USH The Nation's Beginnings

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Governed the colony in partnership with a royal governor appointed by the king of England
(Virginia planters claim political rights of Englishmen)
House of Burgesses

Provided a framework for self-government
(Puritans at Pymouth)
Mayflower Compact

Limited powers of English monarch: protected the right of people to own property and the right to trial by jury
(signed by King John in 1215)
Magna Carta

Required Parliament to meet regularly and stated that the monarch could not build an army without Parliament's consent
(Signed by Wiliam and Mary in 1688)
English Bill of Rights

European intellectual movement believed all problems could be solved by human reason
(Montesquieu and Locke; political leaders)
Enlightenment

Religious movement that led to the birth of new churches and religious tolerance
(Edwards and Whitefield; common people)
Great Awakening
Drafted Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson
Lead American Revolution George Washington

A list of freedoms guaranteed by the government
Bill of Rights
Armed farmers shut down the courts, blocking foreclosures ordered when farmers were unable to pay taxes to the state or loans; troops were sent to suppress the revolt Shays' Rebellion
Designed Virginia Plan James Madison
To officially approve Ratify
Power divided between state and federal governement; division of sovereignty Federalism

Separation of Powers

*Executive: Carries out the laws, serves as commander-in-chief of armed services, appoints judges, ambassadors, and other officials, and makes treaties
*Judicial: Interprets laws and treaties and enforces laws
*Legislative: Makes laws to lay and collect taxes, pay the debts, provide for the common defense and general welfare of the US, regulate interstate and foreign commerce, and declare war
Checks and Balances
*President can veto a bill proposed by Congress; Congress can override veto with a 2/3 vote of both houses
*President appoints Supreme Court justices; Supreme Court can rule presidential actions unconstitutional
*Congress determines number of judges on Supreme Court; Supreme Court can rule laws passed by congress unconstitutional
Gave the federal governement the power to regulate commerce and to tax and proposed major structural changes. Had a two-house legislature: House of Representatives and Senate. In both houses, states with larger populations would have more members. Virginia Plan
Kept basic structure of the Articles of Confederation, but gave the federal government the power to regulate commerce and to tax. Had a one-house legislature and presented the states as equals, regardless of size. States remained sovereign--a loose confederation rather than a unified nation New Jersey Plan
Made it difficult for immigrants, who voted mostly Democratic Republican, to vote and gave the President the power to arrest and deport immigrants who criticized the federal governement Alien Act
Made it a crime for citizens to publicly discredit the federal leaders Sedition Act

The power to decide the constitutionality of a federal law
(John Marshall; Marbury vs. Madison)
Judicial Review
Jefferson buys territory from Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains; says constituional power to make treaties allows this Lousiana Purchase
British soldiers seize sailors from US ships for the royal navy Impressment

Suspending trade by ordering ships to stay in port
(Jefferson persuade Congress to declare; want avoid war; "Hurt us less to not have British clothes than British not have our food" was wrong)
Embargo

Eli Whitney's invention
(reduced time and cost of separating the fiber from its hard shell)
Cotton Gin

Declare that European monarchies had no business meddling with American republics; in return, US would stay out of European affairs
(meaningless then, because the US lacked the military strength to enforce it; became important in the nineteenth century)
Monroe Doctrine

Asked Congress to charter a Bank of the United States with the power to regulate state banks; pointed out elastic clause as justitification; program approved in 1791
(Secretary of the Treasury)
Alexander Hamilton

To avoid war, Washington sent a man to London to negotiate with the British; the British gave up the forts but kept most of their restrictions on US shipping
Democratic Republicans denounced it as a sellout
Offended by it, the French began seizing American merchant ships
Jay's Treaty
System of government adopted just after the American Revolution; Congress had the power only to declare war and regulate trade with foreign nations, and had no say in interstate commerce Articles of Confederation