Psych Modules Quizzes

Total Flash Cards » 298
 
1. 

A psychologist who explores how Asian and North American definitions of attractiveness differ is working within the _____ perspective.

 

social-cultural

 
2. 

Which of the following research strategies would be best for determining whether alcohol impairs memory? experiment, survey, case study or naturalistic observation?

 

experiment

 
3. 

The principle that "those traits of a species that contribute to survival and reproduction are most likely to be passed on to future generations" is called_______

 

natural selection

 
4. 

Which seventeenth-century philosopher believed that some ideas are innate?

 

Descartes

 
5. 

In order to determine the effects of a new drug on memory, one group of subjects is given a pill that contains the drug. A second group is given a sugar pill that does not contain the drug. This second group constitutes the______

 

control group

 
6. 

Today, psychology is defined as the:

 

science of behavior and mental processes

 
7. 

The first psychology laboratory was established at the University of Leipzig by _____ in the year 1879

 

wilhelm wundt

 
8. 

Who published the first important psychology textbook (Principles of Psychology) in 1890 after 12 years of writing?

 

william james

 
9. 

Martina believes that high doses of caffeine slow a person's reaction time. In order to test this belief, she has five friends each drink 20 ounces of coffee and then measures their reaction time on a perception task. What is wrong with Martina's research strategy?

 

there is no control condition

 
10. 

Psychologists who study, assess, and treat troubled people are called:

 

clinical psychologists

 
11. 

Psychologists' personal values:

 

can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data

 
12. 

Jamie and Lynn were sure that they had answered most of the multiple-choice questions correctly because "the questions required only common sense." However, they each scored less than 60% on the exam. This best illustrates:

 

overconfidence

 
13. 

A researcher was interested in determining whether her students' test performance could be predicted from their proximity to the front of the classroom. So she matched her students' scores on a math test with their seating position. This study is an example of:

 

correlational research

 
14. 

Who developed an influential theory of personality that focused on unconscious processes?

 

sigmund freud

 
15. 

Which psychological perspective emphasizes the interaction of the brain and body in creating emotions, memories, and sensory experiences?

 

neuroscience perspective

 
16. 

In its earliest days, psychology was defined as the:

 

science of mental life

 
17. 

The way the mind processes, stores, and retrieves information is the primary concern of the _____ perspective.

 

cognitive

 
18. 

Mr. & Mrs. Berry have five children aged 2, 3, 7, 9, and 9. The median age of the Berry children is ______, the mean age is ______, and the mode is ______

 

7,6,9

 
19. 

The seventeenth-century philosopher who believed that the mind is blank at birth and that most knowledge comes through sensory experience was:

 

Locke

 
20. 

When a difference between two groups is "statistically significant," this means that:

 

the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation.

 
21. 

In order to study the effects of lighting on mood, Dr. Cooper had students fill out questionnaires in brightly lit or dimly lit rooms. In this study, the independent variable consisted of:

 

the room lighting

 
22. 

Rashad, who is participating in a psychology experiment on the effects of alcohol on perception, is truthfully told by the experimenter that he has been assigned to the "high-dose condition." What is wrong with this experiment?

 

Rashad's expectations concerning the effects of "high doses" of alcohol on perception may influence his performance

 
23. 

Your roommate is conducting a survey to learn how many hours the typical college student studies each day. She plans to pass out her questionnaire to the members of her sorority. You point out that her findings will be flawed because:

 

the sample will probably not be representative of the population of college students

 
24. 

When psychologists insist that "the rat is always right," they are emphasizing the scientific attitude of:

 

humility

 
25. 

In an experiment to determine the effects of attention on memory, memory is the:

 

dependent variable

 
26. 

After detailed study of a gunshot wound victim, a psychologist concludes that the brain region destroyed is likely to be important for memory functions. Which research strategy did the psychologist use to deduce this?

 

the case study

 
27. 

The nerve fibers that enable communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres and that have been severed in split-brain patients form a structure called the:

 

corpus callosum

 
28. 

A strong stimulus can increase the:

 

number of times the neuron fires

 
29. 

Jessica experienced difficulty keeping her balance after receiving a blow to the back of her head. It is likely that she injured her:

 

cerebellum

 
30. 

Cortical areas that are not primarily concerned with sensory, motor, or language functions are:

 

called association areas

 
31. 

Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a simple reflex?

 

sensory neuron to interneuron to motor neuron

 
32. 

In order to pinpoint the location of a tumor, a neurosurgeon electrically stimulated parts of the patient's sensory cortex (also called somatosensory cortex). If the patient was conscious during the procedure, which of the following was probably experienced?

 

a sense of having the skin touched

 
33. 

Following a head injury, a person has ongoing difficulties staying awake. Most likely, the damage occurred to the:

 

reticular formation

 
34. 

Information from the left visual field is processed in the _______ hemisphere. Movement of the right hand is controlled by the ________ hemisphere.

 

right, left

 
35. 

During an action potential, the electrical state of the axon becomes:

 

depolarized, as positively charged atoms are admitted.

 
36. 

Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?

 

frontal lobes

 
37. 

The part of the human brain that is "oldest" (in terms of evolutionary history) is the:

 

brainstem

 
38. 

You are able to pull your hand quickly away from hot water before pain is felt because:

 

movement of the hand is a reflex that involves intervention of the spinal cord only

 
39. 

Which is the correct sequence in the transmission of a neural impulse?

 

dendrite --> cell body --> axon --> synapse

 
40. 

The visual cortex is located in the:

 

occipital lobe

 
41. 

The gland that regulates body growth is the:

 

pituitary

 
42. 

Heartbeat, digestion, and other self-regulating bodily functions are governed by the:

 

autonomic nervous system

 
43. 

Which of the following is typically controlled by the right hemisphere?

 

spatial-perceptual reasoning

 
44. 

When you are in a dangerous situation, your adrenal glands will release the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which ________ your blood pressure and ________ your blood sugar levels.

 

raise, raise

 
45. 

The effect of a drug that is an agonist is to:

 

mimic a particular neurotransmitter

 
46. 

Dr. Johnson briefly flashed a picture of a key in the right visual field of a split-brain patient. The patient could probably:

 

verbally report that a key was seen.

 
47. 

Though there is no single "control center" for emotions, their regulation is primarily attributed to the brain region known as the:

 

limbic system

 
48. 

Voluntary movements, such as writing with a pencil, are directed by the:

 

somatic nervous system

 
49. 

Melissa has just completed running a marathon. She is so elated that she feels little fatigue or discomfort. Her lack of pain is probably the result of the release of:

 

enorphins

 
50. 

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is most likely to be found:

 

at the junction between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers.

 
51. 

Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?

 

a PET scan

 
52. 

The myelin sheath (layer of fatty tissue) that surrounds some neurons:

 

increases the speed of neural transmission.

 
53. 

The vast majority of neurons in the body:

 

interneurons

 
54. 

If Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct an experiment on the effects of stimulating the reward centers of a rat's brain, he should insert an electrode into the:

 

hypothalamus

 
55. 

Chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands are called:

 

hormones

 
56. 

Circadian rhythms are the:

 

regular body cycles that occur on a daily schedule.

 
57. 

According to researcher Ernest Hilgard, hypnosis is:

 

a dissociation between different levels of consciousness.

 
58. 

During which stage of sleep does the body experience increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and genital arousal?

 

REM sleep

 
59. 

The school of thought in psychology that systematically turned away from the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was:

 

behaviorism

 
60. 

According to Freud, dreams are:

 

a symbolic fulfillment of erotic wishes.

 
61. 

Standing in the checkout line at the grocery store, Jerry kept looking at his watch to see the time. As a result, he failed to see that a store employee was being robbed by a person just in front of him. Jerry most clearly suffered:

 

inattentional blindness

 
62. 

Spending time in a brightly-lit room at night inhibits our feelings of sleepiness, because the brain's suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) signals the pineal gland to decrease its production of the hormone:

 

melatonin

 
63. 

Jill dreams that her boyfriend pushes her in front of an oncoming car. Her psychoanalyst suggests that the dream might symbolize her fear that her boyfriend is rushing her into sexual activity prematurely. The analyst is evidently attempting to interpret the ________ content of Jill's dream.

 

latent

 
64. 

An attorney wants to know if the details and accuracy of an eyewitness's memory for a crime would be improved under hypnosis. Given the results of relevant research, what should you tell the attorney?

 

Most hypnotically retrieved memories are contaminated with false information.

 
65. 

The large, slow brain waves associated with Stage 4 sleep are called

 

delta waves

 
66. 

A person who requires increasing amounts of a drugs in order to feel its effect is said to have developed:

 

tolerance

 
67. 

Those who believe that hypnosis is a social phenomenon argue that "hypnotized" individuals are:

 

merely acting out a role

 
68. 

Drivers detect traffic signals more slowly if they are also talking on a cellphone. This best illustrates the negative impact of

 

selective attention

 
69. 

After your attention was briefly distracted, you might not notice that the stranger asking you for directions had been replaced by someone with a different hairstyle, a different voice, or completely different facial features. This curious phenomenon is called:

 

change blindness

 
70. 

A person whose EEG shows a high proportion of alpha waves is most likely:

 

awake and relaxed

 
71. 

Psychoactive drugs affect behavior and perception through:

 

alteration of neural activity in the brain.

 
72. 

Cocaine produces a euphoric rush by:

 

blocking the reuptake of dopamine in brain cells.

 
73. 

The sleep cycle is approximately ________ minutes, and consists of ________ distinct stages.

 

90, 5

 
74. 

A car driver's ability to navigate a familiar route while carrying on an animated conversation with passengers best illustrates the importance of:

 

dual processing

 
75. 

Consciousness is defined in the text as:

 

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

 
76. 

In which of Kohlberg's levels would a person use moral reasoning based on the existence of universal human rights or self-defined principles of conscience?

 

postconventional morality

 
77. 

Compared to when he was younger, 4-year-old Antonio is better able to empathize with his friend's feelings. This growing ability to take another's perspective indicates that Antonio is acquiring a:

 

theory of mind

 
78. 

The average age at which puberty begins is ________ in boys; in girls, it is ________.

 

13,11

 
79. 

In a hypothetical world where all schools are of uniform quality, all families equally loving, and all neighborhoods equally healthy, the heritability of person-to-person differences would be:

 

large

 
80. 

Underlying Alzheimer's disease is a deterioration in neurons that produce:

 

acetylcholine

 
81. 

In Erikson's theory, individuals generally focus on developing ________ during adolescence and then ________ during young adulthood.

 

identical; fraternal

 
82. 

Chromosomes are composed of small segments of:

 

DNA called genes

 
83. 

Dr. Ross believes that principles of natural selection help explain why infants come to fear strangers about the time they become mobile. Dr. Ross is most likely a/an:

 

evolutionary psychologist.

 
84. 

In preconventional morality, the person:

 

obeys to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards

 
85. 

Each normal cell of the human body (other than the sperm cells and ova) has a total of

 

46 chromosomes

 
86. 

he fertilized egg will develop into a boy if, at conception:

 

the sperm contributes a Y chromosome

 
87. 

In a 1998 movie, a young girl finds that a gaggle of geese follow her wherever she goes because she was the first "object" they saw after they were born. This is an example of:

 

imprinting

 
88. 

Which is the correct order of stages of prenatal development?

 

zygote, embryo, fetus

 
89. 

Most people's earliest memories do not predate ________ of age.

 

3 years

 
90. 

During which stage of cognitive development do children acquire object permanence?

 

sensorimotor

 
91. 

Which is the correct sequence of stages in Piaget's theory of cognitive development?

 

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

 
92. 

A person's accumulation of stored information, called ________ intelligence, generally ________ with age.

 

crystallized; increases

 
93. 

The fact that by age 3, language forces children to begin organizing their worlds on the basis of gender is most consistent with which theory of how gender-linked behaviors develop?

 

gender schema theory

 
94. 

A child whose mother drank heavily when she was pregnant is at heightened risk of

 

being born with the physical and cognitive abnormalities of fetal alcohol syndrome.

 
95. 

An elderly person who can look back on life with satisfaction and reminisce with a sense of completion has attained Erikson's stage of

 

integrity

 
96. 

The term "critical period" refers to

 

a specifc time during development when exposure to an outside stimulus can have maximum impact.

 
97. 

Adoption studies show that the personalities of adopted children:

 

ear more similarities to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents

 
98. 

I am a rat whose cortex is lighter and thinner than my litter mates. What happened to me?

 

you were raised in a deprived environment

 
99. 

Insecurely attached infants who are left by their mothers in an unfamiliar setting often will

 

be indifferent toward their mothers on their return.

 
100. 

Notable achievements in fields such as ________ are often made by younger adults in their late twenties or early thirties, when ________ intelligence is at its peak.

 

mathematics; fluid

 
101. 

As a child observes, liquid is transferred from a tall, thin tube into a short, wide jar. The child is asked if there is now less liquid in order to determine if she has mastered

 

the concept of conservation.

 
102. 

The cross-sectional method

 

compares people of different ages with one another.

 
103. 

When his son cries when another child takes his favorite toy, Brandon admonishes him by saying, "Big boys don't cry." Evidently, Brandon is an advocate of ________ in accounting for the development of gender-linked behaviors.

 

social learning theory

 
104. 

Joshua and Ann have a 13-month-old boy. According to Erikson, their sensitive, loving care of their child contributes to:

 

the child's sense of basic trust

 
105. 

Fourteen-year-old Cassandra feels freer and more open with her friends than with her family. Knowing this is the case, Cassandra's parents should:

 

not worry, since adolescence is typically a time of growing peer influence and diminishing parental influence.

 
106. 

After staring at a very intense red stimulus for a few minutes, Carrie shifted her gaze to a beige wall and "saw" the color ________. Carrie's experience provides support for the ________ theory.

 

green; opponent-process

 
107. 

Given normal sensory ability, a person can hear a watch ticking in a silent room from 20 feet away. This is a description of hearing's

 

absolute threshold

 
108. 

The Young-Helmholtz theory proposes that:

 

there are three different types of color-sensitive cones

 
109. 

________ processing refers to how the physical characteristics of stimuli influence their interpretation.

 

bottom up

 
110. 

Receptor cells for the vestibular sense are located in the ________ and send messages to the ________.

 

inner ear, cerebellum

 
111. 

Which of the following is NOT true of cones?a. cones enable color visionb. cones are better than rods at picking up fine detailsc.Cones are highly concentrated in the foveal region of the retina.d.Cones are more efficient than rods in dim light.

 

D

 
112. 

The process by which the lens changes its curvature is:

 

accommodation

 
113. 

The receptors for taste are located in the:

 

taste buds

 
114. 

If you can just notice the difference between 10- and 11-pound weights, which of the following weights could you differentiate from a 100-pound weight?

 

110-pound weight

 
115. 

Kinesthesis involves:

 

information from the muscles, tendons, and joints

 
116. 

Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which sound travels after entering the ear?

 

auditory canal, eardrum, middle ear, cochlea

 
117. 

The receptors for hearing are located in:

 

the inner ear

 
118. 

Frequency is to pitch as ________ is to ________.

 

amplitude; loudness

 
119. 

Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.

 

detecting a stimulus; recognizing a stimulus

 
120. 

The ________ sense monitors the position and movement of the whole body and enables us to maintain balance.

 

vestibular

 
121. 

According to the gate-control theory, a way to alleviate chronic pain would be to stimulate the ________ nerve fibers that ________ the spinal gate.

 

large; close

 
122. 

When admiring the texture of a piece of fabric, Calvin usually runs his fingertips over the cloth's surface. He does this because:

 

if the cloth were held motionless, sensory adaptation to its feel would quickly occur

 
123. 

In order to maximize your sensitivity to fine visual detail you should:

 

stare directly at the object

 
124. 

In shopping for a new stereo, you discover that you cannot differentiate between the sounds of models X and Y. The difference between X and Y is below your:

 

difference threshold

 
125. 

Wavelength is to ________ as ________ is to brightness.

 

hue; intensity

 
126. 

Damage to frontal areas of the temporal lobes is most likely to affect our:

 

sense of smell

 
127. 

Dr. Frankenstein has forgotten to give his monster an important part; as a result, the monster cannot transduce sound (convert vibrations into neural impulses). Dr. Frankenstein omitted the:

 

basilar membrane

 
128. 

According to the opponent-process theory:

 

neurons involved in color vision are stimulated by one color's wavelength and inhibited by another's

 
129. 

Which of the following is the correct order of the structures through which light passes after entering the eye?

 

cornea, pupil, lens, retina

 
130. 

The phenomenon of "blindsight" best illustrates that some visual information can be processed without:

 

conscious awareness

 
131. 

The process by which sensory information is converted into neural energy is

 

transduction

 
132. 

The phantom limb sensation indicates that:

 

pain involves the brain's interpretation of neural activity.

 
133. 

The transduction of light energy into nerve impulses takes place in the:

 

retina

 
134. 

Of the four distinct skin senses, the only one that has definable receptors is:

 

pressure

 
135. 

Which basic taste attracts us to protein-rich foods?

 

umami

 
136. 

One reason that your ability to detect fine visual details is greatest when scenes are focused on the fovea of your retina is that:

 

many cones, which are clustered in the fovea, have individual bipolar cells to relay their information to the cortex

 
137. 

As a rock musician who has experienced prolonged exposure to high-amplitude music, Rodney is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that this hearing loss involves problems in the:

 

cochlea

 
138. 

The frequency theory of hearing is better than place theory at explaining our sensation of:

 

the lowest pitches

 
139. 

What enables you to feel yourself wiggling your toes even with your eyes closed?

 

kinethesis

 
140. 

While competing in the Olympic trials, marathoner Kirsten O'Brien suffered a stress fracture in her left leg. That she did not experience significant pain until the race was over is probably attributable to the fact that during the race:

 

the pain gate in her spinal cord was closed by information coming from her brain

 
141. 

Conduction hearing loss is most likely to result from damage to the

 

eardrum

 
142. 

Which of the following statements is consistent with the Gestalt theory of perception?a. Perception is the product of heredity.b. Perception results directly from sensation.c. The mind organizes sensations into meaningful perceptions.d. Perception develops largely through learning

 

C

 
143. 

How do we perceive a bush that partially covers a telephone pole?

 

as nearer than the pole

 
144. 

Each time you see your car, it projects a different image on the retinas of your eyes, yet you do not perceive it as changing. This is because of:

 

perceptual constancy.

 
145. 

Figures tend to be perceived as whole, complete objects, even if spaces or gaps exist in the representation, thus demonstrating the principle of:

 

closure.

 
146. 

Objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as ________ due to the principle of ________.

 

farther away; relative height

 
147. 

Which of the following is not a monocular depth cue?a. texture gradientb. retinal disparityc. relative heightd. interposition

 

b, retinal disparity

 
148. 

Adults who are born blind but later have their vision restored:

 

typically fail to recognize familiar objects

 
149. 

A person claiming to be able to read another's mind is claiming to have the ESP ability of:

 

telepathy

 
150. 

Immanuel Kant and John Locke would have been most likely to disagree about the extent to which perception is influenced by:

 

environmental experiences

 
151. 

When two familiar objects of equal size cast unequal retinal images, the object that casts the smaller retinal image will be perceived as being:

 

more distant than the other object.

 
152. 

The tendency to organize stimuli into smooth, uninterrupted patterns is called:

 

continuity

 
153. 

Racial and ethnic stereotypes can sometimes bias our perceptions of others' behaviors. This best illustrates the impact of:

 

top-down processing

 
154. 

An artist paints a tree orchard so that the parallel rows of trees converge at the top of the canvas. Which cue has the artist used to convey distance?

 

linear perspective

 
155. 

The phenomenon that refers to the ways in which an individual's expectations influence perception is called

 

perceptual set

 
156. 

Regina claims that she can bend spoons, levitate furniture, and perform many other "mind over matter" feats. Regina apparently believes she has the power of:

 

psychokinesis

 
157. 

When we stare at an object, each eye receives a slightly different image, providing a depth cue known as:

 

retinal disparity

 
158. 

Experiments with distorted visual environments demonstrate that:

 

humans adapt readily, while lower animals typically do not

 
159. 

The fact that a white object under dim illumination appears lighter than a gray object under bright illumination is called:

 

lightness constancy

 
160. 

The phenomenon of size constancy is based upon the close connection between an object's perceived ________and its perceived ________.

 

size, distance

 
161. 

Jack claims that he often has dreams that predict future events. He claims to have the power of

 

precognition

 
162. 

The moon illusion occurs in part because distance cues at the horizon make the moon seem

 

farther away and therefore larger.

 
163. 

Grass seen through sunglasses appears equally as green as it does without glasses. This best illustrates

 

color constancy

 
164. 

Psychologists who help design machines so that they make use of our natural perceptions are called:

 

human factors psychologists

 
165. 

The figure-ground relationship has demonstrated that:

 

the same stimulus can trigger more than one perception.

 
166. 

You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before giving your dog a treat. As you do so, your dog salivates. Rattling the box is a(n) ________; your dog's salivation is a(n) ________.

 

CS; CR

 
167. 

The type of learning associated with Skinner is:

 

operant conditioning.

 
168. 

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n):

 

unconditioned stimulus

 
169. 

In Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate

 

taste with sickness.

 
170. 

An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the brain activity she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of:

 

mirror neurons

 
171. 

In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, salivation to meat was the:

 

UCR

 
172. 

In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the tone was initially a/an ________ stimulus; after it was paired with meat, it became a/an ________ stimulus.

 

neutral; conditioned

 
173. 

Rewarding a child for good behavior by giving the child delicious food would be ________, whereas giving the child money would be ________.

 

primary reinforcement; secondary or conditioned reinforcement

 
174. 

Last evening May-ling ate her first cheeseburger and french fries at an American fast-food restaurant. A few hours later she became ill. It can be expected that

 

May-ling will develop an aversion to the taste of a cheeseburger and french fries.

 
175. 

Mrs. Ramirez often tells her children that it is important to buckle their seat belts while riding in the car, but she rarely does so herself. Her children will probably learn to:

 

tell others it is important to use seat belts but rarely use them themselves

 
176. 

Two groups of rats receive classical conditioning trials in which a tone and electric shock are presented. For Group 1 the electric shock always follows the tone. For Group 2 the tone and shock occur randomly. Which of the following is likely to result?

 

The tone will become a CS for Group 1 but not for Group 2.

 
177. 

For the most rapid conditioning, a CS should be presented

 

about one-half second before the UCS.

 
178. 

Jack finally takes out the garbage in order to get his father to stop pestering him. Jack's behavior is being conditioned by:

 

negative reinforcement.

 
179. 

A pigeon can easily be taught to flap its wings in order to avoid shock but not for food reinforcement. According to the text, this is most likely so because:

 

pigeons are biologically predisposed to flap their wings in order to escape aversive events and to use their beaks to obtain food.

 
180. 

Your psychology instructor has scheduled an exam every third week of the term. You will probably study the most just before an exam and the least just after an exam. This pattern of behavior is likely because the schedule of exams is reinforcing studying according to a ________ schedule

 

fixed-interval

 
181. 

As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the CS.

 

the cat

 
182. 

In order to obtain a reward a monkey learns to press a lever when a 1000-Hz tone is on but not when a 1200-Hz tone is on. What kind of training is this?

 

discrimination

 
183. 

For operant conditioning to be most effective, when should the reinforcers or punishers be presented?

 

immediately after the behavioral response

 
184. 

An animal trainer wants to train a pigeon to turn in circles. Initially, she gives the pigeon a food pellet for a quarter-turn, then only for making a half-turn, and finally only after the pigeon has completed a full turn. She has used:

 

shaping

 
185. 

A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates:

 

generalization

 
186. 

When people are paid for performing tasks they enjoy, their self-motivation may decrease, because excessive rewards may undermine:

 

intrinsic motivation

 
187. 

Learning is best defined as:

 

a relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience.

 
188. 

Fishing is reinforced according to which schedule?

 

variable-ratio

 
189. 

Learning by imitating others' behaviors is called ________ learning. The researcher best known for studying this type of learning is ________

 

observational; Bandura

 
190. 

When a conditioned stimulus is presented without an accompanying unconditioned stimulus, ________ will soon take place.

 

extinction

 
191. 

In Pavlov's studies of classical conditioning of a dog's salivary responses, spontaneous recovery occurred:

 

when the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period.

 
192. 

A rat engages in some type of behavior that is followed by a consequence. If this event increases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated, we say that the behavior has been

 

reinforced

 
193. 

In Watson and Rayner's experiment, the loud noise was the ________ and the white rat was the ________.

 

UCS; CS

 
194. 

Which area of the brain is most important in the processing of implicit memories?

 

cerrebellum

 
195. 

As compared with long-term memory, short-term memory is ________ permanent and ________ limited in storage capacity

 

less; more

 
196. 

The average capacity of short-term memory (working memory) is ________ items of unrelated information, or about ________ chunks of grouped items.

 

7,4

 
197. 

Memory acquisition is to memory retention as ________ is to ________.

 

encoding; storage

 
198. 

Recalling something that you had once merely imagined happening as something you had directly experienced best illustrates:

 

source amnesia

 
199. 

Walking through the halls of his high school 10 years after graduation, Tom experienced a flood of old memories. Tom's experience showed the role of

 

context effects

 
200. 

Long-term potentiation refers to:

 

the increased efficiency of synaptic transmission between certain neurons following learning.

 
201. 

Studies by Loftus and Palmer, in which people were quizzed about a film of an accident, indicate that:

 

people's recall may easily be affected by misleading information.

 
202. 

Memory for skills such as tying your shoes or typing on a keyboard is called:

 

implicit memory

 
203. 

Special techniques to enhance memory, such as acronyms or the "peg-word" system, are called:

 

mnenomic devices

 
204. 

To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers now prefer to call it ________ memory

 

working

 
205. 

Being in a bad mood after a hard day of work, Susan could think of nothing positive in her life. This is best explained as an example of:

 

mood-congruent memory

 
206. 

During her psychology test, Marsha could not remember the meaning of the term "proactive interference." Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the fourth line of a left-hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of:

 

automatic processing

 
207. 

Repression (as proposed by Sigmund Freud) is an example of:

 

motivated forgetting

 
208. 

Complete this analogy: Fill-in-the-blank test questions are to multiple-choice questions as:

 

recall is to recognition.

 
209. 

Visual sensory memory is referred to as:

 

iconic memory

 
210. 

Although interference from previously-learned information can hinder our ability to remember newly-learned information, in some cases the opposite is true. Having learned Latin in high school makes it easier to learn French in college. This memory enhancement is called:

 

positive transfer

 
211. 

The spacing effect means that:

 

distributed study yields better retention than cramming.

 
212. 

In a study on context cues, people learned words while on land or when they were underwater. In a later test of recall, those with the best retention had:

 

learned the words and been tested on them in the same context.

 
213. 

Memories of childhood abuse that have been "recovered" during hypnosis or dream analysis may prove inaccurate--especially if the therapist asks leading questions--because of:

 

memory construction

 
214. 

In order to remember the information presented in her psychology textbook, Susan often relates it to her own life experiences. Susan's strategy is an effective memory aid because it focuses her attention on the meaning of the information, thus facilitating

 

semantic encoding

 
215. 

When Carlos was promoted, he moved into a new office with a new phone extension. Every time he is asked for his phone number, Carlos first thinks of his old extension, illustrating the effects of:

 

proactive interference

 
216. 

The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________ effect.

 

serial position

 
217. 

Memory for a personally experienced event (such as your first day at Hope College) was processed in your ________ and stored in your ________ memory subsystem.

 

hippocampus; explicit

 
218. 

The process of getting information out of memory (in order to use it) is called:

 

retrieval

 
219. 

The three stages in the information-processing model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin are:

 

sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

 
220. 

Information is maintained in short-term memory only briefly unless it is:

 

rehearsed

 
221. 

The eerie feeling that you are reliving an experience exactly as it happened previously in your life is an example of:

 

deja vu

 
222. 

Airline reservations typically decline after a highly publicized airplane crash because people overestimate the incidence of such disasters. In such instances, people's decisions are being influenced by:

 

the availability heuristic

 
223. 

With regard to gender differences on cognitive tasks, on average:

 

females are better at reading nonverbal cues such as facial expressions

 
224. 

Lara was a C student in college, but she has superb social skills, manages conflicts well, and has great empathy for her friends and co-workers. Researchers would probably say that Lara possesses a high degree of

 

emotional intelligence

 
225. 

In the movie "Rain Man" Dustin Hoffman played the role of a man with very low overall intelligence, but with a few exceptional abilities. This specific condition is called:

 

savant syndrome

 
226. 

Failing to see that an article of clothing can be inflated as a life preserver is an example of

 

functional fixedness

 
227. 

If a test designed to indicate which applicants are likely to perform the best on the job fails to do so, the test has:

 

low predictive validity

 
228. 

Confirmation bias refers to the tendency to:

 

look for information that is consistent with one's beliefs.

 
229. 

During a lecture, a professor says, "A child learns language as he interacts with caregivers." This generic use of the pronoun "he" is more likely to trigger images of males than of females. This best illustrates the influence of:

 

language on thinking.

 
230. 

When forming a concept, people often develop a best example, or ________, of a category.

 

prototype

 
231. 

The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is:

 

a diverse set of distinct abilities.

 
232. 

The set of rules for arranging words into sentences is ________, while the set of rules by which meaning is derived from sentences is called ________.

 

syntax; semantics

 
233. 

A dessert recipe that gives you the ingredients, their amounts, and the steps to follow is an example of a/an:

 

algorithm

 
234. 

Originally, IQ was defined as:

 

mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.

 
235. 

The Flynn effect refers to the fact that:

 

The IQ scores of today's better fed and educated population exceed that of the 1930s population

 
236. 

The chimpanzees Washoe and Loulis and the gorilla Koko have learned to communicate by using

 

sign language

 
237. 

The test created by French psychologist Alfred Binet was designed specifically to:

 

predict school performance in children

 
238. 

Skinner and other behaviorists have argued that language development is the result of all of the following EXCEPT:

 

innate grammar

 
239. 

Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit:

 

overconfidence

 
240. 

Which procedure is used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie people's intelligence scores?

 

factor analysis

 
241. 

Women have been found to score lower on math tests when they are tested alongside men. This best illustrates the impact of:

 

stereotype threat

 
242. 

In relation to ground beef, consumers respond more positively to an ad describing it as "75 percent lean" than to one referring to its "25 percent fat" content. This is an example of:

 

the framing effect

 
243. 

Jack takes the same test of mechanical reasoning on several different days and gets virtually identical scores. This suggests that the test has:

 

high reliability

 
244. 

Howard Gardner identified a total of ________ intelligences.

 

eight

 
245. 

To say that the heritability of a trait is approximately 50 percent means:

 

that of the variation in the trait within a group of people, 50 percent can be attributed to heredity

 
246. 

Phonemes are the basic units of ________ in language.

 

sound

 
247. 

Gayle's intelligence scores were only average, but she has been enormously successful as a corporate manager. Based on Sternberg's theory of intelligence, we could estimate that Gayle's ________ intelligence exceeds her ________ intelligence.

 

practical, academic

 
248. 

Spearman's g factor refers to:

 

a general intelligence that underlies success on a wide variety of tasks.

 
249. 

The chimpanzee Sultan used a short stick to pull a longer stick that was out of reach into his cage. He then used the longer stick to reach a piece of fruit. Researchers hypothesized that Sultan's discovery of the solution to his problem was the result of

 

insight

 
250. 

Tests of ________ measure what an individual can do now, whereas tests of ________ predict what an individual will be able to do later.

 

achievement, aptitude

 
251. 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuels are constantly fighting, and each perceives the other as hard-headed and insensitive. Their conflict is being fueled by:

 

mirror-image perception

 
252. 

Students at State University are convinced that their school is better than any other. This most directly illustrates:

 

an ingroup bias

 
253. 

The mere exposure effect demonstrates that:

 

familiarity breeds fondness.

 
254. 

In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects:

 

complied with all of his demands

 
255. 

When male students in an experiment were told that a woman to whom they would be speaking had been instructed to act in a friendly or unfriendly way, most of them subsequently attributed her behavior to:

 

her personal disposition

 
256. 

Ever since their cabin lost the camp softball competition, the campers have become increasingly hostile toward one camper in their cabin, blaming her for every problem in the cabin. This behavior is best explained in terms of:

 

the scapegoat theory

 
257. 

We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as ________ and the members of an outgroup as ________.

 

different from one another; similar to one another

 
258. 

Research studies have indicated that the tendency of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is

 

increased by exposure to pornography.

 
259. 

Which theory describes how we explain others' behavior as being due to internal dispositions or external situations?

 

attribution theory

 
260. 

In Asch's studies of conformity, conformity increased under all of the following conditions except:

 

when the participants were allowed to indicate their responses privately

 
261. 

People with power and status may become prejudiced because

 

they tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others

 
262. 

Maria recently heard a speech calling for a ban on aerosol sprays that endanger the earth's ozone layer. Maria's subsequent decision to stop using aerosol sprays is an example of:

 

informational social influence

 
263. 

According to social exchange theory, a person's tendency toward altruistic behavior is based on:

 

a cost-benefit analysis of any action

 
264. 

Driving home from work, Althea saw a car run off the road and burst into flames. Althea stopped her car, ran to the burning vehicle, and managed to pull the elderly driver to safety before the car exploded. Althea's behavior can best be explained by:

 

the social responsibility norm.

 
265. 

After Sarah helped Jack move into his new apartment, Jack felt obligated to help Sarah when she moved. Jack's sense of responsibility can best be explained by:

 

the reciprocity norm

 
266. 

The participants in Philip Zimbardo's simulated prison study

 

changed their attitudes as a result of playing a role.

 
267. 

Social traps are situations in which:

 

conflicting parties each pursue their self-interests and become caught in mutually destructive behavior

 
268. 

The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the:

 

just-world phenomenon

 
269. 

Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it. Now she supports gun control laws. Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by:

 

cognitive dissonance theory

 
270. 

Most people prefer mirror-image photographs of their faces. This is best explained by:

 

the mere exposure effect

 
271. 

Two neighboring nations are each stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor's actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as self-defense. Evidently, these nations are victims of:

 

the fundamental attribution error

 
272. 

Jane and Sandy were best friends as freshmen. Jane joined a sorority; Sandy didn't. By the end of their senior year, they found that they had less in common with each other than with the other members of their respective circles of friends. Which of the following phenomena most likely explains their feelings?

 

group polarization

 
273. 

After waiting in line for an hour to buy concert tickets, Teresa is told that the concert is sold out. In her anger she pounds her fist on the ticket counter, frightening the clerk. Teresa's behavior is best explained by:

 

the frustration-agression principle

 
274. 

A store owner charges Black customers more than Hispanic customers for the very same merchandise. The owner is most clearly engaging in

 

discrimination

 
275. 

When explaining another person's behavior, we tend to ________ the effect of situational influences and ________ the effect of personal disposition or character traits.

 

underestimate, overestimate

 
276. 

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when:

 

an individual does something that is personally disagreeable

 
277. 

The deep affection that is felt in long-lasting relationships is called ________ love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which ________.

 

companionate; there is equity between the partners

 
278. 

In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought

 

no others were pulling with them

 
279. 

Research participants who worked alongside someone who rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot were observed to do the same thing themselves. This best illustrated

 

the chameleon effect

 
280. 

The phenomenon in which individuals lose their identity and relinquish normal restraints when they are part of a group is called:

 

deindividuation

 
281. 

Increasing the number of people that are present during an emergency tends to:

 

decrease the likelihood that anyone will help

 
282. 

Meta-analyses of the effectiveness of various forms of psychotherapy demonstrate that:

 

no single type of therapy is consistently superior.

 
283. 

Which type of psychotherapy emphasizes the individual's inherent potential for self-fulfillment?

 

humanistic theory

 
284. 

Edna's therapist is eclectic. This means that she:

 

employs a variety of therapeutic approaches

 
285. 

Wilma, a 45-year-old journalist, alternates between extreme sadness and lethargy and extreme euphoria and overactivity. The drug most likely to prove beneficial to her is:

 

lithium

 
286. 

Which of the following therapeutic treatments is LEAST likely to be used today?

 

psychotherapy

 
287. 

One group of ocean voyagers is given a new but untested pill for seasickness and a second group is given an inactive pill. Neither the voyagers nor the experimental researchers know which group has received the new pill. In this experiment, the investigators are making use of:

 

the double-blind technique

 
288. 

Janice's therapist believes that she should focus on eliminating her problem behavior rather than on gaining insight into its underlying cause. Janice's therapist is probably a ________ therapist.

 

behavior

 
289. 

Karen's therapist puts a drop of liquid on her tongue that tastes extremely bitter whenever it comes in contact with the nicotine and tar in a cigarette. Which technique is Karen's therapist using?

 

aversive conditioning

 
290. 

After Aviva missed what could have been a game-winning shot on goal, she became depressed and vowed to relinquish her athletic scholarship and give up sports. The campus psychologist challenged Aviva's negative thinking and pointed out that just making the team was an accomplishment that validated her success as an athlete. The psychologist's response was most typical of a _____ therapist.

 

cognitive

 
291. 

Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of:

 

depression

 
292. 

For the treatment of mild to moderate depression, one of the best alternatives to antidepressant drugs is

 

aerobic exercise

 
293. 

Kenny is participating in group therapy once a week. He really believes that the therapy is working and seems to be getting better. Later Kenny learned that he was part of a group that wasn't receiving an actual form of therapy. Kenny's belief in the "therapy" he was receiving and the power of this belief is called:

 

the placebo

 
294. 

The technique in which a therapist echoes and restates what a person says in a nondirective manner is called:

 

active listening

 
295. 

Prozac is an antidepressant drug that blocks the reabsorption and removal of:

 

serotonin

 
296. 

Antidepressant drugs are believed to work by affecting

 

norepinephrine or serotonin.

 
297. 

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation shows greatest promise for the treatment of:

 

depression

 
298. 

The technique of systematic desensitization, which is favored by ________ therapists, is based on the idea that maladaptive symptoms are ________.

 

behavior; conditioned responses