Psych Modules Quizzes

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A psychologist who explores how Asian and North American definitions of attractiveness differ is working within the _____ perspective.
Which of the following research strategies would be best for determining whether alcohol impairs memory? experiment, survey, case study or naturalistic observation? experiment
The principle that "those traits of a species that contribute to survival and reproduction are most likely to be passed on to future generations" is called_______ natural selection
Which seventeenth-century philosopher believed that some ideas are innate? Descartes
In order to determine the effects of a new drug on memory, one group of subjects is given a pill that contains the drug. A second group is given a sugar pill that does not contain the drug. This second group constitutes the______ control group
Today, psychology is defined as the: science of behavior and mental processes
The first psychology laboratory was established at the University of Leipzig by _____ in the year 1879 wilhelm wundt
Who published the first important psychology textbook (Principles of Psychology) in 1890 after 12 years of writing? william james
Martina believes that high doses of caffeine slow a person's reaction time. In order to test this belief, she has five friends each drink 20 ounces of coffee and then measures their reaction time on a perception task. What is wrong with Martina's research strategy? there is no control condition
Psychologists who study, assess, and treat troubled people are called: clinical psychologists
Psychologists' personal values: can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data
Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates: overconfidence
A researcher was interested in determining whether her students' test performance could be predicted from their proximity to the front of the classroom. So she matched her students' scores on a math test with their seating position. This study is an example of: correlational research
Who developed an influential theory of personality that focused on unconscious processes? sigmund freud
Which psychological perspective emphasizes the interaction of the brain and body in creating emotions, memories, and sensory experiences? neuroscience perspective
In its earliest days, psychology was defined as the: science of mental life
The way the mind processes, stores, and retrieves information is the primary concern of the _____ perspective. cognitive
Mr. & Mrs. Berry have five children aged 2, 3, 7, 9, and 9. The median age of the Berry children is ______, the mean age is ______, and the mode is ______ 7,6,9
The seventeenth-century philosopher who believed that the mind is blank at birth and that most knowledge comes through sensory experience was: Locke
When a difference between two groups is "statistically significant," this means that: the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation.
In order to study the effects of lighting on mood, Dr. Cooper had students fill out questionnaires in brightly lit or dimly lit rooms. In this study, the independent variable consisted of: the room lighting
Rashad, who is participating in a psychology experiment on the effects of alcohol on perception, is truthfully told by the experimenter that he has been assigned to the "high-dose condition." What is wrong with this experiment? Rashad's expectations concerning the effects of "high doses" of alcohol on perception may influence his performance
Your roommate is conducting a survey to learn how many hours the typical college student studies each day. She plans to pass out her questionnaire to the members of her sorority. You point out that her findings will be flawed because: the sample will probably not be representative of the population of college students
When psychologists insist that "the rat is always right," they are emphasizing the scientific attitude of: humility
In an experiment to determine the effects of attention on memory, memory is the: dependent variable
After detailed study of a gunshot wound victim, a psychologist concludes that the brain region destroyed is likely to be important for memory functions. Which research strategy did the psychologist use to deduce this? the case study
The nerve fibers that enable communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres and that have been severed in split-brain patients form a structure called the: corpus callosum
A strong stimulus can increase the: number of times the neuron fires
Jessica experienced difficulty keeping her balance after receiving a blow to the back of her head. It is likely that she injured her: cerebellum
Cortical areas that are not primarily concerned with sensory, motor, or language functions are: called association areas
Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a simple reflex? sensory neuron to interneuron to motor neuron
In order to pinpoint the location of a tumor, a neurosurgeon electrically stimulated parts of the patient's sensory cortex (also called somatosensory cortex). If the patient was conscious during the procedure, which of the following was probably experienced? a sense of having the skin touched
Following a head injury, a person has ongoing difficulties staying awake. Most likely, the damage occurred to the: reticular formation
Information from the left visual field is processed in the _______ hemisphere. Movement of the right hand is controlled by the ________ hemisphere. right, left
During an action potential, the electrical state of the axon becomes: depolarized, as positively charged atoms are admitted.
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments? frontal lobes
The part of the human brain that is "oldest" (in terms of evolutionary history) is the: brainstem
You are able to pull your hand quickly away from hot water before pain is felt because: movement of the hand is a reflex that involves intervention of the spinal cord only
Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a neural impulse? dendrite --> cell body --> axon --> synapse
The visual cortex is located in the: occipital lobe
The gland that regulates body growth is the: pituitary
Heartbeat, digestion, and other self-regulating bodily functions are governed by the: autonomic nervous system
Which of the following is typically controlled by the right hemisphere? spatial-perceptual reasoning
When you are in a dangerous situation, your adrenal glands will release the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which ________ your blood pressure and ________ your blood sugar levels. raise, raise
The effect of a drug that is an agonist is to: mimic a particular neurotransmitter
Dr. Johnson briefly flashed a picture of a key in the right visual field of a split-brain patient. The patient could probably: verbally report that a key was seen.
Though there is no single "control center" for emotions, their regulation is primarily attributed to the brain region known as the: limbic system
Voluntary movements, such as writing with a pencil, are directed by the: somatic nervous system
Melissa has just completed running a marathon. She is so elated that she feels little fatigue or discomfort. Her lack of pain is probably the result of the release of: enorphins
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is most likely to be found: at the junction between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers.
Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations? a PET scan
The myelin sheath (layer of fatty tissue) that surrounds some neurons: increases the speed of neural transmission.
The vast majority of neurons in the body: interneurons
If Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct an experiment on the effects of stimulating the reward centers of a rat's brain, he should insert an electrode into the: hypothalamus
Chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands are called: hormones
Circadian rhythms are the: regular body cycles that occur on a daily schedule.
According to researcher Ernest Hilgard, hypnosis is: a dissociation between different levels of consciousness.
During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and genital arousal? REM sleep
The school of thought in psychology that systematically turned away from the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was: behaviorism
According to Freud, dreams are: a symbolic fulfillment of erotic wishes.
Standing in the checkout line at the grocery store, Jerry kept looking at his watch to see the time. As a result, he failed to see that a store employee was being robbed by a person just in front of him. Jerry most clearly suffered: inattentional blindness
Spending time in a brightly-lit room at night inhibits our feelings of sleepiness, because the brain's suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) signals the pineal gland to decrease its production of the hormone: melatonin
Jill dreams that her boyfriend pushes her in front of an oncoming car. Her psychoanalyst suggests that the dream might symbolize her fear that her boyfriend is rushing her into sexual activity prematurely. The analyst is evidently attempting to interpret the ________ content of Jill's dream. latent
An attorney wants to know if the details and accuracy of an eyewitness's memory for a crime would be improved under hypnosis. Given the results of relevant research, what should you tell the attorney? Most hypnotically retrieved memories are contaminated with false information.
The large, slow brain waves associated with Stage 4 sleep are called delta waves
A person who requires increasing amounts of a drugs in order to feel its effect is said to have developed: tolerance
Those who believe that hypnosis is a social phenomenon argue that "hypnotized" individuals are: merely acting out a role
Drivers detect traffic signals more slowly if they are also talking on a cellphone. This best illustrates the negative impact of selective attention
After your attention was briefly distracted, you might not notice that the stranger asking you for directions had been replaced by someone with a different hairstyle, a different voice, or completely different facial features. This curious phenomenon is called: change blindness
A person whose EEG shows a high proportion of alpha waves is most likely: awake and relaxed
Psychoactive drugs affect behavior and perception through: alteration of neural activity in the brain.
Cocaine produces a euphoric rush by: blocking the reuptake of dopamine in brain cells.
The sleep cycle is approximately ________ minutes, and consists of ________ distinct stages. 90, 5
A car driver's ability to navigate a familiar route while carrying on an animated conversation with passengers best illustrates the importance of: dual processing
Consciousness is defined in the text as: our awareness of ourselves and our environment
In which of Kohlberg's levels would a person use moral reasoning based on the existence of universal human rights or self-defined principles of conscience? postconventional morality
Compared to when he was younger, 4-year-old Antonio is better able to empathize with his friend's feelings. This growing ability to take another's perspective indicates that Antonio is acquiring a: theory of mind
The average age at which puberty begins is ________ in boys; in girls, it is ________. 13,11
In a hypothetical world where all schools are of uniform quality, all families equally loving, and all neighborhoods equally healthy, the heritability of person-to-person differences would be: large
Underlying Alzheimer's disease is a deterioration in neurons that produce: acetylcholine
In Erikson's theory, individuals generally focus on developing ________ during adolescence and then ________ during young adulthood. identical; fraternal
Chromosomes are composed of small segments of: DNA called genes
Dr. Ross believes that principles of natural selection help explain why infants come to fear strangers about the time they become mobile. Dr. Ross is most likely a/an: evolutionary psychologist.
In preconventional morality, the person: obeys to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards
Each normal cell of the human body (other than the sperm cells and ova) has a total of 46 chromosomes
he fertilized egg will develop into a boy if, at conception: the sperm contributes a Y chromosome
In a 1998 movie, a young girl finds that a gaggle of geese follow her wherever she goes because she was the first "object" they saw after they were born. This is an example of: imprinting
Which is the correct order of stages of prenatal development? zygote, embryo, fetus
Most people's earliest memories do not predate ________ of age. 3 years
During which stage of cognitive development do children acquire object permanence? sensorimotor
Which is the correct sequence of stages in Piaget's theory of cognitive development? sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
A person's accumulation of stored information, called ________ intelligence, generally ________ with age. crystallized; increases
The fact that by age 3, language forces children to begin organizing their worlds on the basis of gender is most consistent with which theory of how gender-linked behaviors develop? gender schema theory
A child whose mother drank heavily when she was pregnant is at heightened risk of being born with the physical and cognitive abnormalities of fetal alcohol syndrome.
An elderly person who can look back on life with satisfaction and reminisce with a sense of completion has attained Erikson's stage of integrity
The term "critical period" refers to a specifc time during development when exposure to an outside stimulus can have maximum impact.
Adoption studies show that the personalities of adopted children: ear more similarities to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents
I am a rat whose cortex is lighter and thinner than my litter mates. What happened to me? you were raised in a deprived environment
Insecurely attached infants who are left by their mothers in an unfamiliar setting often will be indifferent toward their mothers on their return.
Notable achievements in fields such as ________ are often made by younger adults in their late twenties or early thirties, when ________ intelligence is at its peak. mathematics; fluid
As a child observes, liquid is transferred from a tall, thin tube into a short, wide jar. The child is asked if there is now less liquid in order to determine if she has mastered the concept of conservation.
The cross-sectional method compares people of different ages with one another.
When his son cries when another child takes his favorite toy, Brandon admonishes him by saying, "Big boys don't cry." Evidently, Brandon is an advocate of ________ in accounting for the development of gender-linked behaviors. social learning theory
Joshua and Ann have a 13-month-old boy. According to Erikson, their sensitive, loving care of their child contributes to: the child's sense of basic trust
Fourteen-year-old Cassandra feels freer and more open with her friends than with her family. Knowing this is the case, Cassandra's parents should: not worry, since adolescence is typically a time of growing peer influence and diminishing parental influence.
After staring at a very intense red stimulus for a few minutes, Carrie shifted her gaze to a beige wall and "saw" the color ________. Carrie's experience provides support for the ________ theory. green; opponent-process
Given normal sensory ability, a person can hear a watch ticking in a silent room from 20 feet away. This is a description of hearing's absolute threshold
The Young-Helmholtz theory proposes that: there are three different types of color-sensitive cones
________ processing refers to how the physical characteristics of stimuli influence their interpretation. bottom up
Receptor cells for the vestibular sense are located in the ________ and send messages to the ________. inner ear, cerebellum
Which of the following is NOT true of cones?a. cones enable color visionb. cones are better than rods at picking up fine detailsc.Cones are highly concentrated in the foveal region of the retina.d.Cones are more efficient than rods in dim light. D
The process by which the lens changes its curvature is: accommodation
The receptors for taste are located in the: taste buds
If you can just notice the difference between 10- and 11-pound weights, which of the following weights could you differentiate from a 100-pound weight? 110-pound weight
Kinesthesis involves: information from the muscles, tendons, and joints
Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which sound travels after entering the ear? auditory canal, eardrum, middle ear, cochlea
The receptors for hearing are located in: the inner ear
Frequency is to pitch as ________ is to ________. amplitude; loudness
Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________. detecting a stimulus; recognizing a stimulus
The ________ sense monitors the position and movement of the whole body and enables us to maintain balance. vestibular
According to the gate-control theory, a way to alleviate chronic pain would be to stimulate the ________ nerve fibers that ________ the spinal gate. large; close
When admiring the texture of a piece of fabric, Calvin usually runs his fingertips over the cloth's surface. He does this because: if the cloth were held motionless, sensory adaptation to its feel would quickly occur
In order to maximize your sensitivity to fine visual detail you should: stare directly at the object
In shopping for a new stereo, you discover that you cannot differentiate between the sounds of models X and Y. The difference between X and Y is below your: difference threshold
Wavelength is to ________ as ________ is to brightness. hue; intensity
Damage to frontal areas of the temporal lobes is most likely to affect our: sense of smell
Dr. Frankenstein has forgotten to give his monster an important part; as a result, the monster cannot transduce sound (convert vibrations into neural impulses). Dr. Frankenstein omitted the: basilar membrane
According to the opponent-process theory: neurons involved in color vision are stimulated by one color's wavelength and inhibited by another's
Which of the following is the correct order of the structures through which light passes after entering the eye? cornea, pupil, lens, retina
The phenomenon of "blindsight" best illustrates that some visual information can be processed without: conscious awareness
The process by which sensory information is converted into neural energy is transduction
The phantom limb sensation indicates that: pain involves the brain's interpretation of neural activity.
The transduction of light energy into nerve impulses takes place in the: retina
Of the four distinct skin senses, the only one that has definable receptors is: pressure
Which basic taste attracts us to protein-rich foods? umami
One reason that your ability to detect fine visual details is greatest when scenes are focused on the fovea of your retina is that: many cones, which are clustered in the fovea, have individual bipolar cells to relay their information to the cortex
As a rock musician who has experienced prolonged exposure to high-amplitude music, Rodney is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that this hearing loss involves problems in the: cochlea
The frequency theory of hearing is better than place theory at explaining our sensation of: the lowest pitches
What enables you to feel yourself wiggling your toes even with your eyes closed? kinethesis
While competing in the Olympic trials, marathoner Kirsten O'Brien suffered a stress fracture in her left leg. That she did not experience significant pain until the race was over is probably attributable to the fact that during the race: the pain gate in her spinal cord was closed by information coming from her brain
Conduction hearing loss is most likely to result from damage to the eardrum
Which of the following statements is consistent with the Gestalt theory of perception?a. Perception is the product of heredity.b. Perception results directly from sensation.c. The mind organizes sensations into meaningful perceptions.d. Perception develops largely through learning C
How do we perceive a bush that partially covers a telephone pole? as nearer than the pole
Each time you see your car, it projects a different image on the retinas of your eyes, yet you do not perceive it as changing. This is because of: perceptual constancy.
Figures tend to be perceived as whole, complete objects, even if spaces or gaps exist in the representation, thus demonstrating the principle of: closure.
Objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as ________ due to the principle of ________. farther away; relative height
Which of the following is not a monocular depth cue?a. texture gradientb. retinal disparityc. relative heightd. interposition b, retinal disparity
Adults who are born blind but later have their vision restored: typically fail to recognize familiar objects
A person claiming to be able to read another's mind is claiming to have the ESP ability of: telepathy
Immanuel Kant and John Locke would have been most likely to disagree about the extent to which perception is influenced by: environmental experiences
When two familiar objects of equal size cast unequal retinal images, the object that casts the smaller retinal image will be perceived as being: more distant than the other object.
The tendency to organize stimuli into smooth, uninterrupted patterns is called: continuity
Racial and ethnic stereotypes can sometimes bias our perceptions of others' behaviors. This best illustrates the impact of: top-down processing
An artist paints a tree orchard so that the parallel rows of trees converge at the top of the canvas. Which cue has the artist used to convey distance? linear perspective
The phenomenon that refers to the ways in which an individual's expectations influence perception is called perceptual set
Regina claims that she can bend spoons, levitate furniture, and perform many other "mind over matter" feats. Regina apparently believes she has the power of: psychokinesis
When we stare at an object, each eye receives a slightly different image, providing a depth cue known as: retinal disparity
Experiments with distorted visual environments demonstrate that: humans adapt readily, while lower animals typically do not
The fact that a white object under dim illumination appears lighter than a gray object under bright illumination is called: lightness constancy
The phenomenon of size constancy is based upon the close connection between an object's perceived ________and its perceived ________. size, distance
Jack claims that he often has dreams that predict future events. He claims to have the power of precognition
The moon illusion occurs in part because distance cues at the horizon make the moon seem farther away and therefore larger.
Grass seen through sunglasses appears equally as green as it does without glasses. This best illustrates color constancy
Psychologists who help design machines so that they make use of our natural perceptions are called: human factors psychologists
The figure-ground relationship has demonstrated that: the same stimulus can trigger more than one perception.
You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before giving your dog a treat. As you do so, your dog salivates. Rattling the box is a(n) ________; your dog's salivation is a(n) ________. CS; CR
The type of learning associated with Skinner is: operant conditioning.
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n): unconditioned stimulus
In Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate taste with sickness.
An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the brain activity she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of: mirror neurons
In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, salivation to meat was the: UCR
In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the tone was initially a/an ________ stimulus; after it was paired with meat, it became a/an ________ stimulus. neutral; conditioned
Rewarding a child for good behavior by giving the child delicious food would be ________, whereas giving the child money would be ________. primary reinforcement; secondary or conditioned reinforcement
Last evening May-ling ate her first cheeseburger and french fries at an American fast-food restaurant. A few hours later she became ill. It can be expected that May-ling will develop an aversion to the taste of a cheeseburger and french fries.
Mrs. Ramirez often tells her children that it is important to buckle their seat belts while riding in the car, but she rarely does so herself. Her children will probably learn to: tell others it is important to use seat belts but rarely use them themselves
Two groups of rats receive classical conditioning trials in which a tone and electric shock are presented. For Group 1 the electric shock always follows the tone. For Group 2 the tone and shock occur randomly. Which of the following is likely to result? The tone will become a CS for Group 1 but not for Group 2.
For the most rapid conditioning, a CS should be presented about one-half second before the UCS.
Jack finally takes out the garbage in order to get his father to stop pestering him. Jack's behavior is being conditioned by: negative reinforcement.
A pigeon can easily be taught to flap its wings in order to avoid shock but not for food reinforcement. According to the text, this is most likely so because: pigeons are biologically predisposed to flap their wings in order to escape aversive events and to use their beaks to obtain food.
Your psychology instructor has scheduled an exam every third week of the term. You will probably study the most just before an exam and the least just after an exam. This pattern of behavior is likely because the schedule of exams is reinforcing studying according to a ________ schedule fixed-interval
As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the CS. the cat
In order to obtain a reward a monkey learns to press a lever when a 1000-Hz tone is on but not when a 1200-Hz tone is on. What kind of training is this? discrimination
For operant conditioning to be most effective, when should the reinforcers or punishers be presented? immediately after the behavioral response
An animal trainer wants to train a pigeon to turn in circles. Initially, she gives the pigeon a food pellet for a quarter-turn, then only for making a half-turn, and finally only after the pigeon has completed a full turn. She has used: shaping
A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates: generalization
When people are paid for performing tasks they enjoy, their self-motivation may decrease, because excessive rewards may undermine: intrinsic motivation
Learning is best defined as: a relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience.
Fishing is reinforced according to which schedule? variable-ratio
Learning by imitating others' behaviors is called ________ learning. The researcher best known for studying this type of learning is ________ observational; Bandura
When a conditioned stimulus is presented without an accompanying unconditioned stimulus, ________ will soon take place. extinction
In Pavlov's studies of classical conditioning of a dog's salivary responses, spontaneous recovery occurred: when the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period.
A rat engages in some type of behavior that is followed by a consequence. If this event increases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated, we say that the behavior has been reinforced
In Watson and Rayner's experiment, the loud noise was the ________ and the white rat was the ________. UCS; CS
Which area of the brain is most important in the processing of implicit memories? cerrebellum
As compared with long-term memory, short-term memory is ________ permanent and ________ limited in storage capacity less; more
The average capacity of short-term memory (working memory) is ________ items of unrelated information, or about ________ chunks of grouped items. 7,4
Memory acquisition is to memory retention as ________ is to ________. encoding; storage
Recalling something that you had once merely imagined happening as something you had directly experienced best illustrates: source amnesia
Walking through the halls of his high school 10 years after graduation, Tom experienced a flood of old memories. Tom's experience showed the role of context effects
Long-term potentiation refers to: the increased efficiency of synaptic transmission between certain neurons following learning.
Studies by Loftus and Palmer, in which people were quizzed about a film of an accident, indicate that: people's recall may easily be affected by misleading information.
Memory for skills such as tying your shoes or typing on a keyboard is called: implicit memory
Special techniques to enhance memory, such as acronyms or the "peg-word" system, are called: mnenomic devices
To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers now prefer to call it ________ memory working
Being in a bad mood after a hard day of work, Susan could think of nothing positive in her life. This is best explained as an example of: mood-congruent memory
During her psychology test, Marsha could not remember the meaning of the term "proactive interference." Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the fourth line of a left-hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of: automatic processing
Repression (as proposed by Sigmund Freud) is an example of: motivated forgetting
Complete this analogy: Fill-in-the-blank test questions are to multiple-choice questions as: recall is to recognition.
Visual sensory memory is referred to as: iconic memory
Although interference from previously-learned information can hinder our ability to remember newly-learned information, in some cases the opposite is true. Having learned Latin in high school makes it easier to learn French in college. This memory enhancement is called: positive transfer
The spacing effect means that: distributed study yields better retention than cramming.
In a study on context cues, people learned words while on land or when they were underwater. In a later test of recall, those with the best retention had: learned the words and been tested on them in the same context.
Memories of childhood abuse that have been "recovered" during hypnosis or dream analysis may prove inaccurate--especially if the therapist asks leading questions--because of: memory construction
In order to remember the information presented in her psychology textbook, Susan often relates it to her own life experiences. Susan's strategy is an effective memory aid because it focuses her attention on the meaning of the information, thus facilitating semantic encoding
When Carlos was promoted, he moved into a new office with a new phone extension. Every time he is asked for his phone number, Carlos first thinks of his old extension, illustrating the effects of: proactive interference
The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________ effect. serial position
Memory for a personally experienced event (such as your first day at Hope College) was processed in your ________ and stored in your ________ memory subsystem. hippocampus; explicit
The process of getting information out of memory (in order to use it) is called: retrieval
The three stages in the information-processing model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin are: sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
Information is maintained in short-term memory only briefly unless it is: rehearsed
The eerie feeling that you are reliving an experience exactly as it happened previously in your life is an example of: deja vu
Airline reservations typically decline after a highly publicized airplane crash because people overestimate the incidence of such disasters. In such instances, people's decisions are being influenced by: the availability heuristic
With regard to gender differences on cognitive tasks, on average: females are better at reading nonverbal cues such as facial expressions
Lara was a C student in college, but she has superb social skills, manages conflicts well, and has great empathy for her friends and co-workers. Researchers would probably say that Lara possesses a high degree of emotional intelligence
In the movie "Rain Man" Dustin Hoffman played the role of a man with very low overall intelligence, but with a few exceptional abilities. This specific condition is called: savant syndrome
Failing to see that an article of clothing can be inflated as a life preserver is an example of functional fixedness
If a test designed to indicate which applicants are likely to perform the best on the job fails to do so, the test has: low predictive validity
Confirmation bias refers to the tendency to: look for information that is consistent with one's beliefs.
During a lecture, a professor says, "A child learns language as he interacts with caregivers." This generic use of the pronoun "he" is more likely to trigger images of males than of females. This best illustrates the influence of: language on thinking.
When forming a concept, people often develop a best example, or ________, of a category. prototype
The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is: a diverse set of distinct abilities.
The set of rules for arranging words into sentences is ________, while the set of rules by which meaning is derived from sentences is called ________. syntax; semantics
A dessert recipe that gives you the ingredients, their amounts, and the steps to follow is an example of a/an: algorithm
Originally, IQ was defined as: mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.
The Flynn effect refers to the fact that: The IQ scores of today's better fed and educated population exceed that of the 1930s population
The chimpanzees Washoe and Loulis and the gorilla Koko have learned to communicate by using sign language
The test created by French psychologist Alfred Binet was designed specifically to: predict school performance in children
Skinner and other behaviorists have argued that language development is the result of all of the following EXCEPT: innate grammar
Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit: overconfidence
Which procedure is used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie people's intelligence scores? factor analysis
Women have been found to score lower on math tests when they are tested alongside men. This best illustrates the impact of: stereotype threat
In relation to ground beef, consumers respond more positively to an ad describing it as "75 percent lean" than to one referring to its "25 percent fat" content. This is an example of: the framing effect
Jack takes the same test of mechanical reasoning on several different days and gets virtually identical scores. This suggests that the test has: high reliability
Howard Gardner identified a total of ________ intelligences. eight
To say that the heritability of a trait is approximately 50 percent means: that of the variation in the trait within a group of people, 50 percent can be attributed to heredity
Phonemes are the basic units of ________ in language. sound
Gayle's intelligence scores were only average, but she has been enormously successful as a corporate manager. Based on Sternberg's theory of intelligence, we could estimate that Gayle's ________ intelligence exceeds her ________ intelligence. practical, academic
Spearman's g factor refers to: a general intelligence that underlies success on a wide variety of tasks.
The chimpanzee Sultan used a short stick to pull a longer stick that was out of reach into his cage. He then used the longer stick to reach a piece of fruit. Researchers hypothesized that Sultan's discovery of the solution to his problem was the result of insight
Tests of ________ measure what an individual can do now, whereas tests of ________ predict what an individual will be able to do later. achievement, aptitude
Mr. and Mrs. Samuels are constantly fighting, and each perceives the other as hard-headed and insensitive. Their conflict is being fueled by: mirror-image perception
Students at State University are convinced that their school is better than any other. This most directly illustrates: an ingroup bias
The mere exposure effect demonstrates that: familiarity breeds fondness.
In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects: complied with all of his demands
When male students in an experiment were told that a woman to whom they would be speaking had been instructed to act in a friendly or unfriendly way, most of them subsequently attributed her behavior to: her personal disposition
Ever since their cabin lost the camp softball competition, the campers have become increasingly hostile toward one camper in their cabin, blaming her for every problem in the cabin. This behavior is best explained in terms of: the scapegoat theory
We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as ________ and the members of an outgroup as ________. different from one another; similar to one another
Research studies have indicated that the tendency of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is increased by exposure to pornography.
Which theory describes how we explain others' behavior as being due to internal dispositions or external situations? attribution theory
In Asch's studies of conformity, conformity increased under all of the following conditions except: when the participants were allowed to indicate their responses privately
People with power and status may become prejudiced because they tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others
Maria recently heard a speech calling for a ban on aerosol sprays that endanger the earth's ozone layer. Maria's subsequent decision to stop using aerosol sprays is an example of: informational social influence
According to social exchange theory, a person's tendency toward altruistic behavior is based on: a cost-benefit analysis of any action
Driving home from work, Althea saw a car run off the road and burst into flames. Althea stopped her car, ran to the burning vehicle, and managed to pull the elderly driver to safety before the car exploded. Althea's behavior can best be explained by: the social responsibility norm.
After Sarah helped Jack move into his new apartment, Jack felt obligated to help Sarah when she moved. Jack's sense of responsibility can best be explained by: the reciprocity norm
The participants in Philip Zimbardo's simulated prison study changed their attitudes as a result of playing a role.
Social traps are situations in which: conflicting parties each pursue their self-interests and become caught in mutually destructive behavior
The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the: just-world phenomenon
Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it. Now she supports gun control laws. Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by: cognitive dissonance theory
Most people prefer mirror-image photographs of their faces. This is best explained by: the mere exposure effect
Two neighboring nations are each stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor's actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as self-defense. Evidently, these nations are victims of: the fundamental attribution error
Jane and Sandy were best friends as freshmen. Jane joined a sorority; Sandy didn't. By the end of their senior year, they found that they had less in common with each other than with the other members of their respective circles of friends. Which of the following phenomena most likely explains their feelings? group polarization
After waiting in line for an hour to buy concert tickets, Teresa is told that the concert is sold out. In her anger she pounds her fist on the ticket counter, frightening the clerk. Teresa's behavior is best explained by: the frustration-agression principle
A store owner charges Black customers more than Hispanic customers for the very same merchandise. The owner is most clearly engaging in discrimination
When explaining another person's behavior, we tend to ________ the effect of situational influences and ________ the effect of personal disposition or character traits. underestimate, overestimate
According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when: an individual does something that is personally disagreeable
The deep affection that is felt in long-lasting relationships is called ________ love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which ________. companionate; there is equity between the partners
In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought no others were pulling with them
Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated the chameleon effect
The phenomenon in which individuals lose their identity and relinquish normal restraints when they are part of a group is called: deindividuation
Increasing the number of people that are present during an emergency tends to: decrease the likelihood that anyone will help
Meta-analyses of the effectiveness of various forms of psychotherapy demonstrate that: no single type of therapy is consistently superior.
Which type of psychotherapy emphasizes the individual's inherent potential for self-fulfillment? humanistic theory
Edna's therapist is eclectic. This means that she: employs a variety of therapeutic approaches
Wilma, a 45-year-old journalist, alternates between extreme sadness and lethargy and extreme euphoria and overactivity. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to her is: lithium
Which of the following therapeutic treatments is LEAST likely to be used today? psychotherapy
One group of ocean voyagers is given a new but untested pill for seasickness and a second group is given an inactive pill. Neither the voyagers nor the experimental researchers know which group has received the new pill. In this experiment, the investigators are making use of: the double-blind technique
Janice's therapist believes that she should focus on eliminating her problem behavior rather than on gaining insight into its underlying cause. Janice's therapist is probably a ________ therapist. behavior
Karen's therapist puts a drop of liquid on her tongue that tastes extremely bitter whenever it comes in contact with the nicotine and tar in a cigarette. Which technique is Karen's therapist using? aversive conditioning
After Aviva missed what could have been a game-winning shot on goal, she became depressed and vowed to relinquish her athletic scholarship and give up sports. The campus psychologist challenged Aviva's negative thinking and pointed out that just making the team was an accomplishment that validated her success as an athlete. The psychologist's response was most typical of a _____ therapist. cognitive
Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of: depression
For the treatment of mild to moderate depression, one of the best alternatives to antidepressant drugs is aerobic exercise
Kenny is participating in group therapy once a week. He really believes that the therapy is working and seems to be getting better. Later Kenny learned that he was part of a group that wasn't receiving an actual form of therapy. Kenny's belief in the "therapy" he was receiving and the power of this belief is called: the placebo
The technique in which a therapist echoes and restates what a person says in a nondirective manner is called: active listening
Prozac is an antidepressant drug that blocks the reabsorption and removal of: serotonin
Antidepressant drugs are believed to work by affecting norepinephrine or serotonin.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation shows greatest promise for the treatment of: depression
The technique of systematic desensitization, which is favored by ________ therapists, is based on the idea that maladaptive symptoms are ________. behavior; conditioned responses