Psychotherapy and Behavior Change

Total Flash Cards » 100
 
1. 

Wilhelm Wundt

 

-empirical tradition
-beginning of modern psychology
-founded first laboratory for studying "mental processes"
-emphasized empirical research methods
-trained many students who established early psychology labs in the US

 
2. 

Lightner Witmer

 

-empirical tradition
-student of Wundt
-former school teacher
-agreed to take on a case with a student who was a chronic bad speller
-considered to be the first "clinical psychologist"
-director of psychology lab at UPenn
-established first psychological clinic at UPenn

 
3. 

Franz Gall

 

-created phrenology
-psychometric tradition
-german anatomist

 
4. 

Phrenology

 

-created by Franz Gall
-study of the proposed relationships between mental characteristics and the shape of the head
-early form of psychological assessment

 
5. 

Charles Darwin

 

-UK
"origin of species"
-natural selection
-basis for theory of evolution

 
6. 

Sir Francis Galton

 

-UK
-psychometric tradition
-Darwin's cousin
-applied Darwin's theory of inheritance to variations in intelligence
-early "mental tests"

 
7. 

Early "mental tests"

 

-created by SIr Francis Galton
-systematic collection of behavior samples in response to standard sets of stimuli

 
8. 

Alfred Binet

 

-France
-psychometric tradition
-was commissioned by the french government to create the Binet-Simon Scale

 
9. 

Binet-Simon Scale

 

-created by Alfred Binet
-method that identified school children who could not benefit from education due to intellectual limitations

 
10. 

Lewis Terman

 

-US
-psychometric tradition
-Stanford University
-revised the Binet-SImon scale into the Standford-Binet Intelligence Test

 
11. 

Standford-Binet Intelligence Test

 

-created by Lewis Terman
-revised the Binet-SImon Scale
-still in use today
-ages 2-85
-hierarchial structure of scores
-2 factors and 5 subfactors
-full scale inclues 2 facts: verbal and nonverbal intelligence
-intelligence=g

 
12. 

James McKeen Cattell

 

-US-psychometric tradition-student of Wundt-established the study of "sensorimotor tests of mental abilities" in the US-was fired from Columbia for his opposition to WWII-founded the "Psychological Corporation"

 
13. 

The Psychological Corporation

 

-founded by James McKeen Cattell-manufactures professional intelligence test-still used today

 
14. 

Hippocrates

 

-created first "medical model" of abnormalities
-bodily humors

 
15. 

Ancient Cultures

 

-thought abnormality was due to possession

 
16. 

Middle Ages

 

-catholic schools emerged as primary social and legal institutions in Europe-many physicians were priests-medica models were replaced by demonological explanations-treatment was exorcism-Malleus Maleficarum-witch hunting manuel

 
17. 

Malleus Maleficarum

 

-witch hunting manuel in the middle ages-written by two german priests

 
18. 

Renaissance Age

 

-early asylums were established
-a means to care for mentally ill? -a means to removed them from society?-St Mary of Bethelehem was opened in London-medicine began being used again to treat the ill, but limited types were available

 
19. 

St Mary of Bethlehem

 

-a monastery that was turned into an asylum-nicknamed "bedlam"-known for abominable conditions and inadequate care -violent patients were put on exhibition to get money -less violent patients were put on streets to seek charity

 
20. 

Who were they Reformers of CP?

 

-led efforts to improve care of the mentally ill-Dorothea Dix-Phillipe Pinel-Benjamin Rush-William Tuke

 
21. 

Who were the forerunners to Psychoanalysis?

 

-Franz Mesmer
-animal magenetism
-Jean Marie Charcot
-used hypnosis to treat hysteria and conversion disorder
-Pierre Janet -dissociation

 
22. 

Emil Kraepelin

 

-german psychiatrist-developed first formal classification system for mental disorders (nosology)

 
23. 

Nosology

 

-created by Emil Kraepelin-the first formal classification system for mental disorders

 
24. 

Sigmund Freud

 

-australia-university of vienna-theory of psychoanalysis-not well accepted at first-thought that abnormality was due to unconscious conflict between instinctual drives and societal demands upon behavior

 
25. 

Army Alpha & Beta Tests

 

-developed during WWI for military recruits-group-administered intelligence tests for literates and illiterates

 
26. 

Personal Data Sheet

 

-also called Woodworth Psychoneurotic Inventory-developed during WWI for military recruits-detected emotional/behavioral problems

 
27. 

Psychodynamic Approach

 

-primary theoretician was Freud-originated in european neurology and psychiatry-studies on hysteria

 
28. 

Treatments of Hysteria under the Psychodynamic Approach

 

-hypnosis (the talking cure)-cathartic method-free association-analysis of dreams-analysis of fantasies and wishes

 
29. 

Free Association

 

-psychodynamic approach-Freud's treatment of hysteria-patient lies on couch facing away from psychologistand says whatever comes to mind-psychologist writes it all down-thought to be an access to unconscious material

 
30. 

Freud's Basic Postulate

 

-human behavior is motivated by conflict between -instinctual impulses -demands of reality-this conflict produces anxiety which is uncomfortable-person develops defenses to manage this anxiety-goal is to develop insight (bringing conflicts into awareness) as a way of curing yourself of anxiety

 
31. 

Freud's Structural Model of Personality

 

-id-ego-superego

 
32. 

Id

 

-freud's structural model of personality-present at birth-contains psychic energy (libido) which motivates behavior-operates on "pleasure principle" (immediate gratification)

 
33. 

Ego

 

-freud's structural model of personality-develops over time-operates on "reality principle" (negotiates between Id impulses and demands of reality)-uses defense mechanisms to keep conflicts out of awareness and thus reducing anxiety

 
34. 

Superego

 

-freud's structural model of personality-develops over time-operates on "morality principle" (ethics, morals, values)

 
35. 

Humanistic Approach

 

-developed as an alternative to psychodynamic approach-originated in existential philosophy
-humans are viewed as: -creative & growthful -motivated to realize their full potential -problems result from disturbance of awareness or restriction of existence-emphasis is placed on what the patient is perceives thinks and feels in the "here and now"-people value positive regard of others

 
36. 

Carl Rogers

 

-humanistic approach-initially trained in psychoanalysis
-nondirective psychotherapy-later change to client-centered psychotherapy and then person-centered psychotherapy-actualizing tendency

 
37. 

The Actualizing Tendency

 

-carl rogers-humanistic approach-the directional trend which is evident in all organ and human life-the urge to expand, develop and mature-the tendency to express and activate all capacities of the organism

 
38. 

General Steps of Clinical Assessment Process

 

-receive and clarify referral question
-plan data collection procedures
-carry out assessment process
-process data and form conclusions
-communicate assessment results

 
39. 

Referral Source

 

-person or entity requesting the assessment

 
40. 

Referral Question

 

-questions or issues to be addressed by the assessment
-drives the choice of instruments and techniques
-drives the interpretation of results
-drives the communication of results

 
41. 

Basic Sources of Information

 

-interviews
-behavioral observations
-psychological tests
-case history
-review of records

 
42. 

Factors affecting which Data Collection Procedure used

 

-conventions and traditions
-psychometric properties (reliability and validity)
-efficiency
-cost
-patient's capabilities

 
43. 

Collecting Assessment Data

 

-step in the clinical assessment process
-best to use multiple sources of information so you can cross-validate the info
-you can look for consistencies amongst the results
-checking for accuracy by assessing the same thing in different ways
-relying on one type of info yields
-higher efficiency and lower costs
-higher error rates
-lower quality work
-can be incompetent

 
44. 

Processing Data & Forming Conclusions

 

-step in the clinical assessment process
-determine what the collected data means
-interpret the results
-determine how the results pertain to the referral question
-gets complicated when you use multiple data sources

 
45. 

Communicating Assessment Results

 

-step in the clinical assessment process
-organize background info, procedures, results and recommendations
-prepare a clearly written written assessment report that addresses the referral question and is audience appropriate

 
46. 

Goals of Clinical Assessment

 

-diagnostic classification of the patient
-description of a problem/condition
-treatment planning
-prediction:
-prognosis and likelihood of future behavior (often combined)

 
47. 

Diagnostic Classification

 

-goal of clinical assessment
-Multiaxial Diagnosis (DSM-IV-TR)
-5 axis
-can be a diagnosis on some and not others
-tree table

 
48. 

Axis I

 

-Multiaxial Diagnosis (DSM-IV-TR)
-clinical syndromes
-the treatable things that you can stabilize and learn how to manage

 
49. 

Axis II

 

-Miltiaxial Diagnosis (DSM-IV-TR)
-personality disorders
-tends to be more chronic and less apt to change
-originate earlier in life

 
50. 

Axis III

 

-Multiaxial Diagnosis (DSM-IV-TR)
-General medical conditions
-high choloesterol, high blood pressure, chronic pain, cancer, etc;

 
51. 

Axis IV

 

-Multiaxis Diagnosis (DSM-IV-TR)
-current psychological stressors
-bidirectional (one thing could be due to another factor, and vice versa..a person is homeless and thus depressed, or a person was depressed and led to him becoming homeless)

 
52. 

Axis V

 

-Multiaxial Diagnosis (DSM-IV-TR)
-Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)
-current (0-100)
-best past year (0-100)

 
53. 

Description

 

-goal of clinical assessment
-generally intended to provide much more information than a simple diagnostic label
-focus is description, explanation and conceptualization of the patient's problems

 
54. 

CBT Perspective

 

-conceptualization perspective
-provide a rationale for why they;re in treatment and what might be causing it

 
55. 

Psychodynamic Perspective

 

-explains someone's problems in terms of their advantages and weaknesses

 
56. 

oops

 

ignore this

 
57. 

Treatment Planning

 

-goal of clinical assessment
-some diagnoses lead to a preferred treatment
-examines what previous treatment efforts have failed and why them failed

 
58. 

Prediction

 

-goal of clinical assessment
-expected to use expertise to have an accurate prognosis
-expected course of a disorder
-expected response to a treatment
-expected risk of relapse
-expected future performance
-expected recidivism
-expected risk of self-harm
-expected future performance

 
59. 

Types of Interviews

 

-intake interviews
-problem-referral interviews
-orientation interviews
-termination and debriefing interviews
-crisis interviews

 
60. 

Intake Interviews

 

-most common type of clinical interview
-typically at the beginning of psychotherapy
-sometimes performed by an intake worker
-usually performed by the person who will provide psychotherapy

 
61. 

Who performs an intake interview?

 

-usually the person who will be providing ongoing psychotherapy
-sometimes performed by an intake worker who then transfers them on to someone based off of the interview who can better assist the patient

 
62. 

Purpose of an Intake Interview

 

-to establish nature of the clinical problem
-render diagnosis
-describe nature and history of the problem
-provide social history
-outline treatment plan and recommendations
-mental status examination (MSE)

 
63. 

Problem-Referral Interviews

 

-patient is referred to psychologist by another professional or entity
-goal is to assess something or answer a specific question (referral question)
-"psychological evaluation"

 
64. 

Orientation Interviews

 

-special interview that precedes participation in some specialty treatment
-anger management group, parent training group etc;
-purpose is to inform patient about the nature of the treatment
-to correct any misconceptions
-to outline expectations of the patient
-screening: determine patient appropriateness for that treatment

 
65. 

Termination Interviews

 

-typically used for psychotherapy
-healthy way of providing closure
-review of treatment progress
-review response to future problems (what happens if symptoms come back)

 
66. 

Debriefing Interviews

 

-review results and findings
-make recommendations and referrals
-not always appropriate; sometimes you're not allowed to disclose results (in forensic cases)

 
67. 

Crisis Interviews

 

-usually occurs impromptu
-part of crisis intervention
-purpose is to collect assessment data
-provide support
-determine whether or not hospitalization or police intervention is necessary
-provide referrals
-arrange for follow-up

 
68. 

Types of Interview Structures

 

-directive
-non-directive
-semi-structured

 
69. 

Nondirective Interview

 

-clinical says very little
-uses subtlety
-emphasizes "rogerian" techniques

 
70. 

Rogerian Technique

 

-non-directive technique
-active listening, reflection, paraphrasing, summarizing, open-ended questions

 
71. 

Semi-Structured Interview

 

-mix of open ended and closed ended questions
-often developed to assess specific conditions
-protocols:
-predetermined, organized set of topics and questions
-some flexibility for clinicains

 
72. 

Structured Interview

 

-protocol uses standardized, closed-ended questions in an established order and format
-often includes rules for coding and scoring responses
-often used to assess specific conditions/areas
-emphasis on high degree of consistency across interviewers and interviewees
-often used in research (because it has high diagnostic reliability)
example: decision trees
-can become dependent of on protocols
-patients responses can be inaccurate or dishonest

 
73. 

Decision Trees

 

-tell interviewer what to do at certain junctures
-structured interview

 
74. 

Advantages to Structured Interviews

 

-decreases sources of interviewing error such as:
-patient variance
-information variance
-criterion variance

 
75. 

Patient Variance

 

-variations w/ in the same patient in how the patient responds to same question by different clinicians
-decreases likelihood in systematic interviews

 
76. 

Information Variance

 

-variations among clinicians in what/how questions are asked. Different questions, different answers.
-decreases likelihood in systematic interviews
"what gives you anxiety?" "do you feel anxious in crowds?"

 
77. 

Criterion Variance

 

-differences in judgments made across different clinicians
-decreases in likelihood in systematic interviews
-when is it low mood as opposed to depression?

 
78. 

Disadvantages to Structured Interviews

 

-less flexibility (some ppl don't like no spontaneity)
-can be lengthy
-limits range of responses
-clinicians may become dependent on protocols
-miss important info not included in the protocol
-can alienate patients if rapport isnt established (patient and clinican arent connected)
-quality of results depends on quality of responses

 
79. 

Error and Bias in Interviews

 

-mental retardation
-certain neurological conditions
-dementia
-psychopathy
-might be dishonest people
-malingering (a source of secondary gain)
-personal biases and theoretical orientation of the interviewer

 
80. 

Test

 

-a systematic procedure to measure a behavior, skill, trait, attribute or feature

 
81. 

Standardization

 

-consistency of administration and scoring procedures

 
82. 

Tests Measure:

 

-intellectual or cognitive abilities
-personal characteristics
-attitudes, interests, preferences, values

 
83. 

Commonly used Tests

 

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

 
84. 

Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2

 

-objective psychopathology test
10 clinical scales
3 validity scales
567 true/false answers

 
85. 

Clinical Scales of Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2

 

1.) hypochondriasis
2.) depression
3.) hysteria
4.) psychopathic deviate
5.) masculinity-femininity
6.) paranoia
7.) psychasthenia
8.) schizophrenia
9.) hypomania
0.) social introversion

 
86. 

Validity Scales of Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2

 

lie scale
infrequency scale
correction scale

 
87. 

lie scale

 

-validity scale on the MMPI-2
-items reflective of tendency to present oneself in overly-positive light
-high scores=defensiveness

 
88. 

infrequency scale

 

-validity scale on the MMPI-2
-items describing very rare symptoms
-high=exaggerated symptoms

 
89. 

correction scale

 

-validity scale on the MMPI-2
-overt defensiveness about admitting to problems in functioning
-high score=defensiveness

 
90. 

Milton Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III

 

-objective psychopathology test
-175 t/f items
-alternative to MMPI-2
-focuses more on personality disorders
-4 validity scales
-10 clinical syndrome scales

 
91. 

NEO-PI-R

 

-objective personaltiy test
-243 items
-five factor model of personality
-openness
-conscientiousness
-extraversion
-agreeableness
-neuroticism

 
92. 

objective personality tests

 

-self reported data
-standardized questions
-t/f questions
-yields an objective score
-scores typically compared to normative data

 
93. 

projective tests

 

-grew out of the pscyhodynamic tradition
-rorschach
-TAT
-CAT
-Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank
-Projective Drawings
-DAP
-H-T-P

 
94. 

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV

 

-most widely used intelligence and psychological test in the US
-hierarchial structure
-2 factors, 4 subfactors, 11 sub-tests
-full scale intelligence score=g
-4 index scores: verbal abilities and nonverbal abilities

 
95. 

TAT

 

Thematic Aptitude Test
projective test
shown a picture and asked to tell a story about it

 
96. 

CAT

 

Children's Apperception Test
projective test
shown a picture of an animal and asked to tell a story about it

 
97. 

Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank

 

projective test
I feel _____. I think _____. My mom is ____.

 
98. 

DAP

 

projective test
draw a person test

 
99. 

H-T-P

 

projective test
house tree person

 
100. 

Achievement Test

 

-testing to measure what has already been learned, given prior to participation in an educational program
WIAT-II
WJ-III
KTEA-II
WRAT-4