Speech Test 1

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1. global plagiarism stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own
2. patchwork plagiarism stealing ideas or language from 2 or 3 sources and passing as one's own
3. incremental plagiarism failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrow from other people
4. frame of reference the sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. no two people can have exactly the same frame of reference
5. audience centeredness keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation
6. identification a process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences
7. situational audience analysis audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, physical setting for the speech, & disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker and occasion
8. spare brain time difference between rate at which at most people talk (120-150 words per min) and that rate at which the brain can process language (400-800 words/min)
9. comprehensive listening listening to understand i.e. classroom lecture
10. empathic listening listening to provide emotionaly support for speaker i.e. friend in distress
11. critical listening listening to message to support or reject
12. appreciative listening listening for pleasure i.e. music
13. attitude a frame mind in favor of or opposed to a person, policy, belief, institution, etc
14. fixed-alternative questions questions that offer a fixed choice between two or more alternatives i.e. yes, no, unsure
15. scale questions questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers. very seldom --> very often
16. open-ended questions allo respondents to answer however they want
17. catalogue a list of all books, periodicals, and other resources owned by the library
18. periodical databases
allow you to locate magazine or journal articles
19. abstract a summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author
20. reference works a work that synthesizes a large amount of related info for easy access by researches i.e. encyclopedias, yearbooks, quotation books, and bio aids
21. general encyclopedia all branches of human knowledge
22. special encyclopedia a comprehensive reference work devoted to a specific subject such as religion, art, law, science, music, etc
23. yearbook published annually that contains infor about the previous year
24. biographical aid info about people
25. virtual library search engine that combines internet with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data
26. sponsoring organization an organization that in the absence of clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the internet
27. supporting materials
materials used to support a speaker's ideas.
examples, statistics, and testimony
28. testimony quotations or paraphrases use to support a point. i.e. infomericials
29. expert testimony testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields
30. peer testimony testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience on the topic
31. spatial order a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern. top to bottom, left to right, front to back
32. causal order a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cuase-effect relationship
33. problem solution order 1st main point deals with the problem and the 2nd main point presents a solution to the problem
34. topical order divide topics into logical and consistent subtopics
35. connective word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them
36. internal preview a statement in body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next
37. internal summary a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points
38. signpost a very brief statement that indicates whare a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas. first cause, second, third
39. crescendo ending a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity
40. dissolve ending a conclusion tht generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement
41. preparation outline title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography
42. visual framework pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas.
43. speaking outline a brief outline used to job the speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech
44. denotative meaning the literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase
45. connotative meaning the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase i.e. school (emotions, personal growth, childhood friends, discipline, hw)
46. concrete words words that refer to tangible objects
47. abstract words words that refer to ideas or concepts
48. clutter discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea
49. imagery the use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas
50. parallelism the similar arragnement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences
51. antithesis
the justaposition of contrasting idease, usually in parallel structure. i.e. ask not what your country can do for you ask what you can do for your country
52. manuscript speech read word for word
53. impromptu speech a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation
54. extemperous speech a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
55. vocalized pause a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with "uh" "er" and "um"
56. kinesics the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication