Sociology chapter 4

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1. 
The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
 
Socialization
 
2. 
The systematic stydy of how biology affects social behavior and asserts that nature is a major factor.
 
Sociobiology
 
3. 
Children hose biological and emotional needs are met in settings characterized by affection, armth, and closeness see the world:
 
as a safe and comfortable place.
 
4. 
Occurs when children's basic needs - including emotional warmth and security, adequate shelter, food, health care, education, clothing, and protection - are not met, regardless of cause.
 
Child neglect
 
5. 
According to psychologist Sigmund Freud, human development occurs in three states that reflect different levels of the personality. The _____ is the component of personality that includes all of the individual's basic biological drives and nneds that demand immediate gratification.
 
Id
 
6. 
The _____ is the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of individuals.
 
Ego
 
7. 
The ____, or conscience, consists of the moral and ethical aspects of personality.
 
Superego
 
8. 
The ____ is first expressed as the regonition of parental control and eventually matures as the child learns that parental control is a reflection of the values and moral demands of the larger society.
 
Superego
 
9. 
According to psycholisist Erik Erikson's theory, during the ____ stage of psychosocial development (birth to age one), if infants recieve good care and nurturing (characterized by emotional warmth, security, and love) from their parents, they will develop a bond. If they do not recieve such care, they will become anxious about their surroundings.
 

Trust versus minstrust.

 
10. 
During the ____ stage of psycholsocial deveopment (age one to three), as children gain a feeling of control over their behavior and develop a variety of physcial and mental abilities, they begin to assert their independence. If caretakers disapporve of or discourage them, children will begin to question their abilities.
 
Autonomy versus shame and doubt
 
11. 
The challenge of the ___ stage of psychosocial development (age eighteen to thirty-five, which covers courtship and early family life) is to develop close and meangful relationships.
 
Intimacey versus isolation
 
12. 

During the ____ stage of psychosocial development (age thirty-five to fifty-five), the individual either looks beyond oneself and is concerned with the next generation and the furuture of the world or becomes preoccupied with their own well-being and material gains and possibly overwhelmed by boredom and interpersonal impoverishment.

 
Generativity versus self-absorption
 
13. 
Stage of (maturity to old age) referred to as ____, some individuals have resolved previous crises and are able to look back at their life as having been meaningful and personally fulfilling, or when previous crises remain unresolved some individuals view their life as a series of diappointments and misfortunes.
 
INtegrity versus despair.
 
14. 
Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget was a pioneer in the field of ___, which relates to chances over time in how people think.
 
Cognitive development
 
15. 

Psychologist Jean Piaget identified four stages of cognitive deveopment, which of the following is the correct sequence?

 
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concreate operatiional, and formal operational
 
16. 
According to Jean Piaget, in the ___ stage (birth to age two), children understand the world only through sensory contact and immediate acdtion; they can not engages in symbolic thought or use language.
 
Sensoritmoter
 
17. 
According to Jean Piaget, in the ___ stage (age tow to seven), children are limited in theiry ability to use loginc to solve preoblems or to realive that physical objects may change in shape or appearance but still retain their physical properties.
 
Preoperational
 
18. 
According to Jean Piaget, during the ___ stage (age seven to eleven), children think in terms of tangible objects and actual events. They begin to take the role of others and start to empathize with the viewpoints of others.
 
Concrete operational
 
19. 
According to Jean Piagent, by the ___ stage (age twelve through adolescence), the individual is able to engage in highly abstract thought can think about the future, and can evaluate different options or courses of action.
 
Formal operational
 
20. 
Lawrence Kohlberg leaborated on Piaget's theories of cognitive reasoning by conduction a series of studues in which people were presented with ____ that took the form of stories.
 
Moral dilemmas
 
21. 
In Lawrence Kohlberg's theory, during the ___ level (age ten through adulthood), people are most concerned with how they are percieved by their peers and on how one conform to rules.
 
Conventional
 
22. 
In Lawrence Kohlberg's theory, during the ___ level (age seven to ten), children's perceptiona are based on punishment and obediance.
 
Preconventional
 
23. 
In Lawrence Kohlberg's theory, in the ___ level (few adults reach this stage), people view morality in terms of dindivual right; "moral conduct" is judged by principles based on human rights that transcent government and laws.
 
Postconventional
 
24. 
___ is the totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves.
 
Self-concept
 
25. 
Four components make up our self-concept: the physical self is best reflect in which of the following?
 
"I am tall"
 
26. 
Four components make up our self-concept: the social self is best reflected in which of the following?
 
"I am nice to others"
 
27. 
The body builder admire her muscular physique while standing in front of a mirror; she thinks to herself, "I am muscular and strong." This perception is part of the woman's:
 
Self-identity
 
28. 
According to sociologist Charles Horton Cooley, ___ refers to the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others.
 
Looking-glass self
 
29. 
All the steps in the looking glass process:
 
We imagine personality and appearence,
We imagine how others judge our appearence and personality,
We develop a self-concept
 
30. 
According to George Herbert Mead, ___ refers to the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another peson or group in order to understand the world from that person's or group's point of view.
 
Role-taking
 
31. 
George Herbert Mead stated that ___ are those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and ho are most important in the development of the self.
 
Significant others
 
32. 
The "I" is the subjective element of the self and represnts the spontaneous and unique traits of each person.
 
Subjective
 
33. 
The "me" is the ___ element of the self which is composed of the internalized attitudes and demsnds of other members of society and the individual's awareness of those demands.
 
Objective
 
34. 
According to George Herbert Mead, in the ___ stage of self-development (from about age three to five), children learn to use language and other symbols, thus enabling them to pretend to take the roles of specific people.
 
Play
 
35. 
According to George Herbert Mead, during the ___ stage of self-developement (early school years), children understand not only their own social position buy also the positions of others around them.
 
Game
 
36. 
Sheila is playing softball with a group of her friends. Recently, she has been thinking about how her team members need to work as a team hen a line drive is hit to center field. In doing this, Sheila is developing an awareness of what Mead termed the:
 
Generalized other
 
37. 
The ___ approach emphasizes that socialization is a collective process in which children are active and creative agents, not just passive recipients of the socialization process. From this vie, childhood is a socially constructed category.
 
Symbolic Interactionist
 
38. 
Urie Bronfenbrenner's theory consists of the interations a child has with other people, as well as how those interations are influenced by still other people and situations.
 
Ecological Systems
 
39. 
According to Urie Bronenbrenner, in the ____, a child is engaged in immediate face-to-face interations with the child's parents, siblings, and other immediate family members.
 
Microsystem
 
40. 
Based on Urie Bronenbrenner's threory, how the mother reacts to her son is influenced by how she is getting along with the father illustrates the:
 
Mesosystem
 
41. 
According to Urie Bronenbrenner, the ___ relates to how the immediate family members are influenced by another setting, such as the mother's job.
 
Exosystem
 
42. 
According to Urie Bronenbrenner, the ___ involves how interactions with the child are influenced by all the components of the larger society, including public policy, such as childcare legislation.
 
Macrosystem
 
43. 

They persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society.

 

Agents of socilization

 
44. 
Theorists using a ____ perspective emphasize that families serce important duties in society becausse they are the primary source for the procreation and socilaization of children.
 
Functionalist
 
45. 
____ theorists stress that socialization contributes to false consciousness - a lack of awareness and a distorted perception of the reality of class as it affects all aspects of social life. Socilization reaffirms and reproduces the class structure in the next generation.
 
Conflict
 
46. 
In the ___ perspective, when we ezamine the context in which family life takes place, we see that grandparents and other relatives have a strong influence on how parents socialize their children.
 
Symbolic Interactionist
 
47. 
From a ____ perspective, schools are responsible for (1) socilaization (2) transmission of culture (3) social control and personal dev. and (4) The placement and training of individuals in society.
 
Functionalist
 
48. 
___ theorists assert that students have different experiences in the school systsem depending on their social class, their ratial/ethnic background, the neighborhood in which they live and their gender.
 
Conflict
 
49. 
In kindergarten, teachers typically have a "naptime" when children are expected to get their blankets, lie down, and rest. Some children might respond that they aren't sleepy, but are told that "naptime" takes place at a certain time.
 
Hidden curriculum
 
50. 
___ examining socialization in the school environment might focus on how daily activities and practices in schools affect the construction of students beliefs regarding such things as partiotism, feelings of aggression or cooperation, and gender practices as they influence girls and boys.
 
Symbolic Interactionist
 
51. 
___ function as agents of socilization by contributing to out sense of "belonging" and our feelings of self-worth.
 
Peer groups
 
52. 
William A. Corsaro points out that even during their preschool yearss, children frequently are strongly moticated to obtain certain valued material possessions (such as toys, videotapes, clothing, or athlestic shoes) and they often pass this stress on to their parents through emotional pleas.
 
Reference motivation
 
53. 
The ___ funtions as socilizing agent in several ways: (1) they inform us about events; (2) they introduce us to a wide # of people; (3) they provide an array of viepoints on current issues; (4) they make us aware of products (5) they entertain us by allowing people to live through other peoples experiences.
 
Mass media
 
54. 
The Annenberg researchers found that __ percent of children between the ages of 10 and 17 kno that Homer, Bart, and Maggie are characters on the animated Fox series "The Simpsons".
 
93
 
55. 
___ is the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society.
 
Gender Socilization
 
56. 
In a study of African American families, Janice Hale-Benson found that:
 
Both daughters and sons are socialized toward autonomy, independence, self-confidence, and nurturance of children.
 
57. 
____ is the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one's racial or ethnic status as it relatess to (1) personal identity (2) intergroup relatioonships (3) position in the social hierarchy.
 

Racial Socialization

 
58. 

Before we achieve new status, we often participate in ___, which is the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles.

 
Anticipatory socialization
 
59. 

The process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those inone's background and previous experience. It may be voluntary or unvoluntary.

 
Resocialization
 
60. 

A place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set perioud of tie and come under the control of the officials who are in charge. Examples include miliary boot camps, jails, and prisons.

 
Total Institution
 
61. 
The action of waiting to have a child with your spouse until you both have enough money.
 
Ego