USH The Nation's Beginnings

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1. 

Governed the colony in partnership with a royal governor appointed by the king of England

(Virginia planters claim political rights of Englishmen)

 
House of Burgesses
 
2. 

Provided a framework for self-government

(Puritans at Pymouth)

 
Mayflower Compact
 
3. 

Limited powers of English monarch: protected the right of people to own property and the right to trial by jury

(signed by King John in 1215)

 
Magna Carta
 
4. 

Required Parliament to meet regularly and stated that the monarch could not build an army without Parliament's consent

(Signed by Wiliam and Mary in 1688)

 
English Bill of Rights
 
5. 

European intellectual movement believed all problems could be solved by human reason

(Montesquieu and Locke; political leaders)

 
Enlightenment
 
6. 

Religious movement that led to the birth of new churches and religious tolerance

(Edwards and Whitefield; common people)

 
Great Awakening
 
7. 
Drafted Declaration of Independence
 
Thomas Jefferson
 
8. 
Lead American Revolution
 
George Washington
 
9. 

A list of freedoms guaranteed by the government

 
Bill of Rights
 
10. 
Armed farmers shut down the courts, blocking foreclosures ordered when farmers were unable to pay taxes to the state or loans; troops were sent to suppress the revolt
 
Shays' Rebellion
 
11. 
Designed Virginia Plan
 
James Madison
 
12. 
To officially approve
 
Ratify
 
13. 
Power divided between state and federal governement; division of sovereignty
 
Federalism
 
14. 

Separation of Powers

 

*Executive: Carries out the laws, serves as commander-in-chief of armed services, appoints judges, ambassadors, and other officials, and makes treaties

*Judicial: Interprets laws and treaties and enforces laws

*Legislative: Makes laws to lay and collect taxes, pay the debts, provide for the common defense and general welfare of the US, regulate interstate and foreign commerce, and declare war

 
15. 
Checks and Balances
 

*President can veto a bill proposed by Congress; Congress can override veto with a 2/3 vote of both houses

*President appoints Supreme Court justices; Supreme Court can rule presidential actions unconstitutional

*Congress determines number of judges on Supreme Court; Supreme Court can rule laws passed by congress unconstitutional

 
16. 
Gave the federal governement the power to regulate commerce and to tax and proposed major structural changes. Had a two-house legislature: House of Representatives and Senate. In both houses, states with larger populations would have more members.
 
Virginia Plan
 
17. 
Kept basic structure of the Articles of Confederation, but gave the federal government the power to regulate commerce and to tax. Had a one-house legislature and presented the states as equals, regardless of size. States remained sovereign--a loose confederation rather than a unified nation
 
New Jersey Plan
 
18. 
Made it difficult for immigrants, who voted mostly Democratic Republican, to vote and gave the President the power to arrest and deport immigrants who criticized the federal governement
 
Alien Act
 
19. 
Made it a crime for citizens to publicly discredit the federal leaders
 
Sedition Act
 
20. 

The power to decide the constitutionality of a federal law

(John Marshall; Marbury vs. Madison)

 
Judicial Review
 
21. 
Jefferson buys territory from Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains; says constituional power to make treaties allows this
 
Lousiana Purchase
 
22. 
British soldiers seize sailors from US ships for the royal navy
 
Impressment
 
23. 

Suspending trade by ordering ships to stay in port

(Jefferson persuade Congress to declare; want avoid war; "Hurt us less to not have British clothes than British not have our food" was wrong)

 
Embargo
 
24. 

Eli Whitney's invention

(reduced time and cost of separating the fiber from its hard shell)

 
Cotton Gin
 
25. 

Declare that European monarchies had no business meddling with American republics; in return, US would stay out of European affairs

(meaningless then, because the US lacked the military strength to enforce it; became important in the nineteenth century)

 
Monroe Doctrine
 
26. 

Asked Congress to charter a Bank of the United States with the power to regulate state banks; pointed out elastic clause as justitification; program approved in 1791

(Secretary of the Treasury)

 
Alexander Hamilton
 
27. 

To avoid war, Washington sent a man to London to negotiate with the British; the British gave up the forts but kept most of their restrictions on US shipping

Democratic Republicans denounced it as a sellout

Offended by it, the French began seizing American merchant ships

 
Jay's Treaty
 
28. 
System of government adopted just after the American Revolution; Congress had the power only to declare war and regulate trade with foreign nations, and had no say in interstate commerce
 
Articles of Confederation