s he assimilated the Bauhaus design traditions and opened his own studio. Explored many directions. Concepts in his work: grid structure and vibrant planes of color that explore color. Uses traditional japanese motifs and reinvents them in a modernist design idiom.
Shigeo Fukuda Japanese designer who designs simple, readable and immediate that engage the viewer with their unexpected violations of spatial logic and universal order. Achieved early renown for his unconventional views of the wold. Playfulness and humor are abundant in his work.
Robert Venturi Born in Philadelphia and is the most controversial and original architect branded with the supermannerist label. Looked at the vulgar urban landscape and found a vitality there. Uncommon uses and juxtaposition of materials, graphic elements from the commercial roadside strip, billboards, and enviornmental scale lettering were freely added to his architectural vocabulary.
New Wave Typography - some characteristics of Opposition to the cool formalism of modernist tradition emerged first in Switzerland and then spread around the world. Wolfgang Weingart questioned typography and and explored the untried. Other designers who studied at Basel came to US to teach such as Dan Friedman, April Greiman and Willi Knunz. Rejected the notion of style and saw work as attempt to expand perameters of typographic communication, yet their work was so imitated that it gave rise to a typographic approach. Characteristics include: Letter spaced sans serif type, Bold stair step rules, Ruled lines punctuating and energizing space, Diagonal type, Mixing italic type and/or weight changes within words, and Type reversed from a series of bars.
Wolfgang Weinhart Traveled as a child and says that this was what effected his typography later in life. Used type like the landscapes he saw. wide letterspacing of type, the swelling of typography through photographic overexposeure, and the mixing of type sizes and weights in the same design ( or even the same word) were explored in an effort to revitalize and invigorate typography. He made up assignments for himself. Made his own design experiments to force him to learn. Started internship and learned about swiss typography. Applied for Basil school of design and studied under Hoffman. Was uncomfortable with what he learned and decides there must be another way and stays at school even after graduation and becomes disappointed with swiss type wanted to invigorate it. Travels more and photographs. Starts developing type in a landscape and layers all of them. Uses a lot of photomechanical processes. Bent staright lines, reintroduced texture, used collage and montage. Said that the rules of swiss style stifled him. Worked as freelance designer and then joins faculty at Basil school of design. Wanted to teach craft of typography and encouraged experimentation. Type letterspacing became popular and he experimented with that. Wasnt trying to create a style but it does become popular. Imitators. Daniel friedman and april grindman were students of his and became famous. Photomechanical montage creates a rich texture. Component of the guttenberg approach. by itself typography is boring as hell, it is what you bring to it. Gets fullbright to go to Germany in 1968 started post graduate program at Basil.
April Greiman Born in New York and studied graphic design at Kansas and then went to Switzerland. Studied under Weingart Worked in museum of modern art in NY and then moves to LA. Connected with new wave type but most known for pioneer with computer design and experimental. Established herself before computers but embraced technology of her first macintosh. Begins to use it to work with type and uses computer to print and then layers. Digitized life size portrait of her. Folded out. Using the primitive technology and not trying to gloss it out. Used macvison and macdraw (pre photoshop). Facsinated with space and scale and achieves a sense of depth in her typographic pages.
April Greiman Born in New York and studied graphic design at Kansas and then went to Switzerland. Studied under Weingart Worked in museum of modern art in NY and then moves to LA. Connected with new wave type but most known for pioneer with computer design and experimental. Established herself before computers but embraced technology of her first macintosh. Begins to use it to work with type and uses computer to print and then layers. Digitized life size portrait of her. Folded out. Using the primitive technology and not trying to gloss it out. Used macvison and macdraw (pre photoshop). Facsinated with space and scale and achieves a sense of depth in her typographic pages.
Dan Friedman American who studied at the Basel school of design under Weingart. Taught classes in the states at Yale and Philadelphia College of Art. He wrote a good bit on design theory and ideas. Some of his work is a little more new wave. Photomontage of type. Building a landscape. Still see influence of Swiss typography. Gave students weather reports and had to interprete with typography. Encorages students to make their work more functional. Meets april grinmen and she replaces him. Puts out a book entitled radical modernism. Abandons graphic design in 1980s and begins doing furniture designs. Polar opposite of what he was doing in his corporate work. Died in 1995.
The Memphis School Sensibility in postmodern design was catapulted into international prominence in the early 1980s. Inspiration for design in 81 when Italian design group held exhibiton. The Memphis sensibility embraces exaggerated geometric forms in bright even garish colors, bold geometric and organic patterns. Known for surface texture and patterns. Form no longer follows function- becomes reason for design to exist.
The San Francisco School - (& 3 Designers from) In the early 80s San Francisco postmodern design emerged quickly , earning the city a reputation as a major center for creative design. 3 designers played major roles 1. Michael Vanderbyl 2. Michael Manwaring 3. Michael Cornin Their work conveyed a cheerful optimism, a warm sense of humor, and an unbrideled attitude about form and space. Freely drawn gestures, a sunny palette of pastel hues, and intuitive composition are often found in their work. Grays were often used with tints of lavender, turquoise, and peach.
Michael Vanderbyl Poster for California Public Radio is important forerunner of the emerging school. Repition of fuled lines and overall pattern of radio waves on background. Post modern building making fun of the modern building was a poster series that used graphic images to make editorial comments about aspects of the movement.
Michael Manwarning Wine label with stairstep (postmodern) design. Informal because no headline. Becomes an identifying form similar to a trademark.
Michael Cronin Often builds his compostitions with shapes that become symbolic cessels or containers for color. Beethoven festival poster (designed with Shannon Terry) uses repetition of diagonal and cuved forms. Uses stairstep flames that is repeated in hair.
Charles S. Anderson At the Duffy Design Group in Minnesota He designed nostalgic revivals of vernacular and modernistic graphic arts from the firs thalf of the century. Grew up in small town and was impressed with old graphics from 40s that hadn't been thrown away. In 1989 left Duffy Design and opened the Charles S. Anderson Design Group. He declared his intent to give images or messages " a tangible and inherent artistic value.
The Duffy Group During 80s graphic designers gained appreciation of their history. Contributes to their awarness and historical revival movement starts in new york called retro. Based on uninhibited eclectic intrest disregard for proper type. A lot of people thought it was backwards looking. Considered historical revival but pulls from vernacular things done by skilled as well as unskilled design. Has a quirkiness to it. Joe Duffy and Charles S. Anderson designed nostalgic revivals of vernacular and modernistic grahic arts from the first half of the century. Historical resources were diverse as Aztec ornaments and Ouija board for color and form. Duffy design was a retro design firm. Duffy Design classico spaghetti sauce and Ralph Lauren. Still known for their retro style.
Matthew Carter Born in London starts learning from his dad. Learned a lot about type so he could sort them. Trained as a punch cutter which helped him as a type designer. Commsioned by AT&T in 84 to design typeface- bell centennial. Important for a phone book to cram a lot and still readable. So had to design around a lot. 80 to 84 worked as consultant for her majesty 91 leaves bitstream founds firm designed by Microsoft to design typefaces: ex Georgia. Supposed to be very legible. In 95 commsionned to design corporate design Walker wasable to be modified and letters could be connected according to different keys. Designed snell roundand, Sophia, galliard, big caslon, century school book, miller, shelly lots more.
Rudy VanderLans Emigre magazine designer/editor who embraced computer and new technology. In 1984 began to edit, design and publish Emigre magazine with two fellow Dutchman in San Francisco. Used typewriter type and copier images in first issue. Used low-resolution macintosh type for subsequent issues. Experimented with the new technology and this helped define and demonstrate the capabilites of the new tech. Then formed partnership, Emigre Graphics with Zuzana Licko.
Zuzana Licko Designer whose educational background included computer-programmng courses. Dissatisfied with the limited fonts available on early macs Licko used public-doman character-generation software called FontEditor to create digital typefaces. Rejected calligraphy, the traditional basis for conventional fonts. Formed partnership, Emigre graphics with Rudy VanderLans.
Emigre Magazine set up by Rudy VanderLans and two Dutchman in San Francisco. Originally intended to present their unpublished works along with creative woks by others. The journal's name was selected bc its founders believed exposure to various cultures had significant impact on creative work. used low-resolution mac type for issues and then became experimentation with new technology. Printing run of 7,000 copies. Outraged many design professionals and captivated others who embraced computer tech.
Neville Brody Designed graphics and covers for rock music and art-directed English magazines. Had a lot to do with digital type. Works at the Face one of the top things he is known for. Feels work should be open ended and vauge. Uses type as image. Developed series of sans-serif typefaces for The Face. Studied at college and goes to college of printing in London.He was a Risk taker. Was nearly thrown out for poster stamp with queen elizabeths head turned sideways. Art director for Face. 87 starts Neville brody studio in London and was art director for arena magazine and then opens font works and fuse magazine and becomes director for font shops international. Did packaging for adobe, fireworks. Designed a lot of typefaces and markets them digitally. His work has been plagerized a lot in the 80s and after he designed a new magazine, Arena,. Large scale, strong value contrasts, and clear, simple layouts characterize his art direction of this publication.
David Carson Former professional surfer and teacher turned to editorial design in the 80s. Chose to explore expressive possibilities of each subject and each page or spread, rejecting conventional notions of typographic syntax, visual hierarchy, and imagry. Text type of chanllenges fundamental criteria for legibilitiy. Explored reverse leading, extreme forced justification, text columns jammed together with no gutter, text columns the width of a page. Seeks to bring harmony of layout in harmony with expression of writing.
Fred Woodward After previous art directing, he became art director of the semimonthly rock-and-roll magazine Rolling Stone in 1987. Made daring typography a hallmark of his work.inventive orchestration of words and pictures created a resonance appropriate to the content. Even with mac computers he still wanted handmade look. Interest in dynamic change. Emphasis on how photo and type interact Reinstated Oxford rules (one name used for multiple-line thick-and thin borders) found in Roling stone's earlier periods and felt these borders gave him great license. Felt he could put anything in them and it would still look like Rollin Stones.
Abram Games Harder I work the simpler it looks nothing is impossible its only difficult. A difficulty is an opportunity, an opportunity is a challenge and thats what Im interested in Abram Born and raised in London. Has a wit to a lot of his work. Extended philosophy and spatial ideas of post-cubist pictorial modernism through WWII into 2nd half of twentieth cnetury. In 1939 when war breaks out he designs a lot of posters. Propaganda (ship on one side and spade on the other ). Centenial logo, Braille poster, financial times- show how they were used by different people. Zoo poster
THE BIG FIVE (Wes Wilson, Stanley Mouse, Alton Kelly, Victor Moscoso, Rick Griffin) (Wes Wilson, Stanley Mouse, Alton Kelly, Victor Moscoso, Rick Griffin) Psychedelic poster movement
Colin Forbes Formed a studio with Bob gill and Alan Fletcher that carried their names. After additional partners were added name changed to Pentagram. Worked together on cover for Graphis in 1965.
Alan Fletcher ormed a studio with Bob gill and Colin Forbes that carried their names. After additional partners were added name changed to Pentagram. Worked together on cover for Graphis in 1965. Did bus poster for Pirelli slippers with passengers heads on top of the photographic bodies. Doubled clients ad space. Beware of wet paint, art book art of looking sideways. Visual wit.
Henry K Tomaszewski Became spiritual head of polish graphic design. Poster became source of great pride in Poland. Led in developing an eesthetically pleasing approach, escaping from somber world of tragedy and rememberance into a bright, decorative world of color and shape. Designs created from torn and cut pieces of colored paper, then printed by the silk screen process.
Tibur Kalman Established m&co in 1979 w/ his wife. They worked together with wide variety of clients: the limited, restaurant Florent, Subaru, MTV and talking heads Became founding editor in chief of colors Benetton sponsored magazine that promoted progressive agenda pro environment, antiracism anti homophobia and was dubbed the first magazine for the global village. Since graphic design is mass communication believed it should be used to increase public awareness of a variety of social issues. No sense being politically progressive if you are not commercially viable Socially minded. Sent out a boxed lunch like you would get at a homeless shelter did neat promotional materials for himself that also benefited society. Unbrella that is black on the outside and sky on the inside. Clock with only 5 o clock on it. Paper weight that looks like paper. Born in Budapest and comes to US And studies. Finds out he has cancer in
Pentagram Design partnership formed in 1962 in Britain by Alan Fletcher, Colin Forbes, and Bob Gill and then Theo Crosby joined. Name changed to Pentagram. Intelligence and appropriate design solutions growing out of the needs of the problem were the hallmarks of Pentagram design. Thorough evaluation of communications problem and specific nature of enviornmental conditions under wihich the design was to appear combined with British wit and willingness to try unexpected was essence of Pentagram. Design ragnes from clean geometric forms in corporate identity systems to warm historcicsm in packaging design and graphics for smaller clients. Expansion in other countries is testament to the organizational skills and creativity of original partners.
Art Chantry ive always been attracted to darkness, and thats evident in my work, which often has shock value. Has a lot to do with growing up in a household that was actually dangerous. Father was a war vet and embezzled money also was an alcoholic and beat his mom. So art directs his attention to popular culture to escape his tough life growing up. Mom moves him after divorces father but she has hard time getting by financially. So he watches tons of tv, mad magazine comics etc. In 73 went to pacific Lutheran university. Then transfers to community college and gets work study program doing design and so this is how he learns. Transfers again and earns degree in painting. Does free lance poster design. Controversial work. Posters for theatrical things. Follows gf to London and was influenced by movements there and then returns to seattle. There he starts doing album cover work. 83 designs work for the rocket and becomes art director. Also does work for more corporate clients. Then starts to drink heavily and has problems. Works on and off again and does free lance posters. Grunge scene hits seattle did a lot of the major bands and then eventually leaves seattle. Teaches poster classes and still designs a lot of show posters. Did a lot of work for astromen.
Chip Kidd book covers worked with many famous authors and titles.
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