Psychology final

Total Flash Cards » 123
Text Size » S M L     
 
1. 
preoperational intelligence
 
piaget's term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; it includes language and imagination (which involves symbolic thought), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible.
 
2. 
centration
 
a characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child focuses (centers) on one idea, excluding all others. and example is a child thinks their dad is a father, not a brother because of his role in the family
 
3. 
egocentrism
 
piaget's term for children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective. an example is a child giving their mother a present they would enjoy, but the parent may not.
 
4. 
focus on appearance
 
a characteristic of preoperational though in which a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent. an example is a girl with short hair is thought to be a boy
 
5. 
static reasoning
 
a characteristic of preoperational though in which a young child thinks that nothing changes. whatever is now has always been and will be.
 
6. 
irreversibility
 
a characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child thinks that nothing can be undone. a thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occured.
 
7. 
conservation
 
the principle that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e. is conserved) when its appearance changes.
 
8. 
animism
 
the belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive
 
9. 
guided participation
 
the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations
 
10. 
zone of proximal development
 
vygotsky's term for the skills - cognitive as well as physical - that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently
 
11. 
scaffolding
 
temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process
 
12. 
private speech
 
the internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves (either silently or out loud).
 
13. 
social meditation
 
human interaction that expands and advances understanding, often through words that one person uses to explain something to another.
 
14. 
theory-theory
 
the idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories
 
15. 
theory of mind
 
a person's theory of what other people might be thinking. in order to have a theory of mind, children must realize that other people are not necissarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are. that realization is seldom possible before age 4.
 
16. 
fast mapping
 
the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentavily placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning.
 
17. 
overregularization
 
the application of rules of grammar even when exptions occur, making the languague seem more "regular" than it acutally is.
 
18. 
balanced bilingual
 
a person who is fluent in two languages, not favoring one over the other.
 
19. 
montessori schools
 
schools that offer early childhood eduation based on the philosophy of maria montessori, which emphasizes careful work and tasks that each young child can do.
 
20. 
reggio emilia approach
 
a famous program of early-childhood education that originated in the town of reggio emili, italy, and that encourages each child's creativity in a carefully designed setting.
 
21. 
emotional regulation
 
the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
 
22. 
initiative versus guilt
 
erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them
 
23. 
self esteem
 
a person's evaluation of his or her own worth, either in specifics (e.g., intelligence, attractiveness) or overall
 
24. 
self concept
 
a person's understanding of who he or she is, in relation to self-esteem, appearance, personality, and various traits.
 
25. 
intrinsic motivation
 
a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent.
 
26. 
extrinsic motivation
 
a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by reciving material possessions or another person's esteem
 
27. 
psychopathology
 
an illness or disorder of the mind
 
28. 
externalizing problems
 
difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings throughuncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things.
 
29. 
internalizing problems
 
difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessibely guilty, ashamed, or worthless.
 
30. 
rough and tumble play
 
play that mimics agression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is not intent to harm.
 
31. 
sociodramatic play
 
pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.
 
32. 
authoritarian parenting
 
an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
 
33. 
permissive parenting
 
an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control
 
34. 
authoritative parenting
 
an approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child ad are flexible.
 
35. 
neglectful/uninvolved parenting
 
an approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in ther child's lives.
 
36. 
empathy
 
the ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own.
 
37. 
antipathy
 
feelings of dislike or even hatered for another person
 
38. 
prosocial behavior
 
feelings and actions that are helpful and kind but are of no obvious benefit to oneself.
 
39. 
antisocial behavior
 
feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
 
40. 
insturmental aggression
 
hurtful behavior that is intended to get or keep something that another person has.
 
41. 
reactive aggression
 
and impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
 
42. 
relational aggression
 
nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.
 
43. 
bullying aggression
 
unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especialy on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
 
44. 
psychological control
 
a disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child's feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents
 
45. 
time out
 
a disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time.
 
46. 
sex differences
 
biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body type.
 
47. 
gender differences
 
differences in the roles and behavior of males and females that are prescibed by culture.
 
48. 
phallic stage
 
freud's third stage of development when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure
 
49. 
oedipus complex
 
the unconcscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win their mother's exclusive love.
 
50. 
superego
 
in psychoanalytic theory, the jugmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents.
 
51. 
electra complex
 
the unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win their father's exclusive love.
 
52. 
identification
 
an attempt to defend one's self concept by taking on the behaviors and attides of someone else.
 
53. 
gender schema
 
a cognitive concept or general belief based onone's experiences - in this case, a child's understanding of sex differences
 
54. 
androgyny
 
a balance, within on person, of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics
 
55. 
middle childhood
 
the period between early childhood and early adolescence, approximately from ages 7 to 11.
 
56. 
BMI (body mass index)
 
a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters
 
57. 
overweight
 
in an adult, having a bmi of 25 to 29, having a bmi above the 85th percentile, according to the US centers for disease control's 1980 standards for children of a given age.
 
58. 
obesity
 
in an adult, having a bmi of 30 or  more. in a child, having a bmi above the 95th percentile, according to the US centers for disease control's 1980 standards for children of a given age.
 
59. 
asthma
 
a chronic disease of the respiratiory system in which inflammation narrows the airways from the nose and mouth to the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing. signs and symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.
 
60. 
reaction time
 
the time it takes to respond to a stimulus, either physically (with a reflexive movement such as an eye blink) or cognitively (with a thought)
 
61. 
seletive attention
 
the ability to concentrate on some stimuli wihile ignoring others.
 
62. 
automatization
 
a process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence of routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought.
 
63. 
aptitude
 
the potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certian body of knowledge
 
64. 
iq test
 
a test designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or the ability to learn in school.  originally, intelligence was definded as metal age divided by chronological age, times 100 - hence the term intelligence quotient, or IQ
 
65. 
achievement test
 
a measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing, science, or some other subject
 
66. 
Wechsler intelligence schale for children (WISC)
 
and iq test designed for school age children.  the test assesses the potential in many ages, including vocabulary, general knowledge, memory, and spatial comprehension.
 
67. 
flynn effect
 
the rise in average iq scores that has occured over the decades in many nations
 
68. 
children with special needs
 
children who, because of a physical or metal disability, require extra help in order to learn.
 
69. 
developmental psychopathology
 
the field that uses insights to typical development to understand the remediate developmental disorders, and vice versa.
 
70. 
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
 
a condition in which a person not only has a great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments but also is inattentive, impulsive, and overactive
 
71. 
comorbidity
 
the presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person.
 
72. 
learning disability
 
a marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparenty physical disability, by metal retardation, or by an unusually stressful home enviornment.
 
73. 
dyslexia
 
unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment
 
74. 
autism
 
a developmental disorder marked by an inability to relate to other people normally, extreme self absorption, and an inability to acquire normal speech
 
75. 
autistic spectrum disorder
 
any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills, impared communication, and unusual play.
 
76. 
asperger syndrome
 
a specific type of autistic spectrum disorder, characterized by extreme attention to details and deficient social understanding.
 
77. 
individual education plan (IEP)
 
a document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs.
 
78. 
least restrictive enviornment (LRE)
 
a legal requirement that children with special needs be assigned to the most general educational context in which they can be expected to learn.
 
79. 
resource room
 
a room in which trained teachers help children with special nees, using specialized curricula and equipment
 
80. 
inclusion
 
an approach to educating children with special needs in which they are included in regular classrooms, with "appropriate aids and services, " as required by law.
 
81. 
concrete operational thought
 
piagets term for the ability to reason logically aout direct experiences ad perceptions
 
82. 
classification
 
the logical principle that things can be organized into groups (or categories or classes) according to some characteristic they have in common.
 
83. 
identity
 
the logical principle that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change.
 
84. 
reversiblility
 
the logical principle that a thing that has been changed can sometimes be returned to its original state by reversing the process by which it was changed.
 
85. 
information processing theory
 
a perspective that compares thuman thinking process, by ananogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output.
 
86. 
working memory
 
the component of the information processing system in which current conscious mental activity occurs. ( also called short term memory)
 
87. 
long term memory
 
the component of the information processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely
 
88. 
knowledge base
 
a body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in that area
 
89. 
control processes
 
mechanisims (including selective attention, metacognition, and emotion regulation) that combine memory, processing speed, and knowledge to regulate the analysis and flow of information within the information processing system.
 
90. 
meta cognition
 
"thinking about thinking," or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task.
 
91. 
english language learner (ELL)
 
a child who is learning english as a second languague.
 
92. 
language shift
 
a change from one language to another, which occurs not only in speaking and writing but also in the brain.  a language shift is evident in many children who no longer speak or understand their mother tongue because a new language has come to dominate the linguistic areas of their brains.
 
93. 
immersion
 
a strategy in which instruction in all school subjects occurs in the second (majority) language that a child is learning.
 
94. 
bilingual education
 
a strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learner's original language and the second (majority) language.
 
95. 
ESL (english as a second language)
 
an approach to teaching english in which all children who do not speak english are placed together in an intensive course to learn basic english so that they can be educated in the same classroom as native english speakers.
 
96. 
progress in international reading literacy study (PIRLS)
 
inaugurated in 2001, a planned five year cycle of international trend studies in the reading ability of fourth graders
 
97. 
TIMMS (trends in math and science study)
 
an international assessment of the math and science skills of fourth and eighth graders.  although the TIMSS is very useful, different countries scores are not always comparable, because sample selection, test administration, and content validity are hard to keep uniform.
 
98. 
no child left behind act
 
a US law enacted in 2001 that was intended to increase accountability in education by requiring states to qualify for federal educational funding by administering standardized tests to measure school achievement.
 
99. 
national assessment of educational progress (NAEP)
 
an ongoing and nationally representative measure of US childrens achievement in reading, mathematics, and other subjects over time; nicknamed "the nations report card."
 
100. 
hidden curriculum
 
the unofficial, unstated, or implicit rules and priorities that influence the academic curriculum and ever other aspect of learning in school.
 
101. 
phonics approach
 
teaching reading by first teaching the sounds of each letter and of various letter combinations
 
102. 
whole language approach
 
teaching reading by encouraging early use of all language skills - talking and listening, reading and writing.
 
103. 
industry versus inferiority
 
the fourth of erikson's eight psychosocial crises, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent
 
104. 
latency
 
freud's term for middle childhood, during which children's emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet (latent).  freud thought that sexual conflicts from earlier stages are only temporarily submerged, bursting forth again at puberty.
 
105. 
social comparison
 
the tendency to assess ones abilities , achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers.
 
106. 
effortful control
 
the ability to regulate ones emotions and actions through effor, not simply through natural inclination.
 
107. 
resilience
 
the capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress.
 
108. 
famiy structure
 
the legal and genetic relationships among relatives living in the same home; includes nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily, and so on.
 
109. 
family function
 
the way a family works to meet the needs of its members. children need families to provide basic material necessities, to encourage learning, to help them develop self respect, to nurture friendshkips, and to foster harmony and sability.
 
110. 
nuclear family
 
a family that consists of a father, a mother, and thier biological children under age 18.
 
111. 
single parent family
 
a family that consists of only one parent and his or her biological children under age 18.
 
112. 
extended family
 
a family of three or more generations living in one household.
 
113. 
polygamous family
 
a family consisting of one man, several wives, and the biological children of the man and his wives.
 
114. 
blended family
 
a stepparent family that includes children born to several families, such as the biological children from the spouses previous marriages and the biological children of the new couple.
 
115. 
culture of children
 
the particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that chracterize children as distinct from adult society.
 
116. 
agressive rejected
 
rejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior
 
117. 
withdrawn rejected
 
rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, and anzious behavior.
 
118. 
social cognition
 
the ability to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of human behavior.
 
119. 
bullying
 
repeated, systematic effors to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person.
 
120. 
bully victim
 
someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well. (also called provocative victims because they do things that elicit bullying, such as stealing a bully's pencil).
 
121. 
preconventional moral reasoning
 
kohlberg's first level of moral reasoning, emphasizing rewards and punishments.
 
122. 
conventional moral reasoning
 
kohlberg's second level of moral reasoning, emphasizing social rules.
 
123. 
postconventional moral reasoning
 
kohlberg's third level of moral reasoning, emphasizing moral principles.