Psychology 3

Total Flash Cards » 92
Text Size: S | M | L
Innate and complex patterns of behavior that occur in every normally functioning member of a species under certain set conditions are called: Instincts
The basic flaw associated with instinct theory is that it doesn't_______ behavior, it _______ behavior. Explain, Labeled
Primary drives are: Food, Water, Air, Sleep, Sex, temperature regulation, Avoidance of pain
Meeting hunger and thirst needs satisfies Maslow's first need level, known as the: Physiological needs
Abraham Maslow asserted that people can be motivated by_______ as well as by drive reduction. Hierarchy of Needs
According to cognitive theory, whether you are motivated to ask that exciting person for a date depends on: Cognitions, Beliefs, Expectancies, or other mental processes
Cognitive dissonance can motivate behavior by: resolving inconsistencies in cognitions.
A state or feeling that has psychological, behavioral, and cognitive components is called: emotion
According to Plutchik's emotion wheel, which of the following is one of the prImary emotions? Acceptance & Disgust, Fear & Anger, Surprise & Anticipation, and Sadness & Joy
Plutchik maintains that adjacent emotions of the emotion wheel: derive from the original eight emotions.
According to James and Lange, we become angry because we: are aware of bodily responses to a situation.
Data that show that people who are placed into the exact same physiological state fail to experience the dame emotion provide evidence against which theory of emotion? James-Lange Theory
Cannon and Bard believed that emotional arousal and behavior action occur: Simultaneously
According to the Schachter-Singer theory, emotions are the result of: double-cognitive interpretation.
Early research on stress focused on the ______ associated with stress. physiological changes
The GAS consists of three stages: an alarm reaction, a resistance stage, and an exhaustion stage
The fight-or-flight reaction is characterized by a high level of activity of the _______ nervous system. sympathetic
The stage of the GAS characterized by a state of fatigue in which body tissues begin to show signs of wear and tear and susceptibility to disease is the: Exhaustion stage.
Anxiety may be thought of as a general emotional response to: a perceived imbalance between threat of stressor and out coping resources.
The factor that contribute to stress is: stressor
When compared to Type A people, Type B people tend to be more: relaxed.
Personality factors linked to hypertension include a tendency to: have high blood pressure.
Drive-reduction theory operates at which level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs? Physiological needs
The correct order of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, from lowest to highest, is: Physiological, Safety, Love/Belongingness, Esteem needs, Self-actualization
If you could operantly condition a rat to turn on a TV set in order to watch Mickey Mouse cartoons, it would illustrate that rats have________ motives. emotional
The Cannon-Bard theory states that: emotions occur simultaneously with physiological change.
Trait theories of personality attempt to ______ personality. indentify
The two main approaches to personality theories are: idiographic and nomothetic
Trait theories of personality have the primary focus or goal to: identify behavior traits that are building blocks of personality.
An aspect of personality that is inferred from behavior and assumed to give rise to behavioral consistency is called a: cardinal trait.
Allport believed that the generalized and enduring traits that form the building blocks of our personalities are the ____ traits. central
Allport's ______ traits are less generalized and far less enduring than other traits. secondary
Frued used the term ______ to describe his interpretation of a patient;s revelations of unconscious thoughts during therapy. psychoanalysis
Freud believed that the governing principle of the id was the _____ principle. pleasure
Freud believed that the ego operated on the ______ principle. reality
The correct order of Freud's stages of psychosexual development are: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
Fixation is: arrested development that results from exposure to either too little or too much gratification.
According to Jung, the personal unconscious is: a reservoir of all repressed thought and feelings.
Adler argued that an intense feeling of personal incompetence and weakness was the result of: inferiority complex.
The theoretical perspective that argues that we must focus on the uniqueness of each individual if we are to understand human personality is: Humanistic Theory.
Unlike traditional behaviorists, social-learning theorists emphasize our: external events.
The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) was designed to measure: personality.
Tests that have ambiguous stimuli that allow respondents to place their own thought or feeling into their responses are called: projective tests.
The psychic structure that seeks to delay gratification when satisfaction might bring disapproval from others is the: personal control, delay in gratification
The most basic defense mechanism that underlies all other defense mechanisms is: rationalization.
Maslow proposed that if all lesser needs are met, a person would be motivated toward: self-actualization.
One main criticism of humanistic theories is that: based on subjective, vague, non-verifiable observations.
Psychological states such as anxiety, depression, and agitation are labeled as ______ criteria for defining abnormal behavior. emotional distress
The most widely used scheme today for classifying and diagnosing psychological disorders throughout the world is: DSM IV
A generalized feeling of dread and apprehension, typically accompanied by physiological reactions, is: anxiety disorder.
The most common psychological disorders in the United States are ______ disorders. anxiety
Maria is afraid to leave her some to go shopping or even go to work: she avoids all public places. Maria suffers from a disorder known as: Agoraphobia
The anxiety disorder characterized by persistent, unwanted, and unshakable thoughts and/or irresistible repeated actions is: OCD
Freud explained phobias in terms of: displace of anxiety to an object, situation, or social function that can be avoided.
From the biological perspective, people develop anxiety disorders as a result of: unusually responsive nervous system.
Depression is the primary symptom of which class of disorders? Mood disorders
A mood disorder characterized by intermittent periods of both depression and mania is called: Bipolar
The data from twin, family, and adoption studies present strong evidence that _____ influences mood disorders. genetics
The core symptoms that are characteristic of many forms of schizophrenia include disturbances in: Perceptions, Thoughts, Emotions, Behavior
An anxiety disorder characterized by a persistent, irrational fear of performing some specific behavior in the presence of other people is called a: Social phobia
A individual with ________ would be most likely to receive unnecessary medications or unnecessary surgery. somatoform disorder
Individuals like Eve from The Three Faces of Eve who display a number of separate personalities are suffering from" dissociative identity disorder
Which of the following categories of symptoms is not characteristic of the mood disorders? ** persistant depression
False perceptions that lack a sensory basis- such as hearing imaginary voices- are? Hallucinations
The disturbances in emotional expression associated with schizophrenia are characterized: by blunted/flat effect (no personality)
The fundamental assumption of psychoanalysis is that disordered behavior results from: unconscious conflicts and repressed urges.
Systematic desensitization training has been shown to be more effective in treating _____ than ______. Fear & Anxiety, General Anxiety Disorder
Which therapy technique can be helpful in both extinguishing irrational fears and for establishing new, more adaptive behaviors? Systematic desensitization
Biomedical therapy is based on the assumption that: 1. behavior disorders result from biological abnormalities 2. physiological intervention treat symptoms of behavior disorders
A surgical procedure call the lobotomy is performed by: neurosurgans.
Which statement about psychoactive drug use in therapy is true? Most common biomedical treatment since 1950's
A potentially serious side effect of antipsychotic drugs is the development of: tardive dyskinesia (TD)
The three general classes of antidepressant drugs include: Tricyclics, Monoamine Oxide (MAO), Serotonin Reuptake
The basic aim of psychoanalysis can be described as to: make the unconscious conscious.
Rational-emotive therapy tends to focus on ______. Cognitive behavior therapy focuses on _______. Present, Past
Systematic desensitization involves: training individual to relax when confronted with fear-inducing stimuli.
Electroconvulsive therapy is most effective for the treatment of: depression.
In general terms, motivation can be considered: innate, reduction of drives, cognitive motives, biologically based motives, sensation-seeking motives.
One of the earliest attempts to explain motivation was based on the notion of: instinct
The view that organisms learn to engage in behaviors that have the effect of reducing drives is referred to as: Drive-reduction Theory
During emotional state, which of the following would indicate physiological arousal? increased endocrine activity, metabolic changes, altered muscle tension
Trait theories of personality proved psychologist with: describing and characterizing personality.
The personality theory that emphasized the importance of unconscious motivation and conflict to personality development is: psychoanalytic theory
Freud considered dreams: unconscious wishes
Freud believed that the ego used ________ to protect their personality from anxiety-producing thoughts and images. defense mechanisms
In humanistic theory, the innate tendency to strive to realize one's potential, or to be all one can be, is termed: Self-actualization
Behaviorist and social-learning theorists favor the psychological assessment technique of: Bandura's social cognitive perspective
Which of the following tests is considered to have good predictive validity in predicting school and job success? CPI
Personality psychology may best be described as the study of: individuals
Which of the following is not an important method used to assess an individual's personality? ** Behavioral observations, interview, paper/pencil, questionnaire, Projective
The fact that there is a decided tendency for schizophrenic disorders to run in families supports: Biological perspective
Which therapy is more likely to use a rapid-fire directive approach and to employ a variety of technique? Rational-emotive Therapy (RET)