Social Psychology- Chapter 3: Part 2

Total Flash Cards » 18
 
1. 

Reconstructive v. Basic Memory

 

-Basic memory: concrete and objective (i.e. last movie we watched
-Reconstructive memory: process of cognitively rebuilding the past based on cues and estimates in the present

 
2. 

Reconstructive Memory

 

-always subject to distortion
-negative impace on eyewitness testimony and false convictions

 
3. 

Research on Memory

 

-10-90% misidentification
-ingroup v. outgroup effect (racial description)
-Confidence does not correlate to accuracy
-speed is better indicator of accuracy

 
4. 

Reducing Eye Witness Error

 

-Type of line-up can challenge the witnesses validity and ability to identify

 
5. 

Simultaneous Line-up

 

-5-6 potential suspects (traditional style seen on tv)
-Suspect is available in line up
-Eye witness chooses one that looks MOST like suspect

 
6. 

Sequential Line-up

 

-Judges one person at a time
-Reduces error
-Preferred by Social Psychologists

 
7. 

Blank Line-up

 

-Suspect is not in line-up
-Performed to judge validity of eye-witness

 
8. 

Heuristics

 

-Use of cognitive shortcuts to come up with intuitive answers (i.e. grading papers: longer must be better work)
-Makes cognitive decisions more efficient

 
9. 

Pros & Cons of Heuristics

 

-faster, efficient, less effort placed
-Can be incorrect in some situations

 
10. 

Availability Heuristic

 

-Making juudgments based on examples easily accessible (i.e. assertiveness v. self-report)

 
11. 

Representativeness Heuristic

 

-Tendency to caregorize things based on how similar the object is to typical features of the category (i.e. plane= birdie to toddler)
-Assimilation according to Piaget
-Example of tall man, rich as athlete or lawyer

 
12. 

Illusory Correlation

 

-perception of a relationship that does not exist or perception of a stronger relationship than is actually there (i.e. superstitions)
-Can relate to stereotypes (i.e. New Yorkers are rude)
-We overestimate what we want to see, look for specific examples of support leads to more examples

 
13. 

Hindsight Bias

 

-Overestimation of people to claim they knew the result before it being announced after it has already occured (i.e. election results)

 
14. 

Effects of Hindsight Bias

 

-self-critism (I should have known better)

 
15. 

Self-Serving Judgments

 

-Perception of Others: more positive light when necessary (i.e. dating video study)
-Stereotypes: ability to use information selectivly in cases (i.e. gender studies in management: effect of stereotypes concerned with self-esteem)

 
16. 

Counterfactual Thinking

 

-Reflections on how past situations could have turned out differently

 
17. 

2 types of counterfacual thinking

 

-Upward: reflection on how things could have turned out better (i.e. If I had studied harder I would have gotten an A), useful for improving oneself
-Downward: Imagining how things could have been worse (i.e. didn't get promotion but at least I have a job), improve mood/ feel better about self, deliberate v. spontaneous (see person trip on campus)

 
18. 

Olympic Medal Winners

 

-Silver = could have done better (upward) if I had ___ I would have gotten gold
-Bronze= could have done worse (downward) thank goodness I am on the podium.