Psychology Study Guide 1

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1. 
Birth Date of Psychology?
 
1879
 
2. 
Schools of PsychExplain Structuralism:
 
to study conscious experience and its structure. Uses introspection. (Looking inside yourself, at your feelings, thoughts, and emotions)
 
3. 
Schools of PsychExplain Gestalt Psychology:
 

To describe organization of mental processes. Uses observation of sensory and perceptual phenomena. Looks at the whole picture.

 
4. 
Schools of PsychExplain Psychoanalysis:
 

To explains personality and behavior. Develops techniques for treating mental disorders. It studies individual cases. It looks into your mind at your subconscious.

 
5. 
Schools of PsychExplain Functionalism:
 
Studies how the mind works in allowing an organism to adapt to the environment. Uses naturalistic observation of animal and human behavior.
 
6. 
Schools of PsychExplain Behaviorism:
 

Studies only observable behavior and explains behavior through learning principles. Uses observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses. Consequences of behaviors.

 
7. 
Approaches to the Science of PsychologyExplain Biological Approach:
 
behavior is the result of physical processes. The brain and hormones determine behavior.
 
8. 
Approaches to the Science of PsychologyExplain Evolutionary Approach:
 

emphasizes the inherited and adaptive aspects of behavior and mental processes.

 
9. 
Approaches to the Science of PsychologyExplain Psychodynamic Approach:
 

emphasizes unconscious mental processes in explaining human thought, feelings, and behavior.

 
10. 
Approaches to the Science of PsychologyExplain Behavioral Approach:
 

human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned in life.

 
11. 
Approaches to the Science of PsychologyExplain Cognitive Approach:
 
emphasizes research on how the brain takes in info, creates perceptions, forms and memories.
 
12. 
Approaches to the Science of PsychologyExplain Humanistic Approach:
 
behavior is controlled by the decisions that people make about their lives based on their perceptions of the world.
 
13. 
What are the sub fields of psychology:
 

1. Cognitive 2. developmental 3. counseling 4. Biological 5. Quantitative 6. Community 7. Personality 8. Clinical 9. Educational 10. Social 11. Industrial

 
14. 
What questions should you ask when thinking critically about Psychology?
 

1. What am I being asked to believe or accept?

2. Is there evidence available to support the claim?

3. Can that evidence be interpreted another way?

4. What evidence would help to evaluate the alternatives?


5. What conclusions are most reasonable?

 
15. 
What are the goals of the scientific Method?
 

1. Describe a phenomenon.

2. Make predictions about the phenomenon.

3. Control the phenomenon to ask specific questions about it.

 
16. 
Explain an Hypotheses:
 

a specific, testable proposition

 
17. 
explain a theory:
 
set of propositions used to explain the hypotheses.
 
18. 
Name four Methods of Psychological Research:
 
1. Natural Observation2. Case Studies3. Surveys4. Experiments and Quasi Experiments
 
19. 
Methods of Psychological Research:Explain Natural Observations:
 

process of watching without interfering.

 
20. 
Methods of Psychological Research:Explain Case Studies:
 

intensive examination of something in a individual or group situation.

 
21. 
Methods of Psychological Research:Explain Surveys:
 
giving people questionnaires or interviews.
 
22. 
Methods of Psychological Research:Explain Experiments and Quasi Experiments:
 

- researcher manipulates one variable and observes the effect.

- independent variable- manipulated variable.

- dependent variable- factor affected by independent variable.

- Quasi- you randomly assign groups

 
23. 
Explain the problems of Experiments:
 

- confounding variable- any factor that affects the dependent variable.

- Random variables- uncontrolled factors

- Participant’s expectations and Placebo effect.

- Experimental Bias- experimenter unintentionally encourages participants to support hypothesis. - way around this- double blind design – the creator and the people do not know who gets the treatment.

 
24. 
APA Ethical Guidelines:Explain the role of the Intuitional Review Board:
 
to make sure patients are protected.
 
25. 
APA Ethical Guidelines:What are the important ethical principles:
 

1. informed consent

2. avoid harm

3. use of deception

5. animal obligations
 
26. 
Statistical Analysis of Research Results:What are the Measures of central tendency?
 
1. Mean2. Median3. Mode
 
27. 
Statistical Analysis of Research Results:What are the Measures of variability?
 
1. Range2. Standard Deviation
 
28. 
What are the four types of cells? Explain them too.
 

- Neurons- Specialized cells of the nervous system that talk to each other.

- Glial Cells- Nervous system cells that hold neurons together and help them communicate with each other.

- Dendrites- Detects and carries signals to the cell body.

- Axons- carries signals away from the cell body.

 
29. 
How do Neurons Communicate?
 

-Polarization- brings in ions

-Depolarization- sends out ions

 
30. 
Major Neurotransmitters:What is the Normal Function of:Acetycholine
 
Movement and Memory
 
31. 
Major Neurotransmitters:What is the Normal Function of:Norepinephrine
 
Sleep, Learning, Mood
 
32. 
Major Neurotransmitters:What is the Normal Function of:Serotomin
 
Mood, Appetite, Aggression
 
33. 
Major Neurotransmitters:What is the Normal Function of:Dopamine
 
Movement, Reward
 
34. 
Major Neurotransmitters:What is the Normal Function of:GABA
 
Movement
 
35. 
Major Neurotransmitters:What is the Normal Function of:Glutamate
 
Memory
 
36. 
Major Neurotransmitters:What is the Normal Function of:Endorphin
 
Modulation of Pain
 
37. 
CNS:Explain the Central Nervous System:
 
Brain and spinal cord
 
38. 
CNSexplain the Peripheral Nervous System:
 
sends messages to and from the CNS
 
39. 
CNSExplain the somatic nervous system:
 
transmits info from senses to the CNS and carries signals from the CNS to the muscles.
 
40. 
CNSexplain the autonomic nervous system
 
carries messages between the CNS and the heart, lungs, and other organs.
 
41. 
CNSexplain the nuclei
 
clusters of nerve cell bodies in the CNS
 
42. 
CNSexplain the spinal cord
 
path way from brain to muscles, controls reflexes
 
43. 
Brainexplain the hindbrain
 
continuation of the spinal cord (basic life and functions)
 
44. 
Brainwhat does the medulla do?
 
controls heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing
 
45. 
Brainwhat does the cerebellum do?
 
controls finely coordinated movements
 
46. 
Brainwhat does the reticular formation do?
 
regulates arousal and attention.
 
47. 
Brainwhat does the midbrain do?
 
helps produce smooth movements.
 
48. 
Brainwhat does the forebrain do?
 
responsible for the complex aspects of behavior and mental life.
 
49. 
Brainwhat does the limbic system do?
 
memory and emotions
 
50. 
Brainwhat does the diencephalm do?
 
senses and body thermostat
 
51. 
Brainwhat does the corpus callosum do?
 
transfers info between the two cerebral hemispheres.
 
52. 
Brainwhat does the frontal lobe do?
 
motor skills and impulse and emotion
 
53. 
Brainwhat does the temperal lobe do?
 
hearing, speech, and language processing
 
54. 
Brainwhat does the pridal lobe do?
 
body senses
 
55. 
Brainwhat does the oxipital lobe do?
 
vision
 
56. 
BrainWhat does the Left Brain do?
 
Language Abilities and Logic
 
57. 
BrainWhat does the right brain do?
 
creative and spatial abilities
 
58. 
Brainwhat does brain plasticity mean?
 
flexibility, adaptability, and rewiring
 
59. 
BrainWhat does synaptic plasticity mean?
 
Brain can rewire if damaged
 
60. 
Glands of the Endocrine System:Explain the Endocrine System:
 
cells that form organs called glands and that communicate with one another by secreting hormones.
 
61. 
Glands of the Endocrine System:Explain the Pituitary:
 
Master Glad. Regulates Growth.
 
62. 
Glands of the Endocrine System:Explain the Adrenal Glands:
 
Regulates carbohydrate and salt metabolism.
 
63. 
Glands of the Endocrine System:Explain the Pancreas:
 
controls levels of insulin and blood sugar.
 
64. 
Glands of the Endocrine System:Explain the Pineal Gland:
 
regulates sleep cycle.
 
65. 
Glands of the Endocrine System:Explain the thyroid:
 
regulates metabolism.
 
66. 
Glands of the Endocrine System:Explain the thymus:
 
produces white blood cells.
 
67. 
Glands of the Endocrine System:Explain the parathyroid:
 
regulates calcium.
 
68. 
Glands of the Endocrine System:Explain the Gonads:
 
sex organs.
 
69. 
Theories of Emotions:Explain the James-Lange Theory-
 

a. event occurred & perceived

b. physiological & behavioral responses

c. emotional experience

 
70. 
Theories of Emotions:Explain the Cannon-Bard Theory-
 

a. event occurred & perceived

b. physiological, behavioral response, & emotional experience

 
71. 
Theories of Emotions:Explain the Shackter-Singer Theory-
 

a. Physiological arousal & cognitive interpretation

b. Emotional Experience

 
72. 
How do you measure stress Physiologically?
 

1. Measure of sweat on body

2. Measure of muscle tension

3. Skin temperature

4. Heart rate

5. Respiration

 
73. 
Sensation and Perception:What is a sense?
 
it that translates data from the outside into neural activity.
 
74. 
Sensation and Perception:What is a perception?
 
it is the process of making sensations into meaningful experiences.
 
75. 
Sensory EnergyWhat is a Wavelength?
 
the distance between peaks in a wave of light or sound.
 
76. 
Sensory EnergyWhat is a Wave frequency?
 
it is the number of complete waves that pass a given point per unit of time.
 
77. 
Sensory EnergyWhat is a Amplitude?
 
it is the distance between the peak and the baseline of a wave.
 
78. 
Parts of the Eyes:What does the Cornea do?
 
curved layer which light rays enter the eye.
 
79. 
Parts of the Eyes:What does the Pupil do?
 
opening in the eye which light passes through.
 
80. 
Parts of the Eyes:What does the Iris do?
 
gives it its color and adjusts the amount of light entering in.
 
81. 
Parts of the Eyes:What does the Lens do?
 

directly behind the pupil.

 
82. 
Parts of the Eyes:What does the retina do?
 

surface at the back of the eye that the lens focuses light rays onto.

 
83. 
Parts of the Eyes:What does accommodation do?
 
ability of the lens to focus objects.
 
84. 
Parts of the Eyes:What is the fovea?
 
region in the center of the retina.
 
85. 
Parts of the Eyes:What does the rods do?
 
photoreceptors in the retina that are light sensitive.
 
86. 
Parts of the Eyes:What does the cones do?
 
photoreceptors in the retina that distinguishes colors.
 
87. 
Parts of the Eyes:What does the optic nerve do?
 
carries visual information to the brain.
 
88. 
Dimensions of Light:What is Hue?
 
The color we see
 
89. 
Dimensions of Light:What is Sauration?
 
The purity of a color
 
90. 
Dimensions of Light:What is Brightness?
 
The intensity of the light
 
91. 
Theories of Color VisionExplain the Trichromatic Theory.
 
3 cones detect short, middle, and long wave lengths.
 
92. 
Theories of Color VisionExplain the Opponent-Process Theory.
 
3 cones detect group colors: red/green, blue/yellow, & black/white
 
93. 
Psychological Dimensions of Sound:What is Loudness?
 

amplitude of a sound wave

 
94. 
Psychological Dimensions of Sound:What is Pitch?
 

high or low a tone sounds. Frequency of a sound wave.

 
95. 
Psychological Dimensions of Sound:What is Timbre?
 
quality of a sound that identifies it.
 
96. 
Ear PartsWhat does the Pinna do?
 

funnels sound waves

 
97. 
Ear PartsWhat does the Ear Canal do?
 

funnels sound waves

 
98. 
Ear PartsWhat does the Ear Drum do?
 
tightly stretched membrane in the middle ear that generates vibrations equal to the sound waves striking it.
 
99. 
Ear PartsWhat does the Cochlea do?
 
fluid-filled spiral structure where transduction occurs.
 
100. 
Theories of hearingWhat is the Place Theory?
 

different parts of the cochlea are triggered by the wave length crests.

 
101. 
Theories of hearingWhat is the Volley Theory?
 
hairs fire at the rate the sound wave is at.
 
102. 
PerceptionWhat are the ways to perceive depth & distance?
 

1. relative size

2. linear perspective

3. height in visual field

4. reduced clarity

5. interposition

6. light & shadow

7. texture

 
103. 
PerceptionWhat is convergence?
 

how much does the eye move

 
104. 
PerceptionWhat is Accommodation?
 

how much does the lends need to focus

 
105. 
PerceptionWhat is binocular disparity?
 
two eyes seeing the world differently
 
106. 
Perception of MotionWhat does Looming mean?
 

rapid expansion in size of an image fills the available space on the retina

 
107. 
Perception of MotionWhat does Stroboscopic motion mean?
 
an illusion in which lights or images flashed in rapid succession are perceived as moving.
 
108. 
RecognitionWhat is Top-Down Processing?
 

recognizing something due to expectations.

 
109. 
RecognitionWhat is Bottom-Up Processing?
 
recognition depending on first information.
 
110. 
SmellWhere does smell run through in order for us to smell it?
 
Olfactory system
 
111. 
What does Attention it do?
 

-directs our sensory and perceptual system

-we can select the stuff we pay attention to.

-we have to allocate mental energy

-it regulates the flow of resources.

 
112. 
What are the Characteristics of Attention?
 

-improves mental process

-takes effort

-is limited

 
113. 
Explain Dividing and focusing Attention.
 

-dividing attention is tough. (Multi-tasking)

-attention is selective.

-inattention blindness

-covert and overt orienting

 
114. 
Modulating Pain What is the Gate Control Theory?
 
the presence of a “gate” in the spinal cord that either permits or blocks the passage of pain impulses to the brain.
 
115. 
Modulating PainWhat is Natural Analgesics?
 
Your body releases hormones like endorphins and serotomin.