SOC Final

Total Flash Cards » 104

Authority more or less equally divided between people or groups (in marriage, for example, between husband and wife)




The practice of marrying within one’s group




The practice of marrying outside one’s group




The family in which a person grows up


Family of orientation


The family formed when a couple’s first child is born


Family of procreation


The tendency of people with similar characteristics to marry one another




A society in which women as a group dominate men as a group




A group in which men as a group dominate women as a group; authority is vested in males




A family consisting of a husband, wife, and children


Nuclear family


A form of marriage in which women have more than one husband




A form of marriage in which men have more than one wife




A pattern of parenting in which a father, after divorce, reduces contact with his own children, serves as a father to the children of the woman he marries or lives with, then ignores these children too, after moving in with or marrying then another woman


Serial fatherhood (divorce-activated fatherhood)


Two or more people who consider themselves related by blood, marriage, or adoption




Unmarried couples living together in a sexual relationship




Beneficial consequences to people’s actions that keep the society balanced or keep people doing what is expected by all social institutions in our society




Consequences that harm a society and undermine the balance of society or how people will be able to work effectively




People who find themselves sandwiched between and responsible for two other generations, their children and their own aging parents


The Sandwich Generation


A formal system of teaching knowledge, values, and skills




The process of transmitting values from one group to another; often refers to how cultural traits are transmitted across generations and, in education, the ways in which school transmit a group’s culture, especially its core values


Cutural transmission of values


The use of diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work


Credential society


Helping people to become part of the mainstream of society




Passing students to the next level even though they have not mastered basic materials


Social promotion


The unwritten goals of schools, such as obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms


Hidden curriculum


In education, the sorting of students into different educational programs on the basis of perceived abilities




A high school graduate who has difficulty with basic reading and math


Function illiterate


The process by which education opens and closes doors of opportunity; another term for the social placement function of education




The intended beneficial consequences of people’s actions


Manifest functions


Higher grades given for the same work; a general rise in student grades without a corresponding increase in learning


Grade inflation


Determined how teacher expectations influenced students’ grades


George Farkas study


The sociological principle that schools correspond to (or reflect) the social structure of their society


Correspondence principle


Medical practices done not for the patient’s benefit but in order to protect a physician from malpractice suits


Defensive medicine


An environment that is harmful to health


Disabling environment


The practice of sending unprofitable patients to public hospitals




A human condition measured by four components: physical, mental, social, and spiritual




A system in which the wealthy receive superior medical care and the poor inferior medical care


Two-tier system of medical care


A social role that excuses people from normal obligations because they are sick or injured, while at the same time expecting them to seek competent help and cooperate in getting well


Sick role


Mercy killing




Dealing with people as though they were objects; in the case of medical care, as though patients were merely cases and diseases, not people




The study of disease and disability patterns in a population




Sociologically, what is a family?
- A man and a woman and their children engaged in a supportive relationship
- A household composed of people of different sexes
- Any couple who have been legally married
- Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption


Two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption


Frank, Jim, Martha, and Louise occupy the same apartment, sharing routine chores such as cooking, cleaning, and laundry. Each contributes a share of their earning to pay utilities and food costs. Sociologists would describe this group as a ______.
- Family
- Household
- Patriarchy
- Clan




John was adopted as an infant by the Smiths, and has always considered them his real family. What do sociologists classify the Smith family as it is regarded by John?
- It is his family of procreation
- It is his family of orientation
- It is his family of marriage
- It is his family of obligation


It is his family of orientation


In the United States and many other parts of the world, the common practice is for whites to marry whites, African Americans to marry African Americans, and members of specific social classes to marry within their class. This marital practice is called _____.
- Exogamy
- Endogamy
- Polygyny
- Polygamy




Which of the following family situations is most likely to result in emotional overload?
- Patrick and Terri live in the rural U.S. with their five children and many relatives
- Jacob and Rebecca reside in an Amish community with their eight children
- John and Diane live in the suburbs with their only child, John Jr.
- Bob and Stephanie live in the city with their three children and close to their parents


John and Diane live in the suburbs with their only child, John Jr.


In the United States, what is the choice of a marriage partner most dependent upon?
- It is totally unpredictable because love is blind
- It is based on individuals engaging in a rational cost/benefit analysis
- It is highly influenced by pheromones
- It is influenced by age, education, class, race and religion


It is influenced by age, education, class, race, and religion


Maria and Brian recently gave birth to their first child. Based on sociological findings, what is the likely change in the marital satisfaction that Maria and Brian feel towards one another?
- It will increase
- It will decrease
- It will probably remain the same
- It is totally unpredictable


It will decrease


Another name for boomerang children is ______
- Adolescents
- Younger adults
- Emancipated minors
- Adultolescents




Of the following, in which group is a woman more likely to marry a man with less education than she has?
- Asian Americans
- Latino
- African Americans
- Native Americans


African Americans


Sociologically, what is a blended family?
- A husband and wife have their own children & adopted children
- Only adopted children are present in the family
- A lesbian couple has children through artificial insemination
- A husband or wife brings a child into the new family from a prior relationship


A husband or wife brings a child into the new family from a prior relationship


Shacking up, or living in sin, are old-fashioned ways to describe ___.
- Communal living
- Temporary marriage
- Cohabitation
- Roommates




Edgar and Jayne are in their 40s. They are busy raising a family of three children. They also spend considerable time each week at their parents’ homes doing yard maintenance and running errands for their parents. Edgar and Jayne are member of the ____ generation.
- Yuppie
- Baby boom
- Umbrella
- Sandwich




Which of the following couples is least likely to divorce within the first ten years of their marriage?
- Alice and Gregory who were teenage sweethearts married when they were 22
- Becky and Frank who work at the show factory together on the assembly line
- Ruth and Chuck who, after a whirlwind romance, got married and had their first child six months later
- Cathy and Tony who attend the same fundamentalist church and were married in their late 20s


Cathy and TOny who attend the same fundamentalist church and were married in their late 20s


Johnnie’s parents were divorced three years ago. During the first year after the divorce, Johnnie’s father visited him every week. Then Johnnie’s father remarried and fathered another child. Now he rarely visits Johnnie. This situation is an example of ___ .
- Child neglect
- Child abuse
- Serial fatherhood
- Middle-aged fatherhood


Serial fatherhood


According to the findings of Diana Russell, who are the most common incest offenders?
- Uncles
- Fathers
- Brothers
- First cousins




True or False: The term ‘family’ is one difficult to define because of the many varieties of family displayed in the world’s cultures




True or False: The chances of divorce increase as the level of one’s education and income increase




True or False: Research shows divorced fathers often eventually stop seeing their children altogether




Prior to a formal system of education that included schools, teachers, and diplomas how was the manifest function of education accomplished?
- Through a process of acculturation
- Through heredity and genetics
- Children relied on instinct to develop needed skills
- Children relied on experimentation and imitation


Through a process of acculturation


What was necessary for education to develop as a separate social institution?
- The feudal system had to end
- A sufficient number of people had to become literate
- The printing press had to be invented to permit the printing of books
- Society had to develop a sufficient surplus so some workers could become teachers


Society had to develop a sufficient surplus so some workers could become teachers


What event created the belief that formal education was essential to the well-being of society?
- The American Revolution
- The industrialization of society
- The discovery that the world was round
- The invention of the steam-powered press


The industrialization of society


Who was the education from Massachusetts, who in 1837, proposed the “common school” to be supported through tax dollars and established throughout the state?
- Noah Webster
- Horace Mann
- James B. Watson
- John Dewey


Horace Mann


What is a core value reflected upon by the education system?
- Individual competition and achievement
- Competence in mastering knowledge
- A group-centered approach that stresses uniformity
- Memorization and critical thinking


A group-centered approach that stresses uniformity


Although cooperation is a core value in Japan, Japanese students are admitted to college only on the basis of intense competition. This is an example of a(n) ______ .
- Cultural contradiction
- Value conflict
- Status inconsistency
- Role ambiguity


Cultrual contradiction


When employers use diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work, it becomes a ___ society.
- Fiduciary
- Bifurcated
- Credential
- Bureaucratic




Determining which people will enter what occupation is a function of education referred to as ____ .
- Mainstreaming
- Multicultural representation
- Telescoping
- Gatekeeping




What is the concept that some jobs require few skills and can be performed by people of less intelligence?
- Multicultural representation
- Personal growth
- Social placement
- Dedicated workers


Social placement


What do studies demonstrate in regard to the level of social skills home schooled students develop?
- Home-schooled students are functionally illiterate when it comes to social skills
- Home-schooled students have significant behavioral problems
- Home-schooled students are shy and timid when encountering new social situation
- Home-schooled students are equal or better than conventional schooled students


Home-schooled students are equal or better than conventional schooled students


What do conflict theorists believe is the purpose of the hidden curriculum?
- It encourages the mainstreaming of students
- It promotes individual change
- It maintains the power of teachers
- It promotes social inequalities


It promotes social inequalities


According to sociologist Harry Gracey, kindergarten is somewhat like a boot camp for the entire educational system because the students ___
- Learn social integration
- First begin to acquire skills and knowledge
- Are taught to follow orders without questioning authority
- Are taught higher math


Are taught to follow orders without questioning authority


What is the correspondence principle?
- The social structure of schools reflects their society
- Family structure is based on the school’s structure
- Students learn more easily through distance education
- Large corporations control what is taught in US schools


The social structure of schools reflects their society


Sociologists Rosenthal and Jacobson found that when teachers were told that certain students would probably spurt ahead during the year, those students actually did better than other students on IQ tests. What does this illustrate?
- Some students are more motivated
- Students will respond to teachers’ expectations
- Students are predictable
- Education is the best route to success


Students will respond to their teachers' expectations


In a study of teach expectations, sociologist George Farkas found that females and Asian Americans averaged high course grades even though the scores on course work were the same for all students no matter the race/ethnicity or gender. What did Farkas conclude was the reason for this finding?
- They knew how to signal the teachers by being more eager and cooperative
- They did more extra credit work than other students
- They asked more questions about the work they were doing
- They stayed after school and helped the teacher clean the room


They knew how to signal the teachers by being more eager and cooperative


Renee has difficulty in reading and writing. However, despite her problem with reading and writing, she has been passed into the next grade every year. This is an example of ___ .
- Tracking
- Functional literacy
- Social promotion
- Mainstreaming


Social promotion


According to a study of 15,000 students in public and Catholic schools, the superior test performance of students in Catholic schools in comparison to public schools was due to ___ .
- The dedication of the teacher to education
- The social class of the student
- Higher standards and greater parent involvement
- One-on-one tutoring


Higher standards and greater parent involvement


Which of the following statements is least accurate based on the results sociologists discovered while researching school violence?
- There is a trend toward greater school violence
- Boys die in school incidents at a rate three times greater than girls
- Shootings account for about three-fourths of all school related deaths
- The media is largely responsible for creating a myth there is greater school violence


There is a trend toward greater school violence


True or False: The hunting-gathering societies have no separate social institution called education




True or False: In Japan, a philosophy based on cooperation and group effort ensures virtually every student qualifies for admission to college




True or False: A central sociological principle is that a nation’s education system reflects its culture




True or False: Because many employers use degrees and diplomas as a sorting device to determine job eligibility, the United States can be classified as a meritocracy




True or False: Providing childcare and serving as matchmaking institutions are examples of the manifest functions of the public school system




The perception of health varies considerably among societies of the world. The definition of what constitutes health and illness is most defined by which of the following variables?
- The culture of society
- The life expectancy of members of the society
- The life span of members of the society
- The extent of medical services within a society


The culture of society


Because the sociology of medicine focuses on how cultural beliefs, lifestyle, and social class influence health and illness, the sociology of medicine is a(n) ____ field of sociology.
- Applied
- Biological
- Clinical
- Theoretical




The definition of health and illness varies from culture to culture and group to group. The variance in definition is most aligned with which sociological perspective?
- Functionalism
- The conflict perspective
- Symbolic interactionism
- The feminist perspective


Symbolic interactionism


Which component of the health continuum did the author add to the three components identified by the World Health Organization?
- Physical
- Spiritual
- Mental
- Social




What was the contribution Talcott Parsons made as a sociologist to the understanding of health and medicine?
- He explained the influence of religion on health
- He introduced the concept of the sick role
- He showed how physical and mental illness are interrelated
- He addressed the effects of living in the inner city on health


He introduced the concept of the sick role


Who are the primary gatekeepers of the sick role?
- Parents and physicians
- Teachers and work supervisors
- Social constructionists and moral entrepreneurs
- Nutritionists and dieticians


Parents and physicians


Of the following nations, which one has the highest infant mortality rate?
- South Korea
- Canada
- United States
- France


United States


According to symbolic interactionists, how did physicians in the United States work to eliminate midwives from assisting in childbirth?
- Physicians became more politically powerful than midwives
- Physicians learned more about childbirth than the midwives
- Physicians did not allow midwives to buy medicine
- Physicians redefined pregnancy and childbirth as a medical condition


Physicians redefined pregnancy and childbirth as a medical condition


What is epidemiology?
- The practice of medicine by indigenous tribes
- How nations are stratified on the basis of the health care they receive
- The training and preparation of physicians in a given society
- The study of disease and disability patterns in a population


The study of disease and disability patterns in a population


Which of the following descriptions best summarizes medical care in the United States?
- Health care is a right, granting equal access to care for everyone
- Health care is a commodity to be sold at the highest price
- Health care is neither a right nor a privilege, but a matter of choice
- Health care is both a right and a privilege for all citizens


Health care is a commodity to be sold at the highest price


In the 1800s, what was the popular medical explanation for the cause of sickness?
- Bacterial infection
- Bad fluids
- Demonology
- Environmental toxins


Bad fluids


According to your text, how have physicians responded to malpractice suits to protect themselves from patients?
- They have depersonalized medicine
- They have added non-Western alternative methods to treatment
- They have engaged in ordering additional tests only as a defensive strategy
- They have become more patient-based


They have engaged in ordering additional tests only as a defensive strategy


Many of the physical signs of aging such as balding, wrinkles, and a sagging chin or buttocks are now treated by physicians. This process of turning a normal characteristic into a medical matter is termed ____ .
- Medicalization
- Professionalism of medicine
- Mediphobia
- Monopolization of medicine




Mercy killing for terminally ill people is defined as ____ .
- Hospice
- The departmentalization of medicine
- The medicalization of death
- Euthanasia




In an effort to reduce the rising costs of medical care, what has the federal government established that specifies the amount it will pay for the treatment of specific illnesses or injuries?
- It has introduced a bill advocating socialized medicine
- It created committees to judge the necessity of treatment
- It introduced a sliding scale payment schedule
- It classified all illnesses into diagnosis-related groups


It classified all illnesses into diagnosis-related groups


Sabrina went to the emergency room of the Angels Of Mercy Hospital complaining of severe chest pain, difficulty breathing, and a high fever. While waiting to see a doctor, she collapsed. Because a check of Sabrina’s health insurance by the hospital showed her coverage had expired, Sabrina was sent to a public hospital in a comatose state and died along the way. Such a practice is called ____ .
- Death by incompetence
- Dumping
- An adverse effect
- Malpractice




Some doctors have cut medical costs by meeting several patients who share the same condition, such as pregnancy, at the same time. This method of treatment is called _____ .
- Pay-as-you-go medicine
- Fee-for-service plan
- Health maintenance
- Group care


Group care


The area of the world most devastated by the AIDS virus is _____ .
- Southwest Asia
- Sub-Saharan Africa
- Amazon Basin
- Pacific Rim


Sub-Saharan Africe


Matt is a weekend marijuana user. Susie smokes two packs of cigarettes a day. Jackie uses heroin a couple of times a week, while Ryan is drunk a few nights a week. Research shows which one of these young people is using the most lethal recreational drug?
- Susie
- Matt
- Ryan
- Jackie




Today, many individuals are choosing to receive medical assistance _____, rather than taking time off of work or spending hours visiting a local physician’s office.
- On the internet
- At church
- At the drug store
- While on vacation


On the internet


True or False: The concepts of health and illness vary from culture to culture and in a pluralistic society, from group to group.




True or False: Parents and physicians are the primary gatekeepers to the sick role.




True or False: Cancer is the number one cause of death in the United States today.




True or False: Physicians incompetence has been virtually eliminated in modern Western medicine, due in part to the extensiveness of diagnostic testing.