Speech Test 1

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1. 
global plagiarism
 
stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own
 
2. 
patchwork plagiarism
 
stealing ideas or language from 2 or 3 sources and passing as one's own
 
3. 
incremental plagiarism
 
failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrow from other people
 
4. 
frame of reference
 
the sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. no two people can have exactly the same frame of reference
 
5. 
audience centeredness
 
keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation
 
6. 
identification
 
a process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences
 
7. 
situational audience analysis
 
audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, physical setting for the speech, & disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker and occasion
 
8. 
spare brain time
 
difference between rate at which at most people talk (120-150 words per min) and that rate at which the brain can process language (400-800 words/min)
 
9. 
comprehensive listening
 
listening to understand i.e. classroom lecture
 
10. 
empathic listening
 
listening to provide emotionaly support for speaker i.e. friend in distress
 
11. 
critical listening
 
listening to message to support or reject
 
12. 
appreciative listening
 
listening for pleasure i.e. music
 
13. 
attitude
 
a frame mind in favor of or opposed to a person, policy, belief, institution, etc
 
14. 
fixed-alternative questions
 
questions that offer a fixed choice between two or more alternatives i.e. yes, no, unsure
 
15. 
scale questions
 
questions that require responses at fixed intervals along a scale of answers. very seldom --> very often
 
16. 
open-ended questions
 
allo respondents to answer however they want
 
17. 
catalogue
 
a list of all books, periodicals, and other resources owned by the library
 
18. 
periodical databases
 
allow you to locate magazine or journal articles
 
19. 
abstract
 
a summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author
 
20. 
reference works
 
a work that synthesizes a large amount of related info for easy access by researches i.e. encyclopedias, yearbooks, quotation books, and bio aids
 
21. 
general encyclopedia
 
all branches of human knowledge
 
22. 
special encyclopedia
 
a comprehensive reference work devoted to a specific subject such as religion, art, law, science, music, etc
 
23. 
yearbook
 
published annually that contains infor about the previous year
 
24. 
biographical aid
 
info about people
 
25. 
virtual library
 
search engine that combines internet with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing data
 
26. 
sponsoring organization
 
an organization that in the absence of clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the internet
 
27. 
supporting materials
 
materials used to support a speaker's ideas.
examples, statistics, and testimony
 
28. 
testimony
 
quotations or paraphrases use to support a point. i.e. infomericials
 
29. 
expert testimony
 
testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields
 
30. 
peer testimony
 
testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience on the topic
 
31. 
spatial order
 
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern. top to bottom, left to right, front to back
 
32. 
causal order
 
a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cuase-effect relationship
 
33. 
problem solution order
 
1st main point deals with the problem and the 2nd main point presents a solution to the problem
 
34. 
topical order
 
divide topics into logical and consistent subtopics
 
35. 
connective
 
word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them
 
36. 
internal preview
 
a statement in body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next
 
37. 
internal summary
 
a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points
 
38. 
signpost
 
a very brief statement that indicates whare a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas. first cause, second, third
 
39. 
crescendo ending
 
a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity
 
40. 
dissolve ending
 
a conclusion tht generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement
 
41. 
preparation outline
 
title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography
 
42. 
visual framework
 
pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas.
 
43. 
speaking outline
 
a brief outline used to job the speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech
 
44. 
denotative meaning
 
the literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase
 
45. 
connotative meaning
 
the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase i.e. school (emotions, personal growth, childhood friends, discipline, hw)
 
46. 
concrete words
 
words that refer to tangible objects
 
47. 
abstract words
 
words that refer to ideas or concepts
 
48. 
clutter
 
discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea
 
49. 
imagery
 
the use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas
 
50. 
parallelism
 
the similar arragnement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences
 
51. 
antithesis
 
the justaposition of contrasting idease, usually in parallel structure. i.e. ask not what your country can do for you ask what you can do for your country
 
52. 
manuscript speech
 
read word for word
 
53. 
impromptu speech
 
a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation
 
54. 
extemperous speech
 
a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
 
55. 
vocalized pause
 
a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with "uh" "er" and "um"
 
56. 
kinesics
 
the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication