Psychology Exam #1

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1. 
In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes, refers to?
 
Internal, covert processes
 
2. 
The goals of psychology are to ..............
 
Describe, explain, predict, and control behavior.
 
3. 
The question "what is happening?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
 
Description.
 
4. 
The question "why is it happening?" refers to the which of the following goals of psychology?
 
Explanation.
 
5. 
The question "when will it happen again?" refers to which of the following goals of psychology?
 
Prediction.
 
6. 
The question "how can it be changed?" refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
 
Control.
 
7. 
In 1879, in Leipzig , Germany, the first psychological laboratory was developed by?
 
Wilhelm Wundt
 
8. 
The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called ......... , which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences.
 
Introspection
 
9. 
Why was the perspectived followed by Wilhelp Wundt and his followers called structuralism?
 
Their primary focus was on describing the structure on concious experience.
 
10. 
Participants in research early in psychology's history might have been asked to view a chair and describe its color, shape, and texture and other aspectsof their conscious experience. These individuals would have been using a method called .......... ?
 
Introspection
 
11. 
Who was an early psychologist believed that "the whole is more that the sum of parts"?
 
Gestalist
 
12. 
Who was an early proponent of functionalism?
 
William James
 
13. 
While on a visit to a large city, you observe several billboards in which a series of lights seems to move. Which perspective in psychology would most likely help you understand this phenomenon?
 
Gestalt
 
14. 
Freud stressed the importance of .................. .
 
early childhood experiences
 
15. 
What advice might John B. Watson have offered to psychologists of his time?
 
"Focus on observable behavior"
 
16. 
Sallie noticed what when her alarm clock goes off in the morning her dog, Ruffles, is standing by her bed salivating. Every morning when Sallie wakes to the alarm, she immediately rolls out of bed and feeds Ruffles. It is likely that ................ it.
 
Sallie has conditioned Ruffles to salivate to the sound of her alarm.
 
17. 
You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will, human nature, and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the pschologist presented?
 
Humanism
 
18. 
In the early part of the past century, psychologists who broke down though processes into their basic elements and analyzed them were called structuralists. Hwat term might we use to describe psychologists with similar interests today?
 
Cognitive
 
19. 
If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in the ............. perspective.
 
Sociocultural
 
20. 
Professor Beverly approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes bodily events and chemicals, such as hormones, associated with behavior. It is most likely that she accepts which of the following psychological approaches?
 
Biopsychological
 
21. 
Which perspective assumes that human behavior may have developed in certain directions because it served a useful function in preserving the species?
 
Evolutionary Psychology
 
22. 
Dr. Braunz has been treating a child with ADHD. She ecides to write a precription for ritalin. Given this info, it is most likely that Dr. Braunz is a ....................... .
 
Psychatrist
 
23. 
The majority of psychologists work in ............ .
 
Colleges and Universities
 
24. 
................. is a system used for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data.
 
the scientific method
 
25. 
the first step in any scientific investigation is ............... ?
 
perceiving the question
 
26. 
"Children who watch violent cartoons will become more aggressive." According to the scientific method, this statement is most likely a ........... ?
 
result
 
27. 
Researchers myst report their results completely whether the hypothesis was supported or not. Complete reporting is necessary for the purpose of ............... ?
 
replication
 
28. 
Dr. Littman-Smith is conduction research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in ............ .
 
naturalistic observation
 
29. 
Sandi believes that people who eat at McDonalds are overweight, so she decides to do a naturalistic observation of people who eat at McDonalds. What should most concern us about Sandi's observations?
 
observer bias
 
30. 
Roger went to McDonald's to observe people eating in fast-food restraunts. He brought a camera crew and bright lights, and they all wore yellow jump suits . Roger said he wanted to do a naturalistic observation but may have had some problems because of .............. .
 
observer effects
 
31. 
You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to gerneralize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion?
 
case study
 
32. 
In the 1970's, a 13 yr old girl was found locked up in a room, strapped to a pootty chair. Since she had grown up in a world without human speech, researchers studied "Genie's" ability to acquire words, grammar, and pronounciation. This type of research is called ........... .
 
case study
 
33. 
The editors of Scientific American are able to obtain a representative sample of their readers in order to assess their attitudes toward preservation of the rain forests in Costa Rica. When interpreting the results of their survey, the editors will be able to ......... ?
 
apply the results to subscribers of Scientifc American
 
34. 
A (n) ........... is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
 
Correlation
 
35. 
A correlation is a numerical measure of the ............. .
 
strength of the relationship between two vairables.
 
36. 
Drinking orange juice is negatively correlated with the risk of cancer. Based on this info, which of the following statements is true?
 
The more orange juice you drink, the lower your risk of cancer.
 
37. 
A correlation coefficient represents two things: ........ and ........ .
 
strength; direction of the relationship