Sociology set 1

Total Flash Cards » 30
 
1. 

1. Max Weber considered an individual’s social position to be:

· A matter of economic class

· A matter of social status or prestige

· A matter of power

· All of the Above

 

· All of the above

 
2. 

2. The concept “meritocracy” refers to social stratification:

· With no social mobility

· In which all people “know their place”

· Based entirely on personal merit

· As it is commonly found in agrarian societies

 

· Based entirely on personal merit

 
3. 

3. According to Simon Kuznets, in which societal type is the extent of social stratification greatest?

· Hunting and gathering

· Horticultural/pastoral

· Agrarian

· Industrial

 

· Agrarian

 
4. 

4. Which of the following concepts refers to change in social position during a person’s lifetime?

· Intragenerational social mobility

· Intergenerational social mobility

· Structural social mobility

· Horizontal social mobility

 

· Intragenerational social mobility

 
5. 

5. The caste history of Great Britain is still evident today in the importance people there attach to:

· Going to college

· Social mobility

· Money

· Accent in speech

 

· Accent in speech

 
6. 

8. All of the following are goals of feminism, except for:

· Eliminating gender stratification

· Ending sexual violence

· Expanding human choice

· Opposing the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

 

· Opposing the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

 
7. 

6. Of the following statements about jobs, which is NOT true?

· Most of the highest-ranked occupations in the US are dominated by women

· Occupational rankings are much the same in all high-income nations

· Most high-prestige occupations require extensive education and training

· Occupations are a source of both prestige and income

 

Most of the highest-ranked occupations in the US are dominated by women

 
8. 

7. In 2008, women held about what share of seats in Congress?

· 16%

· 36%

· 56%

· 76%

 

· 16%

 
9. 

9. Gender refers to:

· Only whether people are male or female

· The secondary sex characteristics of men and women

· The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male

· People’s sexual orientation

 

The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female and male

 
10. 

10. Young men show greater ______ ability than young women; young women show greater _____ ability than young men.

· Intellectual/sensory

· Mathematical/verbal

· Verbal/mathematical

· Sensory/intellectual

 

· Mathematical/verbal

 
11. 

11. What is the form of social organization in which females dominate males?

· Patriarchy

· Matriarchy

· Monarchy

· Gerontoarchy

 

· Matriarchy

 
12. 

12. In the US work force,

· Men and women have the same types of jobs

· Women have now equaled the pay for men

· Women are still concentrated in several categories of jobs

· Women now earn more money, on average, than men do

 

Women are still concentrated in several categories of jobs

 
13. 

13. Modernization theory identifies which of the following as the greatest barrier to economic development?

· Having too few people

· Multinational corporations

· Capitalism

· Tradition

 

· Tradition

 
14. 

14. The global region that has seen the greatest reduction in poverty is:

· Asia

· Africa

· Latin America

· All of the above

 

· Asia

 
15. 

15. Dependency theory differs from modernization theory by:

· Making poor nations responsible for their own fate

· Supporting capitalism as a path to development

· Explaining global inequality in terms of the exploitation of poor countries by rich countries

· Claiming the economic development is not a desirable goal

 

Explaining global inequality in terms of the exploitation of poor countries by rich countries

 
16. 

16. What is Immanuel Wallerstein’s term for the middle-income countries of the world?

· Core

· Semiperiphery

· Periphery

· Colonies

 

· Semiperiphery

 
17. 

17. A social theorist who contributed to the development of dependency theory by tracing the growth of the capitalist world economy is:

· Max Weber

· Emile Durkheim

· W.W. Rostow

· Immanuel Wallerstein

 

· Immanuel Wallerstein

 
18. 

18. Of all the people in the world who live in absolute poverty, what share are women?

· 20%

· 35%

· 50%

· 70%

 

· 70%

 
19. 

19. The US is not truly pluralistic because:

· Some people still live in “ethnic enclaves”

· Of our history of slavery

· Racial and ethnic categories do not have roughly equal social standing

· All of the above

 

Racial and ethnic categories do not have roughly equal social standing

 
20. 

20. A minority is defined as a category of people who are:

· New to a country and disadvantaged

· Less than half the total population

· Different in some visible way and also socially disadvantaged

· Different from the majority in terms of culture

 

Different in some visible way and also socially disadvantaged

 
21. 

21. A national civil rights movement, which ended legal support for most cases of racial discrimination, took place during the:

· Second World War

· 1950s and 1960s

· 1970s

· 1990s

 

1950s and 1960s

 
22. 

22. Authoritarian personality theory states that extreme prejudice is:

· A trait of most people

· A trait of certain individuals raised to see some categories of people dominating others

· Found among poor and disadvantaged people

· Less common in today’s society

 

A trait of certain individuals raised to see some categories of people dominating others

 
23. 

23. The Holocaust, in which the Nazis murdered millions of Jews, is an example of:

· Assimilation

· Genocide

· Miscegenation

· Hypersegregation

 

· Genocide

 
24. 

24. Which of the following statements is correct?

· Half of the ten largest US cities have elected black mayors

· In early 2008, just one US senator was African American

· In early 2008, two out of fifty states have African American governors

· All of the above

 

All of the above

 
25. 

25. Durkheim’s concept of organic solidarity corresponds to Tonnies’ concept of:

· Gemeinschaft

· Gesellschaft

· Blasé urbanite

· Specialization

 

· Gesellschaft

 
26. 

26. Demographic change in the US over the course of the last century included a trend toward:

· Smaller household size

· A larger share of elderly people

· Migration, often to cities

· All of the above

 

All of the above

 
27. 

David Riesman described “other-directed social character” as:

· Conformity to the latest fashions and fads

· Rigid conformity to traditional ways of life

· Being highly individualistic

· All of the above

 

Conformity to the latest fashions and fads

 
28. 

28. Emile Durkheim claimed that the defining trait of modernity is:

· Shared faith in established tradition

· Strong kinship

· Common beliefs that bind people together

· Specialization and makes people interdependent on one another

 

Specialization and makes people interdependent on one another

 
29. 

29. Which type of social movement seeks radical change in all of society?

· Alterative social movement

· Redemptive social movement

· Reformative social movement

· Revolutionary social movement

 

· Revolutionary social movement

 
30. 

30. Sociologists point out that:

· Some societies change and others do not

· Social change is inevitable

· Social change is always expected

· All of the above

 

Social change is inevitable