USH The Nation's Beginnings

Total Flash Cards » 28
 
1. 

Governed the colony in partnership with a royal governor appointed by the king of England

(Virginia planters claim political rights of Englishmen)

 

House of Burgesses

 
2. 

Provided a framework for self-government

(Puritans at Pymouth)

 

Mayflower Compact

 
3. 

Limited powers of English monarch: protected the right of people to own property and the right to trial by jury

(signed by King John in 1215)

 

Magna Carta

 
4. 

Required Parliament to meet regularly and stated that the monarch could not build an army without Parliament's consent

(Signed by Wiliam and Mary in 1688)

 

English Bill of Rights

 
5. 

European intellectual movement believed all problems could be solved by human reason

(Montesquieu and Locke; political leaders)

 

Enlightenment

 
6. 

Religious movement that led to the birth of new churches and religious tolerance

(Edwards and Whitefield; common people)

 

Great Awakening

 
7. 

Drafted Declaration of Independence

 

Thomas Jefferson

 
8. 

Lead American Revolution

 

George Washington

 
9. 

A list of freedoms guaranteed by the government

 

Bill of Rights

 
10. 

Armed farmers shut down the courts, blocking foreclosures ordered when farmers were unable to pay taxes to the state or loans; troops were sent to suppress the revolt

 

Shays' Rebellion

 
11. 

Designed Virginia Plan

 

James Madison

 
12. 

To officially approve

 

Ratify

 
13. 

Power divided between state and federal governement; division of sovereignty

 

Federalism

 
14. 

Separation of Powers

 

*Executive: Carries out the laws, serves as commander-in-chief of armed services, appoints judges, ambassadors, and other officials, and makes treaties

*Judicial: Interprets laws and treaties and enforces laws

*Legislative: Makes laws to lay and collect taxes, pay the debts, provide for the common defense and general welfare of the US, regulate interstate and foreign commerce, and declare war

 
15. 

Checks and Balances

 

*President can veto a bill proposed by Congress; Congress can override veto with a 2/3 vote of both houses

*President appoints Supreme Court justices; Supreme Court can rule presidential actions unconstitutional

*Congress determines number of judges on Supreme Court; Supreme Court can rule laws passed by congress unconstitutional

 
16. 

Gave the federal governement the power to regulate commerce and to tax and proposed major structural changes. Had a two-house legislature: House of Representatives and Senate. In both houses, states with larger populations would have more members.

 

Virginia Plan

 
17. 

Kept basic structure of the Articles of Confederation, but gave the federal government the power to regulate commerce and to tax. Had a one-house legislature and presented the states as equals, regardless of size. States remained sovereign--a loose confederation rather than a unified nation

 

New Jersey Plan

 
18. 

Made it difficult for immigrants, who voted mostly Democratic Republican, to vote and gave the President the power to arrest and deport immigrants who criticized the federal governement

 

Alien Act

 
19. 

Made it a crime for citizens to publicly discredit the federal leaders

 

Sedition Act

 
20. 

The power to decide the constitutionality of a federal law

(John Marshall; Marbury vs. Madison)

 

Judicial Review

 
21. 

Jefferson buys territory from Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains; says constituional power to make treaties allows this

 

Lousiana Purchase

 
22. 

British soldiers seize sailors from US ships for the royal navy

 

Impressment

 
23. 

Suspending trade by ordering ships to stay in port

(Jefferson persuade Congress to declare; want avoid war; "Hurt us less to not have British clothes than British not have our food" was wrong)

 

Embargo

 
24. 

Eli Whitney's invention

(reduced time and cost of separating the fiber from its hard shell)

 

Cotton Gin

 
25. 

Declare that European monarchies had no business meddling with American republics; in return, US would stay out of European affairs

(meaningless then, because the US lacked the military strength to enforce it; became important in the nineteenth century)

 

Monroe Doctrine

 
26. 

Asked Congress to charter a Bank of the United States with the power to regulate state banks; pointed out elastic clause as justitification; program approved in 1791

(Secretary of the Treasury)

 

Alexander Hamilton

 
27. 

To avoid war, Washington sent a man to London to negotiate with the British; the British gave up the forts but kept most of their restrictions on US shipping

Democratic Republicans denounced it as a sellout

Offended by it, the French began seizing American merchant ships

 

Jay's Treaty

 
28. 

System of government adopted just after the American Revolution; Congress had the power only to declare war and regulate trade with foreign nations, and had no say in interstate commerce

 

Articles of Confederation