Us history flashcards

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1. 
manifest destiny
 
an idea accepted as a fact. drove us poilicy toward expansion in 1800s
 
2. 
transcontinental railroad
 
connected 2 coasts. sped us settlement is west, "nation shrinker". a boon to our economic. work done mostly by immagriants
 
3. 
dawes act
 
new type of indian policy. intended to give indians a fairer share.
 
4. 
road to the civil war
 
states rights v national law, free slave stqates of new territory, slavery itself
 
5. 
abe lincoln
 
16 president of the u.s. 1861-65. guided through civil war. ensured succesion. ranked as out top president ever. great orator. suspended habeaus corpus, didnt believe in equality
 
6. 
robert e lee
 
commander of all confederate forces in civil war.won many battles early in war against long odds. considered americas greatest and most beloved generals. guerilla warfare
 
7. 
Flaws of robert E lee
 
invasion of north in defensive war. pivotal loss at gettysurg
 
8. 
emancipation proclamation
 
lincolns declaration that all slaves in rebelling territories are free, late 1862 early 1863. england and france will not help confederacy
 
9. 
battle of gettysburg
 
turned war in unions favor. costliest battle of civil war. repulsed lee's second invasion of north,over 50,000 dead. mistake by lee, shows importance of high ground, north misses follow up opportunity
 
10. 
battle of vicksburg
 
turned war in unions favor.union victory on day later, 7-4.1863. siege warfare by grant exemplifies" total war". full control of miss. for union
 
11. 
ulysses s grant
 
ultimate commander of union forces in the civil war, 18 president of the us. led union to victory after a series of unsuccessful leaders because he was willing to press the attack and use his numerical advantage to wear down the south even though it cost lives. failure as pres. was military men to become pres.
 
12. 
radical reconstruction
 
nickname given to republican. dominated houses pology that punished the south rather than to forgive. made for a messy healing. they clash with andrew johnsons reconstruction plan. made people impeach him.
 
13. 
immigration old wave
 
1865 to 1890 10,000,000 or so. mostly from northwestern europe. tended to have more money and education. worked in skilled labor or on farms.
 
14. 
immigration new wave
 
1890-1914: 15,000,000 or so. came from south and east europe, as well as asia. less money, education, skill level, language, culture, and religion. worked unskilled jobs in factories
 
15. 
quid pro quo
 
noun. an exchange or swap
 
16. 
faux paus
 
describes a goof up or gaffe that is inappropriate or not acceptable by a given culture

 
17. 
coup d' etat
 
a violent overthrow of a government
 
18. 
esprit de corps
 
noun. morale of the corps
 
19. 
sans
 
prep. without
 
20. 
xenophobia and nativism
 
fear mistrust of foreigness, along with feelings that americans are superior to all other ways of life. prevailing attitude in late 1800s early 1900s that led to laws restricting imigration and a very difficult experience for a high percentage of new imigrants during that time
 
21. 
thomas edison and alex bell
 

edison invented phonograph incondescent and motion picture camera. bell invented the telephone and early advances in flight.two men responsible for the roots of modern communication and convience. world shrinkers. sped up exchange of ideas and information.

 
22. 
industrialization
 
evolution of the us from a farm based country to an industry machine based country mid 1800s early 1900s. made possible by besemer process, which made steel production faster and cheaper. indus. and immigration fueled each other. fueled growth of big cities.made nation larger, wealthier more advanced tech. more powerful internatgionally. labor often exploited awful conditioned, slum and over crowding issues, corruption in big business issues leads to reform efforts such as progressivism and unions
 
23. 
john rockafeller
 
founder of standardoil. perfected oil refining. drove others out of business.made standard a monopoly. one of the leading robber barons...symbol of big business. philanthropy (massive charity) the parodox of robber barons
 
24. 
sherman anti trust act
 
passes 1890.outlawed monopolies. bass for trust-busting in roosevelt anf taft adminitrations..hard to enforce. progressive movement accomplishment
 
25. 
samuel gompers/AFL american federation of labor
 
important union in early labor efforsts, formed 1886, gompers president. used strike and collective bargaining as tools excluded unskilled workers and minorities..early nativist force. many labor groups. this included had controversail affiliations with marxism.
 
26. 
henry ford
 
automotive industry pioneer who popularized the use of the assembly line in american manufacturing. turned us to ar culture. sped up urbanization. paid workers double what others made.slow to change slow to unionize
 
27. 
imperialism
 
practice of large nations conquering and or ruling smaller nations for own benefit. ties with idea nationalism. has led to any number of major wars. spanish american WWI, WWII.
 
28. 
monroe doctrine
 
his 1823 declaration that the entire western hemisphere was off limits to europe for purposes of colonization/imperialsim. example of imperialsm in a ction.used as justification for start of spanish american war in 1898
 
29. 
I.E.
 
in other words
 
30. 
modus operandi
 
way of doing things
 
31. 
isolationism
 
ideal practice in which a nation tries to stay completely out of the affairs of other nations. was easier said than done. U.S. tried unsuccsesfuly before both world wars. Some people feel this is baically an outdated concept with the devolopment of a "world community and a world economy
 
32. 
nationalism
 
fierce, competitive, exaggerated patrioism that actively seeks out ways to make its country the best. dpecific group/ethnicity of people who seek to govern themselves as a seperate nation rather than to be under the rule of antoher group...self determination. imperialsm is often a by product of this nationalism. played a direct role in both world wars.
 
33. 
militarism
 
a government and or its people. its people and press glorify war and military strength as a good thing and a national deal. a government devotes a great deal of its resources and effort into bulidup of its armies and technology related to the military. nidges nation toward war, especially when combind with imperialsm and nationalsm. eisemhaur warned agaisnt
 
34. 
urbanization
 
process of people moving out of rural areas and into cities. goes hand in hand with industrialization and people taking jobs in factories..major change in the overall lifestyle of americans...creates an entire new set of problems.1865-1905
 
35. 
spanish american war
 
splendid little war.18198.with spain over cubas independence and territorial holdings in phillipines. monroe doctrine at work. more die of disease than fighting. a small step in us becoming a world power. vaulted T roosevelt into the public eye
 
36. 
wright brothers
 
recognized as the first to successfully fly and control a winged aircraft, kittyhawk NC. 1903 changed the fundamental nature and possibility of transportation. world shrinker. impact militarily. not immediately recognized. struggle for credit/ patent
 
37. 
progressive moevement
 
middle class movement across party lines that concerned itself with addressing labour conditions, big business, government corruption civil rights...at its peak. 1890 1913. driving force behyind mckinley, T roosevelt and taft presidential terms...influenced wilsons. made some definate improvements in working conditions. mixed results socially. effects seen later in prohibition
 
38. 
uptown sincluair/the jungle
 
book that exposed or made public the horrible conditions in a typical meat packing plant. the uncle toms cabin of progressive movement..led to reforms in meat packing and other industries. leads diretly to the passage of the pure food and drug act. 1906
 
39. 
jane adams
 
important progressive movement female activist of the early 20th century who had impact in a number of important areas. won nobel peace prize. key suffragette who expanded the work susan B anthony and elizabeth cady stanton. culminating in the passing of the 9 amendment. founded the NAACP. founded hull house as an outreach to poor areas.
 
40. 
theodore roosevelt
 
progressive president served from 1901-1909. prided himself as being a trust buster. big stick diplomacy. expanded monroe doctrine with roosevelt corollary. initiated us involvement in panama canal building. example of military accomplishments leading to presidency. created national park system. won nobel peace prize
 
41. 
diplomacy
 
interaction with other nations. taft was dollar diplomacy. t roosevelt was big stick. wilson was moral diplomacy.
 
42. 
panama canal.
 
1904-1914.us project to link 2 major oceans across a ten mile stretch of panama, aquired in conjunction with a u.s. supported overthrow of columbian rule in panama. improved trade routes. shrunk the world. directly tied to monroe doctine . example of u.s. imperialism. creates resentment toward u.s. among latin americans
 
43. 
woodrow wilson
 
us president from 1913-1921 before during after WWI. practiced moral diplomacy. isolationist at heart..tried to keep u.s. out of WWI. mobilized nation for war effort. proposed the 14 points of peace after WWI including the unsuccessful league of nations
 
44. 
the great war a.k.a. WWI
 
1914-1918. devestating war, mostly in europe, brought on by militarism, alliances, nationalism, imperialism. u.s. joined late '17. first industrail war. vaults u.s. into a position of world prominence power. europe shattered
 
45. 
14 points of peace
 
1919.woodrow wilsons proposal for terms of peace/plan to put europe back together. forgiving in nature. proposed the league of nations
 
46. 
treaty of versailles.
 
1919. treaty that brought WWI to an end and set the terms of post war europe. includes wilsons League of nations. most terms driven by Britain and frances desire for revenge agaisnt germany, though wilson objected. blame, reperations, forbidding of military buildup. ensured another great war. WWI
 
47. 
19 amendment
 
1920. gives women the right to vote. another redidual effect of the progressive movement, 1890-1913. culmination of a long struggle that began in 1848.
 
48. 
prohibition amendments 18 and 21
 
volstead act. 1919 prohibits production and sale of alcohol. leads to 18 amendment. repealed by 21 amendment. 1933. driven by progressivism. led by an increase in organized crime levels.
 
49. 
the roaring 20's. 1920-1929
 
fast paced decade marked by. prosperity, entertainment boom, larger than life heroes, changes in social standards, changing roles for women. people devolop spending and lifestyle habits that contribute to the onset of the great depression. known as the jazz age.
 
50. 
charles lindbergh.
 
1927-1945 first man to successfully fly a plane across the atlantic. 1927..became the american hero. symbol of larger than life. speeds up industry. later becomes a major political player. isolationism prior to WWII
 
51. 
great depression
 
worst economic slump in U.S. history. 1929-1941. banks fail. joblessness and homelessness rampant. ends when WWI begins. leads to reforms in bank system. dawn of a new era of government involvement. devolops the character of generation that leads us through WWII into post war prosperity
 
52. 
en masse
 
all together, oppostie of being scattered.